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    The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 21;11(6):e0005687. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Institute of Hansen's Disease, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, Korea.
    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M. Read More

    Linear verrucous hemangioma of the upper limb: a rare case.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Jun 15;23(6). Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Karnataka, India.
    Verrucous hemangioma is a rare, congenital vascular malformation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue. It is usually present at birth and gradually increases in size and number with age; occasionally it presents in later adulthood. It has a predilection for the lower extremity and usually presents as warty or hyperkeratotic, bluish and partly confluent papules and plaques. Read More

    Feasibility of a streamlined tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation strategy.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017 Jul;21(7):746-752
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco and Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, Curry International Tuberculosis Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Objective: To assess the feasibility of a streamlined strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation and treatment initiation among patients with presumed TB.

    Design: Single-arm interventional pilot study at five primary care health centers of a streamlined, SIngle-saMPLE (SIMPLE) TB diagnostic evaluation strategy: 1) examination of two smear results from a single spot sputum specimen using light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy, and 2) daily transportation of smear-negative sputum samples to Xpert® MTB/RIF testing sites.

    Results: Of 1212 adults who underwent sputum testing for TB, 99. Read More

    Anti-natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) antibodies as indicators of leprosy reactions and neuritis.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Mar;111(3):125-131
    Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical - Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia.
    Background: Leprosy is a complex infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve damage is related to immunological hypersensitivity responses known as leprosy reactions (LRs). Diagnostic tools to predict LRs are not available. Read More

    High diversity of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Central Asian Strain isolates in Nepal.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Japan; Hokkaido University, GI-CoRE Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) poses a major public health problem in Nepal. Although it has been reported as one of the dominant genotypes of MTB in Nepal, little information on the Central Asian Strain (CAS) family is available, especially isolates related to multidrug resistance (MDR) cases. Here, we aimed to elucidate the genetic and epidemiological characteristics of MDR CAS isolates in Nepal. Read More

    Whole genome sequencing distinguishes between relapse and reinfection in recurrent leprosy cases.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 15;11(6):e0005598. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Tropical Medicine Centre, University of Brasília, Brasília DF, Brazil.
    Background: Since leprosy is both treated and controlled by multidrug therapy (MDT) it is important to monitor recurrent cases for drug resistance and to distinguish between relapse and reinfection as a means of assessing therapeutic efficacy. All three objectives can be reached with single nucleotide resolution using next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of Mycobacterium leprae DNA present in human skin.

    Methodology: DNA was isolated by means of optimized extraction and enrichment methods from samples from three recurrent cases in leprosy patients participating in an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial of uniform MDT in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR). Read More

    Identification of etiologic agents of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in palpebral position followed by effective therapy.
    J Educ Health Promot 2017 5;6:44. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Context: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a self-healing lesion but prevention of complications and involvement of vital organs such as palpebra requires proper treatment.

    Aims: The main objectives were to detect agents of CL in palpebral region and estimate the proportion of palpebral lesion also possible complications among CL patients in a zoonotic CL endemic area.

    Settings And Design: The study was performed from April 2012 to March 2013 in a total of 1613 CL suspected patients by interview and physically exam. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Mycobacterium indicus pranii as an adjunct therapy in Category II pulmonary tuberculosis in a randomized trial.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 13;7(1):3354. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.
    Prolonged treatment of tuberculosis (TB) often leads to poor compliance, default and relapse, converting primary TB patients into category II TB (Cat IITB) cases, many of whom may convert to multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). We have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) as an adjunct to Anti-Tubercular Treatment (ATT) in Cat II pulmonary TB (PTB) patients in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentric clinical trial. 890 sputum smear positive Cat II PTB patients were randomized to receive either six intra-dermal injections (2 + 4) of heat-killed MIP at a dose of 5 × 10(8) bacilli or placebo once in 2 weeks for 2 months. Read More

    Comparative study of genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a Northern Indian setting with strains reported from other parts of India and neighboring countries.
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2017 Jul 10;105:60-72. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Former Secretary, Former Director General, Department of Health Research (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare), Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, Post Box 4911, New Delhi, 110 029, India. Electronic address:
    This study was carried out to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Ghatampur, Kanpur, North India, by spoligotyping and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing. A total of 335 isolates were genotyped by spoligotyping and Central Asian (CAS) sub-lineage was the most prevalent, comprising 59.1% of all isolates. Read More

