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    1 OF 535

    Molecular detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in the environment and its relationship with Buruli ulcer occurrence in Zio and Yoto districts of maritime region in Togo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 May 21;12(5):e0006455. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department for infectious diseases and tropical medicine (DITM), Medical center of the University of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany.
    Background: Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Residence near aquatic areas has been identified as an important source of transmission of M. ulcerans with increased risk of contracting Buruli ulcer. Read More

    Molecular, immunological and neurophysiological evaluations for early diagnosis of neural impairment in seropositive leprosy household contacts.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 May 21;12(5):e0006494. Epub 2018 May 21.
    National Reference Center for Sanitary Dermatology and Leprosy, Clinics' Hospital, School of Medicine, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.
    Background: Household contacts constitute the highest risk group for leprosy development, and despite significant progress in the disease control, early diagnosis remains the primary goals for leprosy management programs.

    Methods: We have recruited 175 seropositive and 35 seronegative household contacts from 2014 to 2016, who were subjected to an extensive protocol that included clinical, molecular (peripheral blood qPCR, slit-skin smear qPCR, skin biopsy qPCR) and electroneuromyographic evaluations.

    Results/principal Findings: The positivity of peripheral blood qPCR of seropositive contacts was 40. Read More

    Dependence on others for oral hygiene and its association with hand deformities and functional impairment in elders with a history of leprosy.
    Gerodontology 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Objective: To analyse the frequency of dependence on others for oral hygiene and its association with hand deformities, frailty and dependence on others for basic activities of daily living (BADL) among elders with a history of leprosy.

    Background: Dependence on others for oral hygiene has not been considered in multifunctional geriatric assessments.

    Material And Methods: Edentulous elders with a history of leprosy who used complete dentures and resided in a former leprosy colony were classified as independent or partially/completely dependent on others for brushing their dentures or rinsing and for BADL, and as frail or robust. Read More

    BCG vaccination protects against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ascertained by tuberculin skin testing.
    J Infect 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Amsterdam Institute Global Health and Development and Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.. Electronic address:
    Objectives: There is conflicting evidence as to whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination offers protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ascertained by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We investigated the association between BCG vaccination status and TST results in a set of surveys at increasing TST cut-off values to take cross-reactions to BCG vaccination into account.

    Methods: Secondary analysis of data from three consecutive tuberculin surveys done among schoolchildren in Tanzania between 1990 and 2002. Read More

    Coexistence of Nerve Enlargement and Neuratrophy Detected by Ultrasonography in Leprosy Patients.
    Sci Rep 2018 May 17;8(1):7812. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Beijing Key Laboratory for Research on Prevention and Treatment of Tropical Diseases, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral neural impairment in leprosy patients by ultrasonography (US). The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median (M), ulnar (U) and common fibular (CF) nerves were compared in 71 leprosy patients and 29 healthy controls, and the data were analyzed between the leprosy, multibacillary (MB)/paucibacillary (PB), reaction (R)/no reaction (NR), disability (D)/no disability (ND), and longer/shorter duration groups after treatment. We found that for the nerves located in upper limbs, the CSAs were significantly increased in the leprosy patients vs the controls; the PB group vs the MB group; the R group vs the NR group; the ND group vs the D group; and the longer duration group vs the shorter duration group at some positions of the M nerve and U nerve. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium marinum ATCC 927, Obtained Using Nanopore and Illumina Sequencing Technologies.
    Genome Announc 2018 May 17;6(20). Epub 2018 May 17.
    Department of Mycobacteriology, Leprosy Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
    is a slowly growing, broad-host-range mycobacterial species. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a type strain that was isolated from tubercles of diseased fish. This sequence will provide essential information for future taxonomic and comparative genome studies of its relatives. Read More

    Skin disease prevalence study in schoolchildren in rural Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for integration of neglected skin diseases (skin NTDs).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 May 17;12(5):e0006489. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Early detection of several skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs)-including leprosy, Buruli ulcer, yaws, and scabies- may be achieved through school surveys, but such an approach has seldom been tested systematically on a large scale in endemic countries. Additionally, a better understanding of the spectrum of skin diseases and the at-risk populations to be encountered during such surveys is necessary to facilitate the process.

