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    Gallic and ellagic acids: two natural immunomodulator compounds solve infection of macrophages by Leishmania major.
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Núcleo de Pesquisas em Plantas Medicinais, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Avenida Universitária lado ímpar, Teresina, 64049-550, Piauí, Brazil.
    Leishmaniasis is a complex of parasitic protozoan diseases caused by more than 20 different species of parasites from Leishmania genus. Conventional treatments are high costly, and promote a sort of side effects. Besides, protozoan resistance to treatments has been reported. Read More

    Crossregulation between the insertion of Hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) into lipid membranes and their rheology and lateral structure.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica de Córdoba (CIQUIBIC-CONICET), Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC, miltefosine) is an alkylphospholipid used clinically for the topical treatment of cancer and against leishmaniasis. The mechanism of action of HePC, not yet elucidated, involves its insertion into the plasma membrane, affecting lipid homeostasis. It has also been proposed that HePC directly affects lipid raft stability and function in cell membranes. Read More

    Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.
    Parasitology 2017 Jun 23:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Laboratory of Parasitology and Laboratory of Structural Biology,Federal University of Para,Institute of Biological Sciences,Belém,Pará,Brazil.
    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Read More

    Visceral Leishmaniasis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing treatment with methotrexate: Case report and review of the literature.
    Eur J Rheumatol 2017 Jun 11;4(2):139-141. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Evangelismos General Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    There is growing concern regarding the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a disseminated parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. This association has been principally studied in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection, but VL has also been reported in patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive medication for various indications. Here a case of VL in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing treatment with methotrexate and corticosteroid is presented. Read More

    A Computational Methodology to Overcome the Challenges Associated With the Search for Specific Enzyme Targets to Develop Drugs Against Leishmania major.
    Bioinform Biol Insights 2017 12;11:1177932217712471. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Laboratório de Modelagem de Sistemas Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Inovação em Doenças de Populações Negligenciadas (INCT-IDPN), Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico em Saúde (CDTS), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    We present an approach for detecting enzymes that are specific of Leishmania major compared with Homo sapiens and provide targets that may assist research in drug development. This approach is based on traditional techniques of sequence homology comparison by similarity search and Markov modeling; it integrates the characterization of enzymatic functionality, secondary and tertiary protein structures, protein domain architecture, and metabolic environment. From 67 enzymes represented by 42 enzymatic activities classified by AnEnPi (Analogous Enzymes Pipeline) as specific for L major compared with H sapiens, only 40 (23 Enzyme Commission [EC] numbers) could actually be considered as strictly specific of L major and 27 enzymes (19 EC numbers) were disregarded for having ambiguous homologies or analogies with H sapiens. Read More

    Developing a CASPER Survey to Assess the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Texas.
    Health Secur 2017 May/Jun;15(3):238-243
    While more than a billion people live at risk of neglected tropical diseases in areas of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the degree to which such diseases burden countries like the United States is currently unclear. Even though many neglected tropical diseases such as dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are not endemic to the United States, the possibility of their emergence is noteworthy, especially in states like Texas, which has high levels of poverty, a large immigrant population, and a climate amenable to the vectors for these diseases and is geographically proximate to endemic areas. Despite the health threat that emerging neglected tropical diseases may pose, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors for them in the United States. Read More

    Redox biology of Leishmania and macrophage targeted nanoparticles for therapy.
    Nanomedicine (Lond) 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
    Intramacrophage parasite 'Leishmania' has developed various mechanisms for proficient uptake into macrophages and phagosome regulation to avoid macrophage's oxidative burst induced by peroxide, hydroxyl radical, hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite production. One major barrier for impairing the accession of old fashioned anti-Leishmanial drugs is intrinsic incapability to pass through cell membranes and limiting their abilities to ultimately destroy intracellular pathogens. Receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery to the macrophages by using nanoparticles emerges as promising strategy to improve therapeutic efficacy of old-fashioned drug. Read More

    Does timing of antiretroviral treatment influence treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis in Northwest Ethiopia?
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Mar;111(3):107-116
    Médecins sans Frontières, Operational Center Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients with HIV co-infection should receive antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, the best timing for initiation of ART is not known. Among such individuals, we assessed the influence of ART timing on VL outcomes. Read More

