1,451 results match your criteria Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis


Development of next-generation tumor-homing induced neural stem cells to enhance treatment of metastatic cancers.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27588, USA.

Engineered tumor-homing neural stem cells (NSCs) have shown promise in treating cancer. Recently, we transdifferentiated skin fibroblasts into human-induced NSCs (hiNSC) as personalized NSC drug carriers. Here, using a SOX2 and spheroidal culture-based reprogramming strategy, we generated a new hiNSC variant, hiNeuroS, that was genetically distinct from fibroblasts and first-generation hiNSCs and had significantly enhanced tumor-homing and antitumor properties. Read More

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A case report of prostate cancer with leptomeningeal metastasis.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 5:e1463. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

Background: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in men. However, leptomeningeal involvement by prostate carcinoma is a rare event.

Case: Here, we report a 69-year-old patient with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer who presented with headache and ataxia. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Report of a Patient with a Fulminant Course Who Died of Cancer after Definitive Therapies.

Case Rep Urol 2021 30;2021:5543939. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Urology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan.

A 45-year-old Japanese man visited a community hospital with the chief complaint of asymptomatic macrohematuria. He was diagnosed with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), and he received intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy at another institution. Twenty-eight months after chemoradiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed MIBC recurrence. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Diagnostic Challenge.

Cureus 2021 Apr 12;13(4):e14440. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Internal Medicine, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, McHenry, USA.

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LCM), also known as neoplastic meningitis, is a rare entity. It is generally seen in solid tumors. Ovarian cancers can infrequently cause LCM. Read More

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A Case Report of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Secondary to Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma after Avelumab.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Kaiser Permanente Riverside Medical Center, Riverside, CA.

Introduction: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cancer with a high mortality rate of 33% to 46%. Merkel cell is a type of epidermis cell receptor responsible for contact sensitivity and is known to have neuroendocrine properties. Treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma with avelumab has been prominsing, but its rarity and poor prognosis necessitates close follow up. Read More

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Inhibition of Jumonji histone demethylases selectively suppresses HER2+ breast leptomeningeal carcinomatosis growth via inhibition of GM-CSF expression.

Cancer Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neurosurgery, City of Hope Medical Center

HER2+ breast leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (HER2+ LC) occurs when tumor cells spread to cerebrospinal fluid-containing leptomeninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord, a complication with a dire prognosis. HER2+ LC remains incurable with few treatment options. Currently, much effort is devoted towards development of therapies that target mutations. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis With Optic Nerve Metastasis Secondary to Breast Cancer.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14200. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, MYS.

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) and optic nerve metastasis are uncommon occurrences in breast cancer. We report a rare case of LC with optic nerve infiltration secondary to breast cancer. A 45-year-old lady who was a known case of treated right breast carcinoma six years ago presented with a blurring of vision in both eyes, floaters, and diplopia for one month. Read More

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Efficacy of lorlatinib treatment in rearrangement lung cancer with severe symptomatic central nervous system metastases and poor performance status.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 11;9(4):2007-2010. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Respiratory Medicine Hoshigaoka Medical Center Osaka Japan.

Lorlatinib treatment should be positively considered even for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC with severe neurocognitive disturbance and poor performance status due to CNS metastases, including leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Read More

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[Clinical features and prognosis of patients with leptomeningeal metastases].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;101(16):1154-1159

Department of Neurology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou 450003, China.

To describe the clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) cytology and prognosis of Leptomeningeal metastases(LM). The clinical manifestations, imaging features and CSF cytology of LM patients admitted to Henan Provincial People's Hospital from May 1, 2015 to May 31, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The overall survival (OS) was evaluated by the time from the diagnosis of LM to death. Read More

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Impact of cerebrospinal fluid flow study in patients undergoing intrathecal chemotherapy via ventricular catheter reservoir.

J Neurooncol 2021 May 15;153(1):161-167. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 West 10th Avenue, Doan 1047, Columbus, OH, USA.

Purpose: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is a form of CNS cancer metastasis with severe morbidity. Intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) administration through an implanted ventricular catheter reservoir (IVCR) is often utilized. Additionally, a nuclear imaging flow study can be performed prior to ITC administration to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Read More

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A simple method for discrimination of carcinomatous meningitis using CEA, total protein, and total cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid of primary lung cancer patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25367

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka City 181-8611, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract: Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) is a critical issue for physicians. However, no study has reported a simple and useful diagnostic or predictive marker for CM.This study aimed to elucidate the potential markers for diagnosing CM derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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Meningeal "Lazarus Response" to Lorlatinib in a ROS1-Positive NSCLC Patient Progressing to Entrectinib.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 26;13:2805-2810. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Université Paris-Saclay, Faculté de Médecine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have showed activity and efficacy in -rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the clinical practice, besides the utilization of crizotinib, less is known about the best treatment strategies involving additional, new-generation TKIs for the sequential treatment of ROS1-positive NSCLC patients.