    Methods: We performed a school skin survey for selected NTDs and the spectrum of skin diseases, among primary schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Read More

    Erythema Necroticans - A Case Report.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 Sep;87(4):255-257
    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is characterized by evanescent, erythematous, painful raised nodules which fade within 48-72 hours. Necrotic and ulcerative forms are rare presentations of severe ENL. A 27 year old male patient presented with multiple erythematous nodules on trunk and extremities associated with high grade fever, joint pain and pedal edema. Read More

    A Traditional NSAID Aspirin along with Clofazimine in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum Reaction: Study of Six Cases.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 Sep;87(4):249-253
    Six male patients of lepromatous leprosy with erythema nodosum leprosum reaction (ENL) reactions diagnosed clinically and by slit skin smear were treated with aspirin and clofazimine. Aspirin was given in the daily dosage of 75mg/kg body weight up to a maximum of 2.8 grams in four divided doses, along with daily 300mg clofazimine in three divided doses and dapsone 100mg daily with rifampicin 600mg once a month. Read More

    Correlates of Defaulting from MDT among Leprosy Patients.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 Sep;87(4):241-248
    In order to analyse the factors of demographic as well as disease related variables and their correlation with Rate of Defaulting (ROD) from Multi Drug Therapy (MDT) among leprosy patients, secondary data have been collected from 3,579 new cases registered for MDT, during a period of 4 years from 2007 to 2010 in four leprosy hospitals/ treatment centers across the four high endemic states viz. Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh; Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Year wise percentage of patients defaulted was calculated on aggregate as well as with reference to each centre and cross tabulated with demographic and disease related factors. Read More

    Dapsone: An Update.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 Sep;87(4):233-239
    Dapsone is an extensively Used drug for the treatment of leprosy as well as'some other clinical problems worldwide: Its use has been predicted to increase further, especially in non leprosy conditions. Treatment with Dapsone is sometimes known'to be associated with side-effects, which include gastrointestinal intolerance, haemolysis, methaemoglobinaemia, agranulocytosis, psychosis, peripheral neuritis and varied dermatological conditions, varying from simple rash to severe life threatening epidermolytic reactions and Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS). DHS is a rare delayed hypersensitivity reaction involving multiple organs. Read More

    Efficacy of Steroid and Physiotherapy in Early Reported Lagophthalmos of Patient Affected with Leprosy. A Report from Trbal Dominated Leprosy Endemic State of India.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 Sep;87(4):227-231
    Lagophthalmos is one of the well-known complications of leprosy due to involvement of the facial nerve. In the present study an attempt has been made to elucidate the role of early intervention with steroids and adjunct physiotherapy in early reported lagophthalmos in patients affected with leprosy at a tertiary referral institute under the Disability Prevention and Medical rehabilitation (DPMR) programme. During April 2008 to March 2014, 62 patients affected with leprosy reported to Regional leprosy Training and Research Institute with lagophthalmos. Read More

    Elastophagocytosis and Elastolysis in Leprosy.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 04;88(2):129-131
    Elastophagocytosis is the engulfment of the elastic fibres by the histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, or both. The cutaneous lesions showing elastophagocytosis are annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, actinic keratoses, persistent insect-bite reactions, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, foreign body granuloma. Occasionally, it may occur in infectious diseases like leprosy, granulomatous syphilis, North-American blastomycosis, bacterial folliculitis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Read More

    Profile of Childhood Leprosy Cases Attending a Tertiary Care Centre.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 04;88(2):111-116
    In spite of 33 years of use of Multidrug Treatment (MDT) implemented by National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP), leprosy continues to be a major public health problem in some regions of India. Recent increase in number of cases of leprosy at our tertiary care centre especially in children encouraged us to undertake a descriptive study for last 5 years. Records were analysed to describe the clinical pattern of leprosy in children below 15 years pertaining to the period 2010 to 2014. Read More