    Vector-Borne Pathogens in Stray Dogs in Northeastern Turkey.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 Jun 20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    3 Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ataturk University , Erzurum, Turkey .
    This experiment was carried out to attain prevalence and molecular characterization of pathogens causing canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) including babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniasis, filariosis (Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma platys) in stray dogs. The study material consisted of 133 asymptomatic female (n = 96) and male (n = 37) stray dogs (≤1 year old, n = 16 and 1-6 years old, n = 117) housed in the Animal Care and Rehabilitation Center, Erzurum, Northeastern Turkey. Conventional and nested PCR were performed on blood samples to detect Babesia spp. Read More

    Potential Challenges of Controlling Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka at a Disease Outbreak.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 28;2017:6931497. Epub 2017 May 28.
    Biotechnology Unit, Industrial Technology Institute, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.
    The present works reviewed the existing information on leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and in other countries, focusing on challenges of controlling leishmaniasis in the country, in an outbreak. Evidence from recent studies suggests that there is a possibility of a leishmaniasis outbreak in Sri Lanka in the near future. Difficulty of early diagnosis due to lack of awareness and unavailability or inadequacy of sensitive tests are two of the main challenges for effective case management. Read More

    Treatment of experimental visceral leishmaniasis with single-dose liposomal amphotericin B - pharmacodynamics and biodistribution at different stages of disease.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, which causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Characterising the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-leishmanial drugs in pre-clinical models is important for drug development and use. Here we investigated the pharmacodynamics and drug distribution of AmBisome® in L. Read More

    Study of Biodistribution and in vivo Anti-leishmanial Activity of a Distigmasterylhemisuccinoyl-glycero-phosphocholine Liposome-intercalated Amphotericin B.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Biotechnology Research Center, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
    Distigmasterylhemisuccinoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DSHemsPC) is a new lipid in which two molecules of stigmasterol (an inexpensive plant sterol) are covalently linked via a succinic acid to glycerophosphocholine. Our previous study revealed that a liposome-intercalated Amphotericin B prepared from DSHemsPC (DSHemsPC-Lip-AmB) possess excellent colloidal properties and in vitro antifungal and anti-leishmanial activity similar to AmBisome™. The aim of this study was to determine biodistribution and evaluate the anti-leishmanial effects of DSHemsPC-Lip-AmB in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice. Read More

    Recent advances in Leishmania reverse genetics: manipulating a manipulative parasite.
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK. Electronic address:
    In this review we describe the expanding repertoire of molecular tools with which to study gene function in Leishmania. Specifically we review the tools available for studying functions of essential genes, such as plasmid shuffle and DiCre, as well as the rapidly expanding portfolio of available CRISPR/Cas9 approaches for large scale gene knockout and endogenous tagging. We include detail on approaches that allow the direct manipulation of RNA using RNAi and protein levels via Tet or DiCre induced overexpression and destabilization domain mediated degradation. Read More

    Antigenicity of phage clones and their synthetic peptides for the serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 30130-100, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In the Americas, Brazil is responsible by 90% of the cases registered of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and Leishmania infantum is the most common parasite species responsible by disease in Brazilian dogs and humans. A precise diagnosis may allow to a faster and more effective treatment against the disease, which increases the possibility of cure, as well as to induce less toxic effects, due to a lower time exposition for the chemotherapeutics. In a previous study, two L. Read More

    Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Jun 18;18(6). Epub 2017 Jun 18.
    Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
    The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. Read More

    The current status of phlebotomine sand flies in Albania and incrimination of Phlebotomus neglectus (Diptera, Psychodidae) as the main vector of Leishmania infantum.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(6):e0179118. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Unit of Vector-borne Diseases and International Health, MIPI Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Read More

    Environmental Factors as Key Determinants for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, Madrid, Spain.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Jul;23(7):1155-1159
    During a visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in an area of Madrid, Spain, the incidence of disease among solid organ transplant recipients was 10.3% (7/68). Being a black person from sub-Saharan Africa, undergoing transplantation during the outbreak, and residing <1,000 m from the epidemic focus were risk factors for posttransplant visceral leishmaniasis. Read More

    Epidemiological Distribution of Rodents as Potent Reservoirs for Infectious Diseases in the Provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, Northern Iran.
    Infect Dis Rep 2017 May 31;9(2):6900. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran.
    Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Read More

    Dependency of B-1 Cells in the Maintenance of Splenic Interleukin-10 Producing Cells and Impairment of Macrophage Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis.
    Front Microbiol 2017 2;8:978. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FiocruzRio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. Read More

