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    Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis infected patients in Northwest Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 17;17(1):152. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Background: Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS has emerged as a series of disease pattern. It most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and deaths. Scarce data is available regarding the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfected patients. Read More

    Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 22;2017:3198547. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    Department of Medical Parasitology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. Read More

    Intraspecific genetic variability in a population of Moroccan Leishmania infantum revealed by PCR-RFLP of kDNA minicircles.
    Acta Trop 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Laboratory of Parasitology and Vector-Borne-Diseases, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco. Electronic address:
    In Morocco, Leishmania infantum is the main etiologic agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This species has been proven to be an opportunistic agent in HIV+ patients and is also responsible of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).This work aims to evaluate the genetic variability of Moroccan L. Read More

    Perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected migrant male-workers in Northwest Ethiopia: a qualitative study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Feb 16;17(1):204. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, P. O. Box - 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Background: There is paucity of data on quality of life as a dimension of treatment outcome among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. This study sought to explore perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected male migrant workers in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Methods: Twenty Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected study participants took part in the in-depth interviews at Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV treatment centers. Read More

    Immunoinformatics Features Linked to Leishmania Vaccine Development: Data Integration of Experimental and In Silico Studies.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Feb 10;18(2). Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Grupo Informática de Biossistemas e Genômica, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fiocruz Minas, Av. Augusto de Lima, 1715, Barro Preto, 30.190-002 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Leishmaniasis is a wide-spectrum disease caused by parasites from Leishmania genus. There is no human vaccine available and it is considered by many studies as apotential effective tool for disease control. To discover novel antigens, computational programs have been used in reverse vaccinology strategies. Read More

    Th17 cells and neutrophils: close collaborators in chronic Leishmania mexicana infections leading to disease severity.
    Parasite Immunol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Hospital General de México, Dr. Balmis 148, Ciudad de México, C.P. 06726, México.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana is associated with an important inflammatory response. We here analyzed the kinetics of Th17 cells and neutrophils in earlobe lesions caused by Leishmania mexicana throughout 90 days of disease progresion in susceptible BALB/c and semi-resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with 1x10(5) Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Cells in the lesions were extracted and quantified by flow cytometry, whereas their distribution in the tissues in relation to the parasites was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Visceral leishmaniasis during pregnancy: A rare case report from Greece.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 16;11(2):e0005134. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Third Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University General Hospital Attikon, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Feb 15;10(1):98. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. BOX 54840 - 00200, Mbagathi Rd., Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P. Read More

    The history of leishmaniasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 15;10(1):82. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Bob Champion Research & Education Building, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, James Watson Road, Norwich, NR4 7UQ, UK.
    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Read More


    An analysis of phosphorylation sites in protein kinases from Leishmania.
    Bioinformation 2016 26;12(4):249-253. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh - 211002 India.
    Protein kinases are promising drug targets for Leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the phosphorylation potential of protein kinases in different species and strains of Leishmania. Phosphorylation potential of serine, threonine and tyrosine residues of kinases in Leishmania parasite were studied. Read More

    The Iboga Alkaloids.
    Prog Chem Org Nat Prod 2017 ;105:89-136
    Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims, UMR CNRS 7312, Case postale 44, UFR des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, BP 1039, 51687, Reims, Cedex 2, France.
    Iboga alkaloids are a particular class of indolomonoterpenes most often characterized by an isoquinuclidine nucleus. Their first occurrence was detected in the roots of Tabernanthe iboga, a sacred plant to the people of Gabon, which made it cult object. Ibogaine is the main representative of this class of alkaloids and its psychoactive properties are well documented. Read More

    Brazilian Amazon Traditional Medicine and the Treatment of Difficult to Heal Leishmaniasis Wounds with Copaifera.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 17;2017:8350320. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inovação Farmacêutica, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil.
    The present study describes the use of the traditional species Copaifera for treating wounds, such as ulcers scarring and antileishmanial wounds. It also relates phytochemical studies, evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity, and toxicity. The species of Copaifera with a higher incidence in the Amazon region are Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera reticulata, Copaifera multijuga Hayne. Read More

    Coinfection of Leishmania guyanensis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. Read More

    CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity mediates pathology in the skin by inflammasome activation and IL-1β production.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 13;13(2):e1006196. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
    Deregulated CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity plays a central role in enhancing disease severity in several conditions. However, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which immunopathology develops as a consequence of cytotoxicity. Using murine models of inflammation induced by the protozoan parasite leishmania, and data obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, we uncovered a previously unrecognized role for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release as a detrimental consequence of CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation. Read More

    Leishmania Infantum and Epstein-Barr Virus Co-Infection in a Patient with Hemophagocytosis.
    Infect Dis Rep 2016 Dec 31;8(4):6545. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Hematology; Department of Allied Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman.
    The authors describe a rare case of a 27- year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. Read More

    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Malda district, West Bengal, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005391. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Microbiology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Read More

    Simplifying nature: Towards the design of broad spectrum kinetoplastid inhibitors, inspired by acetogenins.
    Bioorg Med Chem 2017 Jan 28. Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    EaStChem School of Chemistry, Biomedical Science Research Complex, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK. Electronic address:
    The need for new treatments for the neglected tropical diseases African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis remains urgent with the diseases widespread in tropical regions, affecting the world's very poorest. We have previously reported bis-tetrahydropyran 1,4-triazole analogues designed as mimics of the annonaceous acetogenin natural product chamuvarinin, which maintained trypanocidal activity. Building upon these studies, we here report related triazole compounds with pendant heterocycles, mimicking the original butenolide of the natural product. Read More

    Putative Drug and Vaccine Target Identification in Leishmania donovani Membrane Proteins Using Naïve Bayes Probabilistic Classifier.
    IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2017 Jan-Feb;14(1):204-211
    Predicting the role of protein is one of the most challenging problems. There are few approaches available for the prediction of role of unknown protein in terms of drug target or vaccine candidate. We propose here Naïve Bayes probabilistic classifier, a promising method for reliable predictions. Read More

    The Interaction of KMP-11 With Phospholipid Membranes and Its Implications in Leishmaniasis: The Effects of Single Tryptophan Mutations and Cholesterol.
    J Phys Chem B 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    KMP-11 is a small protein, which is believed to control overall bilayer pressure of leishmania parasite. Recent results suggested that membrane binding and the presence of cholesterol affect the efficacy of leishmanial infection, in which KMP-11 play an important role. Nevertheless, there exists no systematic study of membrane interaction with KMP-11 either in the absence or presence of cholesterol. Read More

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Trypanothione reductase interaction protects Leishmania donovani from metalloid mediated oxidative stress.
    Free Radic Biol Med 2017 Feb 4;106:10-23. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Division of Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Molecular Biochemistry & Cell Biology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (I.C.M.R.), Agamkuan, Patna 800007, Bihar, India. Electronic address:
    Exploration of metabolons as viable drug target is rare in kinetoplastid biology. Here we present a novel protein-protein interaction among Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (LdG6PDH) and Trypanothione reductase (LdTryR) of Leishmania donovani displaying interconnection between central glucose metabolism and thiol metabolism of this parasite. Digitonin fractionation patterns observed through immunoblotting indicated localisation of both LdG6PDH and LdTryR in cytosol. Read More

    N-acetyl-cysteine inhibits liver oxidative stress markers in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Feb;112(2):146-154
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.
    Background: Leishmaniasis is a parasitosis caused by several species of the genus Leishmania. These parasites present high resistance against oxidative stress generated by inflammatory cells.

    Objectives: To investigate oxidative stress and molecular inflammatory markers in BALB/c mice infected with L. Read More

    Maxadilan-simile expression in Nyssomyia neivai, a sandfly vector in an endemic region of Brazil, and its immunogenicity in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Feb;112(2):116-122
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Divisão de Dermatologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.
    Background: Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. Read More

    Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Feb;112(2):100-107
    Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. Read More

    Copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL) imparts protective efficacy against visceral leishmaniasis by targeting Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Feb 4;175:8-20. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur, Vaishali, 844102, India. Electronic address:
    In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial efficacy of copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL), a transition metal complex, was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied. In vitro studies revealed that 30 μM of CuSAL causes 96% reduction in parasite burden in infected macrophages. CuSAL is least toxic in host cells. Read More