    Evaluation of Myelin Sheath Marker Krox-20 for Detection of Early Disability in Leprosy.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 04;88(2):105-110
    Early diagnosis of nerve damage in leprosy is quite important for preventing the deformities. With an aim to find a good marker we have investigated Krox-20 as early peripheral nerve damage indicator in leprosy. Ambulatory patients of Kediri Leprosy Hospital, Malang, Indonesia have been studied. Read More

    A Study of Clinical, Bacteriological & Histopathological Correlation in Leprosy Cases attending a Government Medical College in Western Odisha: Some Observations.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 04;88(2):97-103
    The study was undertaken in VSS Institute of Medical Sciences to observe the clinical, bacteriological and histological diagnosis of leprosy patients attending the hospital who consented to undergo slit skin smear (SSS) examination, punch biopsy and participate in the study. Fifty leprosy patients aged 5 to 70 years, which included 41 male and 9 female patients participated in the study. These included 4 TT, 24 BT, 2 BB, 5 BL and 15 ILL clinically diagnosed patients as per the IAL classification (1982 ). Read More

    Clinico-radiological Correlation of Bone Changes in Leprosy Patients Presenting with Disabilities/Deformities.
    Indian J Lepr 2016 04;88(2):83-95
    Leprosy is a medical - social disease, it is associated with stigma in the society due to the resulting deformities in some persons. Although stigma has decreased after the widespread use of MDT, some disabilities do occur which are mostly due to late initiation of treatment and inappropriate care. Besides the nerve and skin involvement bone changes have been reported to be common in leprosy. Read More

    Neuropathic pain in leprosy: symptom profile characterization and comparison with neuropathic pain of other etiologies.
    Pain Rep 2018 Mar 23;3(2):e638. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Neurology Departament, Pain Center, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Introduction: Previous studies reported a high prevalence of neuropathic pain in leprosy, being especially present in "pharmacologically cured" patients. The presence of neuropathic pain in leprosy poses a supplementary burden in patient's quality of life, daily activities, and mood.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether neuropathic pain in leprosy has similar symptom profile as neuropathic pain of other etiologies and to retrospectively assess the efficacy of neuropathic pain medications regularly prescribed to leprosy. Read More

    Type I Interferons, Autophagy and Host Metabolism in Leprosy.
    Front Immunol 2018 23;9:806. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Leprosy Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    For those with leprosy, the extent of host infection by and the progression of the disease depend on the ability of mycobacteria to shape a safe environment for its replication during early interaction with host cells. Thus, variations in key genes such as those in pattern recognition receptors ( and ), autophagic flux (, and ), effector immune cytokines ( and ), and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been described as critical determinants for infection and disease progression. While parkin-mediated autophagy is observed as being essential for mycobacterial clearance, leprosy patients present a prominent activation of the type I IFN pathway and its downstream genes, including , and . Read More

    Ancient genomes reveal a high diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Europe.
    PLoS Pathog 2018 May 10;14(5):e1006997. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Read More

    Impact of Clofazimine Dosing on Treatment-Shortening of the First-Line Regimen in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    The anti-leprosy drug clofazimine was recently repurposed as part of a newly endorsed short-course regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It also enables significant treatment-shortening when added to the first-line regimen for drug-susceptible tuberculosis in a mouse model. However, clofazimine causes dose- and duration-dependent skin discoloration in patients, and the optimal clofazimine dosing strategy in the context of the first-line regimen is unknown. Read More