    Multiplexed Spliced-Leader Sequencing: A high-throughput, selective method for RNA-seq in Trypanosomatids.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3725. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Molecular Parasitology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    High throughput sequencing techniques are poorly adapted for in vivo studies of parasites, which require prior in vitro culturing and purification. Trypanosomatids, a group of kinetoplastid protozoans, possess a distinctive feature in their transcriptional mechanism whereby a specific Spliced Leader (SL) sequence is added to the 5'end of each mRNA by trans-splicing. This allows to discriminate Trypansomatid RNA from mammalian RNA and forms the basis of our new multiplexed protocol for high-throughput, selective RNA-sequencing called SL-seq. Read More

    IFN-γ, IL-2, IP-10, and MIG as Biomarkers of Exposure to Leishmania spp., and of Cure in Human Visceral Leishmaniasis.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 31;7:200. Epub 2017 May 31.
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud CarlosMadrid, Spain.
    New biomarkers are needed for monitoring the effectiveness of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). They might also improve the detection of the asymptomatic population in Leishmania-endemic areas. This paper examines the IL-2, IFN-γ, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and monokine-induced-by-IFN-γ (MIG) levels in whole blood-stimulated in vitro with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)-taken from asymptomatic individuals and patients treated for VL living in a post-outbreak (Leishmania infantum) area in Spain, and in an endemic (Leishmania donovani) area of Bangladesh. Read More

    Characterization of Antileishmanial Compounds from Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves Using Semi-High Resolution Antileishmanial Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 31;8:337. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of CopenhagenCopenhagen, Denmark.
    This work describes an analytical platform based on semi-high-resolution antileishmanial profiling combined with hyphenation of high-performance liquid chromatography - high-resolution mass spectrometry - solid-phase extraction - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., semiHR-antileishmanial assay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Read More

    Comparing the Effects of Zinc Sulfate, Calcium Pantothenate, Their Combination and Minoxidil Solution Regimens on Controlling Hair Loss in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    J Res Pharm Pract 2017 Apr-Jun;6(2):89-93
    Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.
    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of oral supplements with 2% minoxidil solution in four groups of women with hair loss.

    Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted from July to December 2016 in dermatology clinics affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 73, 15-45-year-old, women with hair loss participated in this 4-month study. Read More

    Identification of etiologic agents of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in palpebral position followed by effective therapy.
    J Educ Health Promot 2017 5;6:44. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Context: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a self-healing lesion but prevention of complications and involvement of vital organs such as palpebra requires proper treatment.

    Aims: The main objectives were to detect agents of CL in palpebral region and estimate the proportion of palpebral lesion also possible complications among CL patients in a zoonotic CL endemic area.

    Settings And Design: The study was performed from April 2012 to March 2013 in a total of 1613 CL suspected patients by interview and physically exam. Read More

    Alteration of Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) results in Iranian Kala-Azar patients: a case series.
    J Parasit Dis 2017 Jun 31;41(2):446-449. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Health Care Center of Meshkinshahr, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Meshkin-shahr, Iran.
    The early diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using Direct Agglutination Tests (DAT) and its treatment and control are essential actions taken in rural health centers in endemic foci of the infection based on the national protocols set by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Eleven clinically confirmed VL patients with typical VL symptoms and negative results of DAT, admitted to the pediatrics department of Valiasr Hospital in Meshkinshahr underwent parasitological tests. 7 of the total of 11 patients had positive result of bone marrow puncture smears and all of them had negative results of DAT. Read More

    The antileishmanial effects of Lowsonia inermis and Cedrus libani on Leishmania major promastigotes: an in vitro study.
    J Parasit Dis 2017 Jun 22;41(2):375-379. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. In this study, Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were cultured at 23-25 °C in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium supplemented with 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS) and penicillin and streptomycin. Antileishmanial effects of Lowsonia inermis and Cedrus libani methanolic extracts (0. Read More

    Canine Leishmaniasis Progression is Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 13;7(1):3346. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Departament de Farmacologia, Terapèutica i, Toxicologia, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193, Spain.
    The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of suffering from a plethora of health disorders, ranging from autoimmune processes to infectious diseases has been widely described. Nonetheless, the potential role of vitamin D in visceral leishmaniasis remains uncharacterized. In the Mediterranean basin, where the dog is leishmania's main peri-domestic reservoir, control measures against the canine disease have shown beneficial effects on the incidence of human leishmaniasis. Read More