Case Presentation: A patient suffering from a -rearranged lung adenocarcinoma, after receiving cisplatin-pemetrexed chemotherapy, was treated with entrectinib, a new-generation ALK/ROS1/NTRK inhibitor. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis: A Clinical Dilemma in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Clinic for Internal Medicine I, Martin-Luther University Halle/Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Straße 40, 06120 Halle, Germany.

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by paraneoplastic syndromes, brain metastases, or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) has only been described in individual case reports. We evaluated patients with LC in four neuroendocrine tumor (NET) centers (Halle/Saale, Hamburg, Heidelberg, and Marburg) and characterized them clinically. In the study, 17 patients with a LC were defined with respect to diagnosis, clinic, and therapy. Read More

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Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis.

Am Fam Physician 2021 04;103(7):422-428

Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC, USA.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a diagnostic tool for many conditions affecting the central nervous system. Urgent indications for lumbar puncture include suspected central nervous system infection or subarachnoid hemorrhage. CSF analysis is not necessarily diagnostic but can be useful in the evaluation of other neurologic conditions, such as spontaneous intracranial hypotension, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and malignancy. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis with Delayed Ocular Manifestations.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):98-100. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Ophthalmology, Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/OhioHealth Doctors Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The most common presenting symptoms of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) are ocular manifestations with vision loss. There are multiple reports of undiagnosed LC causing sudden, complete, monocular vision loss as the presenting symptom; however, sudden bilateral vision loss 6 months following diagnosis has not been described. Any new ocular involvement or worsening of previous ocular symptoms warrants reimaging and prompt ophthalmology consultation, as this likely indicates disease progression. Read More

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February 2021

Malignant invasion of the cerebrospinal fluid in adult and paediatric patients with haematological and solid malignancies: a monocentric retrospective study.

Acta Clin Belg 2021 Mar 17:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Clinical Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Departement of Oncology, Leuven, Belgium.

Objectives: In this study, we describe the clinical presentation, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics and outcome of children and adults with leptomeningeal invasion due to haematological and solid malignancies.

Methods: Routine CSF samples analyzed from 2008 to 2018 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of malignant cells based on cytomorphological analysis.

Results: Leptomeningeal invasion was identified in 212 patients: 45 children versus 167 adults, and 92 haematological versus 120 solid malignancies. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis of a Poorly Differentiated Cervical Carcinoma Caused by Human Papillomavirus Type 18.

Viruses 2021 02 16;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Immunologia e Diagnostica Molecolare Oncologica, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV-IRCCS, Via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padova, Italy.

Cervical cancer is caused by a persistent infection with high-risk types of Papillomaviruses (hrHPV); HPV16 and HPV18 are associated with about 70% of the cases. In the last decades the introduction of a cervical cancer screening has allowed a decrease in cervical cancer incidence and mortality; regular adhesion to the screening procedures, by pap test or HPV test, and colposcopy, according to the international guidelines, prevents cancer development and allows for diagnosis at the early stages. Nowadays, in industrialized countries, it is not common to diagnose this pathology in advanced stages, and this occurrence is frequently associated with patient's unattendance of cervical screening programs. Read More

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February 2021

Blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier dysfunction means reduced CSF flow not barrier leakage - conclusions from CSF protein data.

Authors:
Hansotto Reiber

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 01;79(1):56-67

Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Universitaetsmedizin - Neurochemistry, Goettingen, Niedersachsen, Germany.

Background: Increased concentrations of serum proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are interpreted as blood-CSF barrier dysfunction. Frequently used interpretations such as barrier leakage, disruption or breakdown contradict CSF protein data, which suggest a reduced CSF flow rate as the cause.

Results: Even the severest barrier dysfunctions do not change the molecular size-dependent selectivity or the interindividual variation of the protein transfer across barriers. Read More

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January 2021

Cerebrospinal fluid diversion and outcomes for lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: To investigate the outcomes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC).

Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive lung cancer patients with LMC suffering from increased intracranial pressure (IICP) and hydrocephalus between February 2017 and February 2020. We evaluated the survival benefit of CSF diversion surgery and assessed the outcomes of treatments administered post-LMC in terms of overall survival and shunt-related complications. Read More

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Lorlatinib in pretreated ALK- or ROS1-positive lung cancer and impact of TP53 co-mutations: results from the German early access program.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 9;13:1758835920980558. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department Internal Medicine-Oncology, Pius Hospital, Oldenburg, Germany.

Introduction: We report on the results of the German early access program (EAP) with the third-generation ALK- and ROS1-inhibitor lorlatinib.

