5,293 results match your criteria Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis


Eomes-expressing T-helper cells as potential target of therapy in chronic neuroinflammation.

Authors:
Shinji Oki

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502, Japan. Electronic address:

Reserch progresses in understanding the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last couple of decade has enabled us to develop new drug entities available in the clinic. However, we still have not succeeded in preventing conversion from relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) to secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and curing this intractable form of MS. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective and subjective, relying on gradual worsening of neurological signs/symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-10:IL-6 ratio as biomarkers for small B-cell lymphoproliferations with leptomeningeal dissemination.

Semin Hematol 2018 Oct 6;55(4):179-181. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Department of Biological Hematology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Cell Death and Drug Resistance in Lymphoproliferative Disorders, Paris, France.

We here report for the first time that low levels of interleukin (IL)-10 do not exclude lymphomatous meningitis (LM) in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD). Unexpectedly, IL-10 levels and IL-10:IL-6 ratio in CLPD differed from the levels observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We report the usefulness of adding the IL-10:IL-6 ratio in order to potentially reveal more aggressive lymphomas: either a transformation or an association with another "hidden" lymphoma such as primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Read More

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October 2018

Primary Diffuse Leptomeningeal Melanomatosis of Spine: 18F-FDG PET Findings.

Clin Nucl Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara Application and Research Hospital, and.

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal melanomatosis is a rare variant of malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, arising from melanocytes of leptomeninges. It may involve leptomeninges and may invade brain superficially. The diagnosis of the disease with conventional imaging techniques is quite difficult. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

18F-Choline PET/CT in Leptomeningeal Breast Cancer Metastases.

Clin Nucl Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

From the Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy.

We describe a case of 47-year-old woman affected by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive breast cancer with a diffuse leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. An intense uptake of F-choline was reported at fused PET/MRI images in the brain, compatible with a diffuse leptomeningeal disease. This case highlights that F-choline PET would be used for the identification of leptomeningeal involvement in patients affected by breast cancer, as a support of MRI images. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

HaNDL Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review.

J Child Neurol 2018 Dec 5:883073818811546. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Headache and Neurologic Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis (HaNDL) syndrome is a rare stroke mimicker characterized by moderate to severe headache temporally associated with transient neurologic deficits, typically hemiparesis, hemisensory disturbance, and/or aphasia. Cerebrospinal fluid studies reveal a lymphocytosis and elevated protein. Episodes recur over a period no longer than 3 months. Read More

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December 2018

Large B-cell lymphoma concommittant to intra-cerebral hemorrhage.

Cytopathology 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, University Hospital, Nancy, France.

A 63-year old man presented with intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH) confirmed by tomodensitometry. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a xanthochromic liquid with 1.537 x 10 /L nucleated cells (Body Fluid mode, Sysmex XN-9000, Roissy, Fr), increased red blood cells (RBCs), loose clusters of leptomeningeal cells (fig 1) macrophages and abnormal lymphocytes (fig 2). Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Pre-stroke warfarin enhancement of collateralization in acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study.

BMC Neurol 2018 Nov 29;18(1):194. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Warfarin therapies not only are used to prevent stroke in patients with high risk of cardioembolism such as patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD), but also was associated with lower stroke severity and more favorable functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery occlusion. It was speculated that pre-stroke warfarin may promote collateralization and result in reduced stroke severity. This study aimed to investigate the association between pre-stroke warfarin use and leptomeningeal collaterals in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Primary Diffuse Leptomeningeal Melanomatosis: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Phil Smith Neuroscience Institute, Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 33308, USA.

Background: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal melanomatosis (PDLM) is an extremely rare pathologic condition that can mimic several other neurologic disease states.

Methods: We report a rare case of PDLM without evidence of a primary focus. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to describe all previously reported cases of PDLM. Read More

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November 2018

Profound Leptomeningeal and Intramedullary Abnormalities in Bing-Neel Syndrome.

Can J Neurol Sci 2018 Nov 29:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

3Department of Medical Imaging,The Ottawa Hospital,Ottawa,Ontario,Canada.

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November 2018
5 Reads

[Leptomeningeal metastasis of myxofibrosarcoma: a case report].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2018 Nov;40(11):877-878

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

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November 2018
1 Read

Very Late Leptomeningeal Collaterals-Potential New Way to Subdivide Modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) 2B.