    Evaluation on the leishmanicidal activity of 2-N,N'-dialkylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Laboratory of Pharmacology and Immunity, Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas, 57020-720, Maceió, AL, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans, a disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. In this study was evaluated in vitro leishmanicidal activity of 2-N,N'-dialkylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, covering a series of fourteen 2-N-morpholino-, 2-N-thiomorpholino, 2-N-piperidino, 2-N-(N(4)-methyl)-piperazino naphthoquinones (1a-n) derived from nor-lapachol and lawsone, belong to some other di-alkyaminoderivatives. At the cytotoxicity assay on peritoneal macrophages, the compounds possessing larger alkyl groups and N-methyl-piperazino moiety (1d, 1h, 1i and 1k), showed toxic effects similar to the standard drug used pentamidine. Read More

    Mortality Trends for Neglected Tropical Diseases in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, 1980-2013.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Feb 8;6(1):20. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    University Hospital, Federal University of Sergipe, Rua Claudio Batista s/n, B. Santo Antonio, Aracaju, SE, 49060-108, Brazil.
    Background: Neglected Tropical Diseases are a set of communicable diseases that affect the population so low socioeconomic status, particularly 1.4 billion people who are living below the poverty level. This study has investigated the magnitude and mortality time trends for these diseases in the state of Sergipe, Northeast Region of Brazil. Read More

    Evaluation of the antileishmanial potency, toxicity and phytochemical constituents of methanol bark extract of Sterculia villosa.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):998-1009
    a Department of Molecular Biology & Bioinformatics , Tripura University (A Central University) , Suryamaninagar , India.
    Context: Visceral leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani parasite. The genus Sterculia (Malvaceae) possesses ethnobotanical potential against this protozoan infection.

    Objective: Determining the potential role of methanol bark extracts from Sterculia villosa Roxb (SVE) and its phytoconstituents against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Read More

    Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-healing and healing cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
    Scand J Immunol 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    General Physician, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) heals spontaneously within several weeks or months, but, in rare cases, CL active lesions last for many years. In the current study, we assessed cell-mediated immunity in non-healing CL through the measurement of three pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17a, and CXCL-11. For this, 32 patients afflicted with healing or non-healing CL were recruited in this study. Read More

    In Vitro Sensitivity of Cutaneous Leishmania Promastigote Isolates Circulating in French Guiana to a Set of Drugs.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Laboratoire des Ecosystèmes Amazoniens et Pathologie Tropicale (EPaT), Université de Guyane, Labex CEBA, DFR de médecine, Cayenne, French Guiana.
    Anti-leishmaniasis drug resistance is a common problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to inventory the general in vitro level of sensitivity of Leishmania isolates circulating in French Guiana and to highlight potential in vitro pentamidine-resistant isolates. This sensitivity study was conducted on 36 patient-promastigote isolates for seven drugs (amphotericin B, azithromycin, fluconazole, meglumine antimoniate, miltefosine, paromomycin, and pentamidine) using the Cell Counting Kit-8 viability test. Read More

    Nanoliposomal Buparvaquone Immunomodulates Leishmania (L.) infantum-infected Macrophages and is Highly Effective in Murine Model.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Centre of Parasitology and Mycology, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil. Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 351, 8 andar, CEP 01246-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal parasitic neglected disease affecting 1.5 million people worldwide. Based on the drug repositioning approach, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to stablish a safe regimen to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of BPQ entrapped into negatively charged nanoliposomes (BPQ-LP) in Leishmania (L. Read More

    Is Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis parasite load associated to disease pathogenesis?
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Pesquisas Médicas, IOC, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
    Introduction: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main etiological agent of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Americas. Parasite molecular diversity and host immune status contribute to extensive variances in its clinical presentation within endemic areas of Brazil. Pentavalent antimonials have been used for more than sixty years as the first line drug for all cases despite the potential for severe side effects and refractoriness. Read More