Patients And Methods: Patients with documented treatment failure of all approved ALK/ROS1-specific therapies or with resistance mutations not covered by approved inhibitors or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis were enrolled and analyzed.

Results: In total, 52 patients were included [median age 57 years (range 32-81), 54% female, 62% never smokers, 98% adenocarcinoma]; 71% and 29% were ALK- and ROS1-positive, respectively. Read More

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February 2021

Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Secondary to Adenocarcinoma of the Breast: A Cadaveric Case Report.

Cureus 2021 Jan 14;13(1):e12693. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Anatomy, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton, USA.

A rare complication of metastatic breast cancer, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) was discovered during routine cadaveric dissection of a 57-year-old Caucasian female who died from breast cancer metastasis to the brain. This pathology develops in only 5% of patients with metastatic breast cancer and presents with a number of neurological deficits. Progressive neurologic dysfunction is fatal, with a median survival of 10 to 15 weeks. Read More

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January 2021

Antigen Mass May Influence Trastuzumab Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid After Intrathecal Administration.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 31;110(1):210-219. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

EA 4245 Transplantation, Immunologie, Inflammation, Université de Tours, Tours, France.

Intravenous administration of monoclonal antibodies leads to low concentrations in the central nervous system, which is a serious concern in neuro-oncology, especially in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Case reports of i.t. Read More

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Cerebrospinal fluid tumor markers predict treatment response in a patient with carcinomatous meningitis.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jan;49(1):300060520987946

Department of Neurology, Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Sanya, China.

We report on a 56-year-old female patient diagnosed with carcinomatous meningitis caused by lung cancer. The diagnosis was confirmed by lung computed tomography, enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology, and serum and CSF tumor markers. Genetic testing detected an epidermal growth factor receptor gene exon 19 deletion. Read More

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January 2021

[Meningeal Carcinomatosis of Sigmoid Colon Cancer-A Case Report].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2020 Dec;47(13):2216-2218

Dept. of Surgical, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital.

A 60-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder underwent sigmoid colectomy and partial cystectomy. He developed headache and vomiting 12 weeks after surgery, and urgently hospitalized. Contrast MRI of head and whole spinal cord inspected no abnormality. Read More

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December 2020

T2-hyperintense, non-gadolinium-enhancing, diffusion-restricted symmetrical curvilinear lesion of the anterior pons: a rare radiological pattern of leptomeningeal metastatic disease secondary to likely lung adenocarcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 18;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a devastating sequelae of metastatic cancer. It has protean manifestations on imaging. An elderly woman presented to our tertiary centre with symptoms suggestive of a cerebrovascular accident. Read More

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January 2021

Triple intrathecal chemotherapy for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in solid tumors: Treatment outcomes, response and their determinants.

Indian J Cancer 2021 Jan-Mar;58(1):84-90

Department of Medical Oncology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is the metastatic infiltration of leptomeninges by malignant cells originating from an extrameningeal primary tumor site, either extraneural or intraneural. In the absence of treatment, survival is usually measured in weeks, however with treatment this may be extended to a few months. Our institutional protocol has been to offer intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) to patients having solid tumors with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology positive leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Read More

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January 2021

Health care resource utilization and treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in the United States.

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Dec 21;7(6):636-645. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, US.

Background: The economic burden of cancer in the United States is substantial, and better understanding it is essential in informing health care policy and innovation. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) represents a late complication of primary cancer spreading to the leptomeninges.

Methods: The IBM MarketScan Research databases were queried for adults diagnosed with LC from 2001 to 2015, secondary to 4 primary cancers (breast, lung, gastrointestinal, and melanoma). Read More

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December 2020

Complete response of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to breast cancer.

Breast 2020 Dec 28;54:328-330. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris Sorbonne University, 91-105 Boulevard de L'Hôpital, 75013, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an unmet medical need associated with death in 4-6 weeks without treatment, delayed by 4 months in some patients with favorable prognosis and aggressive multimodal therapy. Unfortunately, most clinical trials excluded patients with LC, and the best management remains unknown. Here we present the first report of a LC secondary to HR positive breast cancer with a complete response to CDK4/6 inhibitors abemaciclib, letrozole and hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy. Read More

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December 2020

Disease flare of leptomeningeal metastases without radiological and cytological findings after the discontinuation of osimertinib.

Lung Cancer 2021 01 13;151:1-4. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Rapid tumor progression occurring after the discontinuation of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy is referred to as a disease flare of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinicopathological features of disease flares after osimertinib discontinuation remain unclear.

Results: We report a patient with EGFR-mutated NSCLC who experienced the progression of leptomeningeal metastases as a disease flare shortly after the discontinuation of osimertinib despite the absence of radiological or cytological findings. Read More

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January 2021