    The efficacy of short term clobetasol lotion in the treatment of scalp psoriasis.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Jun 13:1-24. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    a Center for Research & Training in Skin Diseases & Leprosy , Tehran , Iran.
    Background: Scalp psoriasis can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and is considered difficult to treat. Treatment failure may, however, be due to poor adherence, as application of topical treatments to hair bearing areas is difficult and time consuming and also poor commination between physician and patient.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of short term treatment of scalp psoriasis with topical clobetasol lotion. Read More

    Topical treatment with nanoliposomal Amphotericin B reduces early lesion growth but fails to induce cure in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana.
    Acta Trop 2017 Jun 9;173:102-108. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:
    Leishmania mexicana infection causes localized skin lesions that can lead to tissue damage and permanent disfigurement if not resolved. Currently, recommended treatments include intravenous administration of Amphotericin B, which is undesirable due to the associated cost and patient burden related to receiving regular injections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of topical treatment with a nanoliposomal formulation of Amphotericin B that is penetrable to the skin (SinaAmphoLeish 0. Read More

    Salivary anti-PGL-1 IgM may indicate active transmission of Mycobacterium leprae among young people under 16 years of age.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Faculdade de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. Read More

    Role of S-100 Immunostain as An Auxiliary Diagnostic Aid in Leprosy.
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2017 Jan-Mar;56(205):141-144
    Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
    Introduction: Histopathologic diagnosis of leprosy is difficult when Bacillary Index (BI) is zero and neural involvement are not easily identifiable on routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. This study was undertaken to study the role of S-100 immunostaining in demonstrating different patterns of nerve involvement in various types of leprosy.

    Methods: Thirty one skin biopsies with clinico-histopathologic diagnoses of leprosy over a period of two years were included in the study. Read More

    The Connection of the Genetic, Cultural and Geographic Landscapes of Transoxiana.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 8;7(1):3085. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia.
    We have analyzed Y-chromosomal variation in populations from Transoxiana, a historical region covering the southwestern part of Central Asia. We studied 780 samples from 10 regional populations of Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Dungans, and Karakalpaks using 35 SNP and 17 STR markers. Analysis of haplogroup frequencies using multidimensional scaling and principal component plots, supported by an analysis of molecular variance, showed that the geographic landscape of Transoxiana, despite its distinctiveness and diversity (deserts, fertile river basins, foothills and plains) had no strong influence on the genetic landscape. Read More

    Serum anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 IgA correlates to IgM isotype in leprosy patients: a possible candidate for seroepidemiological surveys?
    J Clin Lab Anal 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Clinical Analysis and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Ceará- UFC, Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare serum anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in leprosy patients and controls.

    Method: Analysis of anti-PGL-1 IgA, IgG, or IgM in serum samples from multibacillary (MB, n=32) and paucibacillary (PB, n=22) leprosy patients, and in non-endemic controls (n=17), using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Results: A strong correlation between serum IgM and IgA isotypes was found (r=. Read More

    Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a cross sectional study.
    Afr Health Sci 2016 Dec;16(4):1101-1108
    National Tuberculosis treatment unit, Mulago Hospital.
    Background: Patient satisfaction towards care during encounter with clinicians is key for better treatment outcomes. We assessed patient satisfaction with TB clinical care consultations in Kampala, Uganda.

    Methods: This was a facility-based cross sectional study done between September 2012 and February 2013 using qualitative method of data collection. Read More

    Longitudinal IP-10 serum levels are associated with the course of disease activity and remission in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Dept. Molecular Cell Biology and Dept. Reumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Although Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, persistent autoimmune disease 10-15% of the RA patients achieve sustained disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD)-free remission over time. Biological mechanisms underlying the resolution of persistent inflammation in RA are yet unidentified and prognostic markers are lacking.It is well established that increased serum levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) are associated with (acute) increased inflammatory responses (e. Read More

    Feline leprosy due to Mycobacterium lepraemurium.
    J Feline Med Surg 2017 Jul;19(7):737-746
    3 Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Objectives: This paper, the second in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to Mycobacterium lepraemurium, the most common cause of feline leprosy worldwide.

    Methods: Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with M lepraemurium infection.

    Results: A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies. Read More

    Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Jun;112(6):419-427
    Centro de Diagnóstico e Investigación en Endemo-Epidemias, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking.

    Objectives: We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020.