Clin Neuroradiol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

University hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Studies have shown that the modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) 2B score is associated with better functional outcome; however, 50-99% reperfusion is a large range and there may be factors which can differentiate this further. The effects of very late leptomeningeal collaterals (VLLC) on mTICI-2B patients were studied.

Method: A prospectively collected registry of anterior circulation AIS patients treated with the EmboTrap revascularization device from 2013 to 2016 was evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Dural based marginal zone lymphoma in a patient with sarcoidosis: a case report.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Neuropathology Section, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Primary dural based lymphoma is a rare disease entity. It has beenhypothesized that patients with sarcoidosis are at increased risk of developing lymphoma, an association known as "sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome", although dural disease has been not yet reported in the literature.

Case Description: Here we report the first case of dural based lymphoma in a 60-year-old; man with a history of sarcoidosis, in keeping with sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Role of Temozolomide in the Treatment of Cancers Involving the Central Nervous System.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2018 11;32(11):555-60, 569

Temozolomide has been available to oncologists for over 30 years. During this time, it has become an integral part of standard therapy in patients with high-grade gliomas. Given its ability to traverse the blood-brain barrier, temozolomide has also been evaluated in other cancers that involve the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Recent advances in managing brain metastasis.

F1000Res 2018 9;7. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami Cancer Institute, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, FL, USA.

Brain metastases are the most common malignancy encountered in the central nervous system (CNS), with up to 30-40% of cancer patients developing brain metastases at some point during the course of their disease. The management of brain metastasis is rapidly evolving and the roles of local therapies such as whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and resection along with systemic therapies are in flux. An emphasis on the neurocognitive side effects associated with treatment has gained prominence. Read More

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November 2018

Glioblastoma with bilateral extraocular muscle infiltration preceded by evidence of vascular tropism.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, United States.

We present a case of bilateral synchronous orbital muscle infiltration of extra-neural glioblastoma metastases with evidence of focal treatment response. The orbital infiltration was preceded by evidence of leptomeningeal disease, and followed by further symptomatic perineural spread of tumor along the second and third division of the trigeminal nerve and into the masticator space. Read More

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November 2018

The identification of a transthyretin variant p.D38G in a Chinese family with early-onset leptomeningeal amyloidosis.

J Neurol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Center for Experimental Medicine, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 138 Tongzipo Road, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, People's Republic of China.

Familial amyloid polyneuropathies (FAPs) are life-threatening, autosomal dominant diseases resulting, in most instances, from transthyretin gene (TTR) variants. A small number of TTR variants lead to leptomeningeal amyloidosis (LA), which is a rare FAP subtype with late-onset central nervous system (CNS) impairment symptoms. Previous studies suggest that LA's CNS selectivity was due to complete endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of highly destabilized mutants in peripheral tissues. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Editorial: Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment.

Front Oncol 2018 6;8:511. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Pulmonary Diseases, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

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November 2018

Pathological and molecular characterization of avian malaria in captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

Parasitol Res 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects multiple avian species and is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium. An avian malaria infection caused by Plasmodium sp. in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) with high mortality is described in a zoo in Southern Brazil. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Functional Subunit Reconstruction of Giant Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevi in Children With the Use of Matriderm and Skin Graft: Surgical Experience and Literature Review.

Eplasty 2018 5;18:e30. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Facial giant congenital melanocytic nevus represents a major cosmetic deformity for the child and parents and is a challenge for the plastic surgeons to achieve best cosmetic results. Herein, we present a case of single-stage surgical reconstruction using partial-thickness scalp skin graft aided with Matriderm dermal substitute for a facial giant congenital melanocytic nevus. An 8-year-old boy presented with a facial giant congenital melanocytic nevus without leptomeningeal involvement. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Detection in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients with Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Oncology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University ; Shanghai, China .

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are associated with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) of nonsmall cell lung cancer and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining carcinomatous meningeal tissue for analysis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) might be an alternative.

Objective: To investigate the EGFR mutation detection in the CSF of lung adenocarcinoma patients with LM. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Fast-developing fatal diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination of a pineal germinoma in a young child: a case report and literature review.

Br J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 19:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

a Department of Neurosurgery , West China Hospital, Sichuan University , Chengdu , Sichuan 610041 , China.