    Efficacy of protease inhibitor from marine Streptomyces sp. VITBVK2 against Leishmania donovani - An in vitro study.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Feb 4;174:45-51. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Molecular and Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:
    In the present study the leishmanicidal effect of potential protease inhibitor producing marine actinobacterial isolate has been investigated against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Among 89 marine actinobacteria isolated from a salt pan in Kanyakumari, only one isolate (BVK2) showed 97% of protease inhibition activity against trypsin. Moderate to high protease inhibitor activity was shown by isolate BVK2 on proteinase (30%) and chymotrypsin (85%). Read More

    Optimal control and cost-effective analysis of malaria/visceral leishmaniasis co-infection.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(2):e0171102. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O.Box 36, Al Khodh, Oman.
    In this paper, a deterministic model involving the transmission dynamics of malaria/visceral leishmaniasis co-infection is presented and studied. Optimal control theory is then applied to investigate the optimal strategies for curtailing the spread of the diseases using the use of personal protection, indoor residual spraying and culling of infected reservoirs as the system control variables. Various combination strategies were examined so as to investigate the impact of the controls on the spread of the disease. Read More

    Risk analysis and prediction of visceral leishmaniasis dispersion in São Paulo State, Brazil.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 6;11(2):e0005353. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Read More

    Pemphigus vulgaris and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    J Res Med Sci 2016 18;21:82. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous and erosive mucocutaneous disease. Rarely, it occurs in patients with other autoimmune disease. The relation between PV and neurological disorders is unclear and needs to be more studied. Read More

    Development and Validation of a PCR-ELISA for the Diagnosis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum.
    J Trop Med 2017 9;2017:7364854. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    A kDNA PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kDNA PCR-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) was developed. The detection limit of the reaction, precision measurements, and cut-off of the kDNA PCR-ELISA were defined in a proof-of-concept phase. A reference strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and a bank of 14 peripheral blood samples from immunocompetent patients with VL were characterized using techniques considered gold standards, and 11 blood samples obtained from healthy individuals of an endemic area were also assessed. Read More

    Carbonic anhydrases from Trypanosoma and Leishmania as anti-protozoan drug targets.
    Bioorg Med Chem 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Neurofarba Department and Laboratorio di Chimica Bioinorganica, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via U. Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:
    Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are protozoa of the Trypanosomatidae family, being the etiological agents of two widespread parasitic diseases, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, respectively. Both parasites are the focus of worldwide research with the aim to find effective and less toxic drugs than the few ones available so far, and for controlling the spread of the diseases. Read More

    Withania somnifera chemotype NMITLI 101R significantly increases the efficacy of antileishmanial drugs by generating strong IFN-γ and IL-12 mediated immune responses in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters.
    Phytomedicine 2017 Jan 16;24:87-95. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Parasitology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow, 226001, India. Electronic address:
    Background: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medical systems. Pharmacological studies have established that root extracts of W. Read More

    Parasitism and inflammation in ear skin and in genital tissues of symptomatic and asymptomatic male dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Mar 3;116(3):987-995. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Campus Centro-Oeste Dona Lindu, R. Sebastião Gonçalves Coelho 400, Chanadour, Divinópolis, MG, 35501-296, Brazil.
    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is transmitted through vector, although venereal transmission has been suggested. This study aimed to compare the parasitic loads and inflammatory processes in genital tissues with ear skin from seropositive male dogs. Forty-five seropositive dogs were separated into groups containing symptomatic (n = 23) and asymptomatic (n = 22) animals. Read More

    Leishmania infections: Molecular targets and diagnosis.
    Mol Aspects Med 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    MIVEGEC, UMR CNRS5290-IRD224-Université de Montpellier Centre IRD, Montpellier, France; Intertryp UMR IRD177, Centre IRD de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Progress in the diagnosis of leishmaniases depends on the development of effective methods and the discovery of suitable biomarkers. We propose firstly an update classification of Leishmania species and their synonymies. We demonstrate a global map highlighting the geography of known endemic Leishmania species pathogenic to humans. Read More