    Methods: Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Read More

    Occupational Dermatoses among Cottage Industry Workers of Kashmir Valley in North India.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 May-Jun;8(3):181-185
    Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Introduction: Cottage industry is usually a small-scale industry operated from home by family members using their own equipment. Kashmir has a unique cottage industry of its own which deals with production of many handicrafts, which may lead to a peculiar pattern of skin diseases in these artisans. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the pattern of skin disorders in the cottage industry workers of Kashmir valley, with primary focus on the occupation-related dermatoses and to identify the most common cutaneous manifestation in these workers. Read More

    Anticeramide antibody and butyrylcholinesterase in peripheral neuropathies.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Nireekshana-ACET/CODEWEL, Hyderabad, Telangana 500029, India. Electronic address:
    Ceramide is a glycosphingolipid, a component of nerve and non neuronal cell membrane and plays a role in maintaining the integrity of neuronal tissue. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a multifunctional enzyme, its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases has been well established. Anticeramide antibody (Ab-Cer) and enzyme BChE have been implicated in peripheral neuropathies. Read More

    Genetic diversity & drug sensitivity profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from two slums of Jaipur city, Rajasthan, India.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Jan;145(1):74-83
    Department of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra; Former Secretary, Department of Health Research & Director-General, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.
    Background & Objectives: Slums are considered as hotspots of tuberculosis (TB). The study of genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) will help understand the transmission dynamics and can be used for better prevention and control of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the drug susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU VNTR) of MTB isolates from sputum samples of pulmonary TB patients residing in the two slums of Jaipur city in Rajasthan, India. Read More

    Leprosy in an Eight-Year-Old Child - An Exceptional Case with Unusual Oral Manifestation.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Apr 1;11(4):ZD19-ZD20. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Leprosy is a contagious and granulomatous disease which is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The incubation period for leprosy is five to seven years and it can take as long as about 30 years before signs and symptoms of leprosy develop in some patients. It is a chronic systemic disease which mostly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. Read More

    Cytokines as biomarkers to monitoring the impact of multidrug therapy in immune response of leprosy patients.
    Cytokine 2017 May 29;97:42-48. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Laboratório de Biologia das Interações Celulares, Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease of the skin and nerves, caused by the intracellular bacilli Mycobacterium leprae. It is characterized by a spectrum of clinical forms depending on the host's immune response to M. leprae. Read More

    qPCR-High resolution melt analysis for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium leprae directly from clinical specimens of leprosy patients.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 1;11(6):e0005506. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Division National Hansen's Disease Programs (NHDP), Healthcare Systems Bureau (HSB), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.
    Background: Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens. Read More

    Prevalence of autoantibodies against cellular antigens in patients with HIV and leprosy coinfection in the Amazon region.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Jun 1;6(1):80. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Center of Biological and Health Sciences, State University of Para, Campus II - CCBS, Rua Perebebui n° 2623, Marco, Belem, PA, 66087-670, Brazil.
    Background: Infectious agents can activate self-reactive T cells. In general, infections trigger various mechanisms, including a lack of auto-tolerance, induction of costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells, and molecular simulation, in addition to cross-reactions between microbial antigens and self-antigens. HIV and leprosy coinfections lead to self-immunity with the production of autoantibodies. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like lesions:a diagnostic challenge.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):273-276
    Disciplina de Dermatologia, Curso de Medicina, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) can be diverse. Morphology and quantity of skin lesions depends on interactions between host immunity and fungus virulence. Diagnosis can be a challenge considering that this fungus has low virulence and some individuals have immunity to microorganism, which results in well-marked granulomas without visible microorganisms. Read More

    Leprosy in Southern Brazil: a twenty-year epidemiological profile.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):251-255
    Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.
    Introduction:: This study evaluated leprosy rates in Rio Grande do Sul, an area with a historically low prevalence. However, recent studies are lacking.

    Methods:: Data extracted from a National Database were analyzed for clinical features and compared to 1980s data. Read More

    Assessment of the sensory and physical limitations imposed by leprosy in a Brazilian Amazon Population.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):223-228
    Laboratório de Virologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brasil.
    Introduction: Leprosy often results in sensory and physical limitations. This study aimed to evaluate these limitations using a quantitative approach in leprosy patients in Belém (Pará, Brazil).