Background: Intracranial germinomas are uncommon and constitute less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. They usually arise in the midline of the brain, most commonly in the pineal region. Pineal germinomas tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Symmetric Ventral Brainstem Lesion in Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis.

Intern Med 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Departments of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Higashi-ohmi General Medical Center, Japan.

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November 2018

A new MR radiological sign in HaNDL syndrome. A case report.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Neurology, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: One of the classical diagnostic criteria of the syndrome of transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL syndrome) is the normality of imaging studies except from some reversible alterations as leptomeningeal enhancement or focal hypoperfusion.

Case: We present a 41 year-old man who abruptly started with a set of right parietal symptoms, meeting the diagnostic criteria for HaNDL syndrome. An electroencephalographic record showed a slowing of the right hemisphere. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Neurocutaneous Melanosis with Leptomeningeal Melanoma Involving Supratentorium and Infratentorium.

Cureus 2018 Sep 10;10(9):e3275. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Radiotherapy, Christian Medical College, Vellore, IND.

Neurocutaneous melanoma is a rare congenital syndrome associated with congenital melanocytic nevi with meningeal melanosis or melanoma. The disease is aggressive and has a high propensity for leptomeningeal metastases. We present the case history of a man with neurocutaneous melanoma managed with radical excision followed by hypofractionated adjuvant radiotherapy. Read More

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September 2018

Giant cell glioblastoma with spinal and spinal leptomeningeal metastasis in a child: A rare presentation of a rare tumor.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2018 Jul-Sep;9(3):202-204

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. BRA IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Giant cell glioblastoma (GCG) is a rare subtype of classic glioblastoma multiforme with favorable prognosis and little is known about its metastatic potential. We hereby present a unique case of GCG in a 7-year-old child who developed spinal and spinal leptomeningeal metastasis during adjuvant therapy. She succumbed to it in spite of salvage therapy. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Prospective study revealed prognostic significance of responses in leptomeningeal metastasis and clinical value of cerebrospinal fluid-based liquid biopsy.

Lung Cancer 2018 Nov 17;125:142-149. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) secondary to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating complication associated with poor prognosis. Diagnosis and assessment of responses in LM have been challenging due to limitation of traditional imaging tools and lack of standard evaluation criteria until very recently. To bridge this gap, we conducted the first prospective, observational study in cytologically diagnosed NSCLC-LM patients (NCT02803619). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read
3.960 Impact Factor

Vagal Nerve Palsy After Transarterial Embolization of Transverse-Sigmoid Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Using Onyx.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Nov 10. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Neurosuragery, Stroke Center, Kokura Memorial Hospital, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: We report a case of a 70-year-old man who developed a transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistula (TS-DAVF) that was successfully treated by transarterial embolization (TAE) with Onyx.

Case Presentation: The patient presented with sudden and progressive disturbance of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed venous infarction and hemorrhagic changes with brain swelling in the right parietal lobe. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Influence of the circle of Willis on leptomeningeal collateral flow in anterior circulation occlusive stroke: Friend or foe?

J Neurol Sci 2018 Nov 3;396:69-75. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical outcome after large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke depends on collateral integrity. We aimed to evaluate whether the completeness of the circle of Willis (CoW) and anterior temporal artery (ATA) determines the status of leptomeningeal collaterals (LC) in patients with acute LVO (internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery M1 (MCA) occlusion) treated with endovascular thrombectomy.

Patients And Methods: LC, cross-flow through the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), presence of the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (IpsiPCoA) and presence of the ATA were evaluated using CT angiography. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Novel methods to diagnose leptomeningeal metastases in breast cancer.

Neuro Oncol 2018 Nov 10. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) in breast cancer patients are rare but often accompanied by devastating neurological symptoms and carries a very poor prognosis, even if treated. To date, two diagnostic methods are clinically used to diagnose LM: gadolinium MRI of the brain and/or spinal cord and cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both techniques are however hampered by limited sensitivities, often leading to a long diagnostic process requiring repeated lumbar punctures and MRI examinations. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

A report of Bell's Palsy triggered by leptomeningeal metastases from recurrent high grade serous ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2018 Nov 19;26:82-86. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15 St. Augusta, GA 30912, Georgia.