    Suction Blister Epidermal Grafting for Vitiligo Involving Angles of Lip: Experience of 112 Patients.
    J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2018 Jan-Mar;11(1):13-19
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy (DVL), Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha 'O'Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Background: Lip vitiligo is usually resistant to medical modalities of treatment, and in all these cases, surgery offers a hope. Suction blister grafting (SBG) has been tried since long for lip vitiligo with high rate of success. There have been no long-term follow-up studies of patients with SBG at a difficult-to-treat site like angles of lip, which prompted us to conduct this study. Read More

    Group B streptococci vaginal colonization and drug susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending in selected public antenatal care centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 May 4;18(1):135. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Armauer Hansen Research Institute, P.O. Box 1005, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in neonates. Maternal colonization with GBS is the principal risk factor for early-onset disease in infants. Group B Streptococcus is now an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Read More

    Effectiveness of the retreatment of patients with multibacillary leprosy and episodes of erythema nodosum leprosum and/or persistent neuritis: a single-center experience.
    An Bras Dermatol 2018 Mar;93(2):181-184
    Department of Biostatistics, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Erythema nodosum leprosum may appear before, during or after treatment of leprosy and is one of the main factors for nerve damage in patients. When it occurs or continues to occur after treatment, it may indicate disease recurrence and a new treatment may be instituted again.

    Objective: To evaluate the retreatment of patients with multibacillary leprosy who underwent standard treatment with multidrug therapy, but developed or continued to present reactions of erythema nodosum leprosum and/or neuritis 3-5 years after its end. Read More

    Atypical crusted scabies in a patient with chronic liver disease caused by hepatitis B and D viruses.
    An Bras Dermatol 2018 Mar;93(2):277-278
    Fundação Alfredo da Matta, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
    Crusted scabies is a less common variant of scabies that is highly contagious, difficult to treat and involves infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The classical clinical presentation includes crusted, scaly and generally non-pruritic lesions usually located on the head, neck, palmar, plantar and periungual region. Read More

    Discovery of four exonic and one intergenic novel susceptibility loci for leprosy.
    Clin Genet 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Shandong Provincial Hospital for Skin Diseases, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Seven new risk coding variants have been identified through an exome-wide association study (EWAS), which studied the contributions of protein-coding variants to leprosy susceptibility. But some potential susceptibility loci were not studied in the previous EWAS study because of the project consideration. Seventeen unstudied potential susceptibility loci of the previous EWAS were validated in 3,169 cases and 9,814 controls in this study. Read More

    Ancient DNA study reveals HLA susceptibility locus for leprosy in medieval Europeans.
    Nat Commun 2018 May 1;9(1):1569. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Kiel, 24105, Germany.
    Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), was very common in Europe till the 16th century. Here, we perform an ancient DNA study on medieval skeletons from Denmark that show lesions specific for lepromatous leprosy (LL). Read More

    Microdeletion on chromosome 8p23.1 in a familial form of severe Buruli ulcer.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Apr 30;12(4):e0006429. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) UMR-1163, Paris, France.
    Buruli ulcer (BU), the third most frequent mycobacteriosis worldwide, is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. We report the clinical description and extensive genetic analysis of a consanguineous family from Benin comprising two cases of unusually severe non-ulcerative BU. The index case was the most severe of over 2,000 BU cases treated at the Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de la Lèpre et de l'Ulcère de Buruli, Pobe, Benin, since its opening in 2003. Read More

    Missense Variants in HIF1A and LACC1 Contribute to Leprosy Risk in Han Chinese.
    Am J Hum Genet 2018 May 26;102(5):794-805. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China; Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China; Kunming College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650204, China; KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China. Electronic address:
    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genome-wide linkage studies (GWLSs) have identified numerous risk genes affecting the susceptibility to leprosy. However, most of the reported GWAS hits are noncoding variants and account for only part of the estimated heritability for this disease. In order to identify additional risk genes and map the potentially functional variants within the GWAS loci, we performed a three-stage study combining whole-exome sequencing (WES; discovery stage), targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS; screening stage), and refined validation of risk missense variants in 1,433 individuals with leprosy and 1,625 healthy control individuals from Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Read More

    Spatial analysis of reported new cases and local risk of leprosy in hyper-endemic situation in north-eastern Brazil.
    Trop Med Int Health 2018 Apr 28. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Postgraduate Health Sciences, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.
    Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy and identify areas at risk for occurrences of hyper-endemic disease in northeastern Brazil.