    Methods: This epidemiological, cross-sectional study measured the sensory impairment of smell and taste through the use of a questionnaire and evaluated activity limitations of daily life imposed by leprosy through the Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) Scale. Read More

    Presence of Mycobacterium leprae genotype 4 in environmental waters in Northeast Brazil.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):216-222
    Departamento de Patologia e Medicina Legal, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil.
    Introduction:: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies.

    Methods:: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013. The 16S rRNA gene region of M. Read More

    Analysis of clinical data and T helper 1/T helper 2 responses in patients with different clinical forms of leprosy.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):208-215
    Curso de Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT, Brasil.
    Introduction:: Currently, there are no laboratory tests or sensitive and specific molecular markers for the early diagnosis of leprosy. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with leprosy and investigate their immunological profile, comparing this with the type of lesion and the presence or absence of a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar.

    Methods:: Statistical analyzes were performed by employing comparative tests (Pearson´s chi-square) to evaluate the variables in different clinical forms, considering significance at the 5% level. Read More

    Tenosynovitis: An unusual presentation of leprosy.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2017 Apr-Jun;6(2):196-198
    Department of Dermatology, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Tenosynovitis is an uncommon presentation of Type 1 reaction in leprosy. Herein, we report a case of bilateral tenosynovitis of wrist joints who after being unsuccessfully treated by a rheumatologist for several months, was finally diagnosed as a case of Hansen's disease (borderline lepromatous) with Type 1 reaction. Read More

    A case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis associated with leprosy.
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa do Hospital Santa Casa de Belo horizonte. Brazil.
    Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is a form of infection caused by dematiaceous fungi and frequently reported in the literature. It is considered as an emerging mycosis because it is increasingly reported among immunosuppressive patients. The most commonly cited etiologic agent is Exophiala jeanselmei, followed by Alternaria spp. Read More

    MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a)/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBPβ regulate innate immune signaling, the polarization of macrophages and the trafficking of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to lysosomes during infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 30;13(5):e1006410. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India.
    For efficient clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), macrophages tilt towards M1 polarization leading to the activation of transcription factors associated with the production of antibacterial effector molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). At the same time, resolution of inflammation is associated with M2 polarization with increased production of arginase and cytokines such as IL-10. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that govern the balance between M1 and M2 polarization, and bacteria-containing processes such as autophagy and trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes, are incompletely understood. Read More

    [Analysis of the geographical distribution of cases of leprosy. Rio de Janeiro, 2001-2012].
    Cien Saude Colet 2017 May;22(5):1695-1704
    Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz. Rio de Janeiro RJ Brasil.
    Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Read More

    Long-pulsed Nd: YAG Laser and Intense Pulse Light-755 nm for Idiopathic Facial Hirsutism: A Comparative Study.
    J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2017 Jan-Mar;10(1):40-44
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Background: Hirsutism means excessive terminal hair growth in a female in male pattern distribution. Perception of hirsutism is subjective. Permanent laser hair reduction is a slow process taking many sessions and tracking of improvement parameters is tedious. Read More

    The Intergenic Recombinant HLA-B∗46:01 Has a Distinctive Peptidome that Includes KIR2DL3 Ligands.
    Cell Rep 2017 May;19(7):1394-1405
    Department of Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    HLA-B(∗)46:01 was formed by an intergenic mini-conversion, between HLA-B(∗)15:01 and HLA-C(∗)01:02, in Southeast Asia during the last 50,000 years, and it has since become the most common HLA-B allele in the region. A functional effect of the mini-conversion was introduction of the C1 epitope into HLA-B(∗)46:01, making it an exceptional HLA-B allotype that is recognized by the C1-specific natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR2DL3. High-resolution mass spectrometry showed that HLA-B(∗)46:01 has a low-diversity peptidome that is distinct from those of its parents. Read More

    Expression of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in leprosy reactions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.
    Acta Trop 2017 Aug 13;172:213-216. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Tropical Medicine Center, Federal do Para University, Belem-Pa, Brazil; Center of Health and Biological Sciences, State University of Para, Belem-Pa, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Previous studies suggest that coinfection of leprosy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not decrease the frequency and intensity of leprosy reactions. However, the immunological aspects of leprosy reactions in coinfected patients remain obscure, with a limited number of studies showing contradictory results. Observational study using tissue samples collected during leprosy reactions from 15 patients coinfected with leprosy and HIV and from 15 patients with leprosy alone. Read More

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