    Molecular xenomonitoring (MX) and transmission assessment survey (TAS) of lymphatic filariasis elimination in two villages, Menoufyia Governorate, Egypt.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, 11566, Cairo, Egypt.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is focally endemic in Egypt where the female mosquito, Culex pipiens, is responsible for its transmission. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of implementation of the 13th round of MDA in two Egyptian villages in the Menoufyia Governorate area after failing the transmission assessment survey (TAS) in 2005 using two methods, and to decide whether it is safe to stop MDA in these, as well as in similar implementation units (IUs). To achieve this aim, both the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and molecular xenomonitoring (MX) techniques were employed. Read More

    Design and synthesis of a new series of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles active against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis.
    Eur J Med Chem 2017 Jan 23;128:25-35. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, 88040-900 SC, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) endemic in developing countries. Although there are drugs available for their treatment, efforts on finding new efficacious therapies are continuous. The natural lignans grandisin (1) and veraguensin (2) show activity against trypomastigote T. Read More

    Shifts in the ecological niche of Lutzomyia peruensis under climate change scenarios in Peru.
    Med Vet Entomol 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Section of Entomology, Academic Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Instituto de Medicina Tropical 'Daniel A. Carrión', Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.
    The Peruvian Andes presents a climate suitable for many species of sandfly that are known vectors of leishmaniasis or bartonellosis, including Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae), among others. In the present study, occurrences data for Lu. peruensis were compiled from several items in the scientific literature from Peru published between 1927 and 2015. Read More

    Evaluation of a hypothetical protein for serodiagnosis and as a potential marker for post-treatment serological evaluation of tegumentary leishmaniasis patients.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 30130-100, Brazil.
    The serodiagnosis for tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) presents problems related to the sensitivity and/or specificity of the tests. In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to evaluate the performance from a Leishmania braziliensis hypothetical protein, LbHyM, in an attempt to compare its serological reactivity with a soluble Leishmania antigenic preparation (SLA) for the serodiagnosis of cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis. LbHyM was predicted to be a kinesin-like protein by bioinformatics tools. Read More

    Correlation of Rk39-Specific Antibodies and Thyroid Function in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis.
    Eurasian J Med 2016 Oct;48(3):181-185
    Department of Microbiology, Diyala University College of Medicine, Baqubah, Iraq.
    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether anti-rK39 antibodies were diagnostic markers for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and to evaluate the correlation between age and gender in disease occurrence in Iraqi patients. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the correlation between thyroid hormones, i.e. Read More

    Synthesis of 16 New Hybrids from Tetrahydropyrans Derivatives and Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts: In Vitro Screening against Leishmania donovani.
    Molecules 2017 Jan 30;22(2). Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Laboratório de Síntese Orgânica Medicinal da Paraíba (LASOM-PB), Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus I, João Pessoa, PB 58059-900, Brazil.
    Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-aza, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, usually fatal in the absence of treatment in 95% of cases. The Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHAs) are being explored as drug candidates against several diseases, one of them being leishmaniasis. Read More

    Transcriptional Profiling in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis Reveals a Broad Splenic Inflammatory Environment that Conditions Macrophages toward a Disease-Promoting Phenotype.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jan 31;13(1):e1006165. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is characterized by relentlessly increasing visceral parasite replication, cachexia, massive splenomegaly, pancytopenia and ultimately death. Progressive disease is considered to be due to impaired effector T cell function and/or failure of macrophages to be activated to kill the intracellular parasite. In previous studies, we used the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model because it mimics the progressive nature of active human VL. Read More

    Leishmaniasis recidivans in Ethiopia: cutaneous and mucocutaneous features.
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2017 Jan 30;11(1):106-110. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Ethiopia. An unusual clinical form of this disease is leishmaniasis recidivans (LR), a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin that may persist for many years with a chronic and relapsing course. This rare variant has been shown to be caused by Leishmania tropica species in the Old World and by Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania panamensis, and Leishmania guyanensis in the New World, as reported in various studies. Read More

    Progressive Perforation of the Nasal Septum due to Leishmania major: A Case of Mucosal Leishmaniasis in a Traveler.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    This report describes a case of mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major with destructive perforation of the nasal septum illustrating the diagnostic challenges of a rare clinical presentation of L. major infection in a traveler. The atypical presentation may have been associated with the use of cortisone as a potential trigger for the progressive destruction of the nasal septum. Read More

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