    Methods: Ecological study using municipalities as the analysis unit. Data on new cases of leprosy came from the Health Hazard Notification System (SINAN). Read More

    Onychoscopic evaluation of onychomycosis in a tertiary care teaching hospital: a cross-sectional study from South India.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre (SVMCH & RC), Ariyur, Pondicherry, India.
    Background: Onychoscopy is the dermoscopic evaluation of nail and associated structures. It is useful in identifying the various onychoscopic patterns which act as a link between naked eye examination and nail histopathology and may help in avoiding nail biopsy in unnecessary cases.

    Objectives: To evaluate the onychoscopic patterns in confirmed cases of onychomycosis. Read More

    A Tale of H Syndrome with Typical Radiographic Findings.
    Indian J Dermatol 2018 Mar-Apr;63(2):172-175
    Department of Radiology, Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    H syndrome is a recently described autosomal recessive genodermatosis with cutaneous phenotypes of varying severity and multi-system involvement. Patients suffering from this disorder can be easily mistaken for sclerodermoid conditions. The radiological findings of H syndrome are typical but have been described only anecdotally. Read More

    Common Contact Allergens in Patients with Palmoplantar and Scalp Psoriasis and Impact of their Avoidance on Dermatology Life Quality Index: A Hospital-Based Study.
    Indian J Dermatol 2018 Mar-Apr;63(2):160-164
    Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy, Government Medical College Srinagar, University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Background: Scalp psoriasis and psoriasis limited to palms and/or soles have been referred to as difficult to control psoriasis. Contact allergy has long been suspected to aggravate existing lesions and cause resistance to therapy in these psoriasis variants.

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess common contact allergens in patients with palmoplantar and scalp psoriasis and the impact of their avoidance on dermatology life quality index (DLQI). Read More

    Lipid Accumulation Product Index as Visceral Obesity Indicator in Psoriasis: A Case-control Study.
    Indian J Dermatol 2018 Mar-Apr;63(2):136-140
    Department of Biostatistics, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India.
    Background: Psoriasis has well-known associations with individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity. Traditional anthropometric measurements of obesity such as waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) do not differentiate between subcutaneous fat and visceral fat, the latter being associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) index is a measure of visceral fat and has been found to be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. Read More

    Hand eczema in nurses, nursing auxiliaries and cleaners-A cross-sectional study from a tertiary hospital in western India.
    Contact Dermatitis 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Dr D. Y. Patil Medical College-Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Pune, India.
    Background: Healthcare workers have a high risk of developing hand eczema.

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and severity of dermatologist-determined hand eczema among healthcare workers, carry out patch testing, and correlate the findings with impairment in quality of life (QoL) and demographic and vocational factors.

    Methods: Seven hundred and ten healthcare workers (279 nurses, 246 cleaners, and 185 nursing auxiliaries) were screened for the presence of hand eczema. Read More

    Clinical spectrum and quality of life in patients with chronic polyneuropathy: A cross-sectional study.
    J Peripher Nerv Syst 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Chronic polyneuropathy is a disabling condition of the peripheral nerves, characterized by symmetrical sensory motor symptoms and signs. There is paucity of studies on the etiological spectrum of polyneuropathy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). The present cross-sectional study in a referral based tertiary care center in North India found diabetic neuropathy as the commonest cause (25. Read More

    Emerging Concepts of Adaptive Immunity in Leprosy.
    Front Immunol 2018 9;9:604. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Transplant Immunology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India.
    Leprosy is a chronic intracellular infection caused by the acid-fast bacillus, . The disease chiefly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The damage to peripheral nerves results in sensory and motor impairment with characteristic deformities and disability. Read More

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