•CNS metastases involving leptomeninges (LM) are extremely rare in patients with ovarian cancer.•Prognosis for ovarian cancer patients with LM metastases is very poor and treatment is palliative in nature.•Chemotherapy is administered intrathecally via an Ommaya reservoir or intra-CSF via repeated lumbar punctures. Read More

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November 2018

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as primary presentation of metastatic urothelial cancer.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 8;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Leptomeningeal spread of carcinoma, referred to here as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, is an uncommon complication of many cancer types. Its manifestations as the presenting symptoms of a new cancer diagnosis is even less common. This case describes the manifestations of leptomeningeal spread of urothelial carcinoma with review of pathophysiology driving the presenting symptoms of hypertension and headache. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Sellar Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Presenting with Subarachnoid and Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 4. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Departments of Neurosurgery.

Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are uncommon malignancies of the central nervous system and often difficult to distinguish radiographically and pathologically from other common tumors. In this report, we present the first case of sellar ATRT presenting with subarachnoid (SAH) and intraventricular (IVH) hemorrhage.

Case Description: A 62 year-old female presented with symptoms of headache, diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, and seizures was found to have a sellar tumor with hemorrhagic transformation. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Amelanotic Meningeal Melanoma with Leptomeningeal Dissemination: A Case Report and Systematic Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 4. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, No. 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Background: Meningeal melanoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system, whose amelanotic variant is the so-called 'amelanotic meningeal melanoma (AMM)'. AMM does not produce melanin and therefore does not exhibit typical short-T1 and short-T2 signal on MRI, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed and be inappropriately managed. To date, only four AMM cases were reported in English literature, here we reported the fifth case. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Baseline serum/cerebrospinal fluid ratio of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen series biomarkers in non-neoplastic diseases: a cross-sectional study on 224 patients.

Clin Biochem 2018 Nov 4. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Neurology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, China.

Background: The measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen series biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is useful for the diagnosis of brain metastasis and leptomeningeal metastases to a certain extent. Their serum/CSF ratios may be of benefit to earlier diagnosis and treatment. However, the normal reference values of the ratios were not available. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Early detection of recurrent medulloblastoma: the critical role of diffusion-weighted imaging.

Neurooncol Pract 2018 Nov 17;5(4):234-240. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Imaging diagnosis of medulloblastoma recurrence relies heavily on identifying new contrast-enhancing lesions on surveillance imaging, with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) being used primarily for detection of complications. We propose that DWI is more sensitive in detecting distal and leptomeningeal recurrent medulloblastoma than T1-weighted postgadolinium imaging.

Methods: We identified 53 pediatric patients with medulloblastoma, 21 of whom developed definitive disease recurrence within the brain. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Whole-brain Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Patients with Dural Metastasis Without Concomitant Brain Metastasis and Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

Anticancer Res 2018 Nov;38(11):6405-6411

Department of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: To evaluate outcomes of breast cancer patients with confirmed dural metastasis (DM) alone who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT).

Patients And Methods: The medical records of thirty-three breast cancer patients who received WBRT to treat intracranial metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation of DM-only was compared with that of brain metastasis (BM)/leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Unique genomic profiles obtained from cerebrospinal fluid cell-free DNA of non-small cell lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal metastases.

Cancer Biol Ther 2018 Nov 5:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

c Department of Hematology and Oncology , The First People's Hospital of Taizhou , Taizhou , China.

Background: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM), associated with poor prognosis, are frequent complications of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, especially in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Due to limited access to leptomeningeal lesions, the mutational landscape of LM has not been comprehensively investigated in large cohorts and the underlining biology of LM remains elusive. Some studies have explored the potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in reflecting the molecular profile of LM but with limited number of patients enrolled. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Neuroimaging Findings in Intracranial Sarcoid Phlebitis: A Case Report.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa. Electronic address:

Introduction: Venous phlebitis in Neurosarcoidosis (NS) is rare but is often associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Imaging findings in such cases have been recently described on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI).

Case Presentation And Outcome: We report a patient who presented with ICH. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Leptomeningeal metastases of a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour: a rare entity.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 3;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

A 73-year-old man, without any medical history, had presented with dark urine and pale stool without pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed a tumour in the pancreas with liver metastases. Histopathological examination showed a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Associated with Metastases to Central Nervous System: Two Case Reports.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2018 2;2018:4301247. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan.

We experienced two rare cases of metastases to the central nervous system (cerebral and leptomeningeal metastases) from primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The first case was a 55-year-old woman who developed carcinomatous meningitis while on chemotherapy for ovarian cancer stage IIIC. Cytological analysis confirmed carcinomatous cells of ovarian origin in the cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Application of 3D T1 Black-Blood Imaging in the Diagnosis of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis: Potential Pitfall of Slow-Flowing Blood.

Authors:
S A Nabavizadeh

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Neuroradiology Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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November 2018

A Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Outcomes of Leptomeningeal Metastasis in Patients with Solid Tumors.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2018 Oct;6(2):54-59

Department of Internal Medicine, Kosin University Gaspel Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Background: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon, but devastating complication of advanced cancer and has no standard treatment. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with solid tumors who were diagnosed with LM.

Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2017, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with solid tumors who were diagnosed with LM. Read More

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October 2018

Disseminated High-grade Glioma in a Long-term Survivor of Medulloblastoma: Implications and Management of Radiation-induced Malignancies.

Neurologist 2018 Nov;23(6):191-193

Departments of Neurology.

We describe a gentleman diagnosed with a posterior fossa medulloblastoma in 1998, successfully treated with craniospinal radiation therapy (RT) and posterior fossa RT boost, followed by 12 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Nineteen years later, at the age of 28, the patient presented with multiple cranial neuropathies and was found to have disseminated high-grade glioma with leptomeningeal dissemination. In addition to the salient features of this case, we provide a brief review of RT-induced malignancies and the need for further research regarding surveillance and prevention strategies. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Surgical resection and postoperative radiosurgery versus staged radiosurgery for large brain metastases.

J Neurooncol 2018 Dec 26;140(3):749-756. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the new treatment paradigm of staged stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of large brain metastases (BM) compared to the standard of surgical resection followed by SRS.

Methods: We evaluated 78 patients with large BM treated 2012-2017 with surgical resection and postoperative SRS (surgery + SRS) or staged SRS separated by 1 month. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method and compared across groups using the log-rank test. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Meningitis.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):831-849. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 North Academy Avenue, Danville, PA 17822, USA.

Chronic meningitis is defined as cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis that persists for at least 4 weeks without spontaneous resolution. The differential diagnosis of chronic meningitis is broad, encompassing 4 main categories, including infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and idiopathic. Up to one-third of cases have no discernible cause, making chronic meningitis a diagnostic dilemma for many clinicians. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Neurosarcoidosis Presenting Initially as Idiopathic Vocal Cord Paralysis.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Oct 26:3489418808814. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

2 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction:: The presentation, course, and management of a rare laryngeal manifestation of neurosarcoidosis due to central nervous system (as opposed to peripheral nervous system) injury are described.

Methods:: The authors present 3 cases of vocal cord paralysis as the initial symptom of isolated neurosarcoidosis at a tertiary care laryngology clinic.

Results:: Laryngoscopy diagnosed unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Contribution of Serum Lipid Profiles to Outcome After Endovascular Thrombectomy for Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus Medical University, Ignaz-Harrer-Straße 79, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

The contribution of lipids, including low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), to stroke outcomes is still debated. We sought to determine the impact of LDL-C concentrations on the outcome of patients with ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation who received treatment with endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke treated at a tertiary center between 2012 and 2016. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Prevention of recurrence post leptomeningeal cyst repair.

Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2018 Oct;23(4):338-342

Department of Neurosurgery, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail:

Leptomeningeal cysts, which are cystic collections filled with cerebrospinal fluid, are rare complications following pediatric head trauma and surgical correction of craniosynostosis. These cysts develop due to cerebrospinal fluid pulsations and brain growth that cause expansion of the dural tears. Although primary repair of the dural defect is the definitive treatment, the risk of cyst recurrence remains. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Sustaining cerebral perfusion in intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis: The roles of antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Oct 23:271678X18805209. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

1 Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China.

We aimed to investigate the roles of antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Patients with apparently normal cerebral perfusion distal to a symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA)-M1 stenosis were enrolled. Computational fluid dynamics models were built based on CT angiography to obtain a translesional pressure ratio (PR) to gauge the residual antegrade flow. Read More

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October 2018