    Autophagy downstream of endosomal Toll-like Receptors Signaling in Macrophages is a Key Mechanism for Resistance to Leishmania major Infection.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    University of Sao Paulo., Brazil;
    Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. In mammalians, these parasites survive and replicate in macrophages and parasite elimination by macrophages is critical for host resistance. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to be crucial for resistance to L. Read More

    Efficacy of a Paromomycin plus Chloroquine Combination Therapy in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    The 4-aminoquinoline chloroquine (CQ) is clinically used in combination with doxycycline to cure chronic Q-fever, as it enhances the activity of the antibiotic against the causative Coxiella burnetii bacteria residing within macrophage phagolysosomes. As there is a similar cellular host-pathogen biology for Leishmania parasites, this study aimed to determine whether such an approach could be also the basis for a new, improved treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of combinations of CQ with standard drugs paromomycin (PM), miltefosine and amphotericin B against Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana In 72-hour intracellular anti-leishmanial assays, outcomes were variable for different drugs. Read More

    Comparative analyses of whole genome sequences of Leishmania infantum isolates from humans and dogs in northeastern Brazil.
    Int J Parasitol 2017 Jun 10. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Department of Biochemistry, Bioscience Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Institute of Tropical Medicine of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology of Tropical Diseases, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The genomic sequences of 20 Leishmania infantum isolates collected in northeastern Brazil were compared with each other and with the available genomic sequences of 29 L. infantum/donovani isolates from Nepal and Turkey. The Brazilian isolates were obtained in the early 1990s or since 2009 from patients with visceral or non-ulcerating cutaneous leishmaniasis, asymptomatic humans, or dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. Read More

    Leishmania donovani infection activates TLR 2, 4 expressions and TGF-β mediated apoptosis in renal tissues.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Banaras Hindu University Institute of Science, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Varanasi, India. Electronic address:
    The present study was aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of improper renal function in Leishmania donovani infection that causes VL. Mice (BALB/c) were infected with L. donovani and different parameters for proteinuria were assessed. Read More

    Topical treatment with nanoliposomal Amphotericin B reduces early lesion growth but fails to induce cure in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana.
    Acta Trop 2017 Jun 9;173:102-108. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:
    Leishmania mexicana infection causes localized skin lesions that can lead to tissue damage and permanent disfigurement if not resolved. Currently, recommended treatments include intravenous administration of Amphotericin B, which is undesirable due to the associated cost and patient burden related to receiving regular injections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of topical treatment with a nanoliposomal formulation of Amphotericin B that is penetrable to the skin (SinaAmphoLeish 0. Read More

    An ELISA immunoassay employing a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 30130-100, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In the present study, a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein, namely LiHypA, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. This protein showed a high amino acid sequence homology between viscerotropic and cutaneotropic Leishmania species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant antigen (rLiHypA), in addition to the A2 protein and two parasite antigenic preparations, which were used as controls. Read More

    Insights from spectroscopic and in-silico techniques for the exploitation of biomolecular interactions between Human serum albumin and Paromomycin.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017 Jun 3;157:242-253. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:
    The study of molecular interactions of drug-protein are extremely important from the biological aspect in all living organisms, and therefore such type of investigation hold a tremendous significance in rational drug design and discovery. In the present study, the molecular interactions between paromomycin (PAR) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by different biophysical techniques and validated by in-silico approaches. The results obtained from Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated a remarkable change upon the complexation of PAR with HSA. Read More

    Seroconversion to Lutzomyia intermedia LinB-13 as a biomarker for developing cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 9;7(1):3149. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, FIOCRUZ, Salvador, Bahia, 40296-710, Brazil.
    Sand flies inject saliva while feeding in the vertebrate host and anti-saliva antibodies can be used as biomarkers of exposure to Leishmania vectors. We expressed recombinant salivary proteins from Lutzomyia intermedia, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, and evaluated the seroreactivity in exposed individuals in search for exposure markers. We found a strong correlation among positive serology to recombinant proteins LinB-13, 26, 15, 21 and to salivary proteins: rLinB-13 was the top performing molecule; IgG4 was the most predominant antibody subclass and antibodies to rLinB-13 did not cross react with Lu. Read More

    VOSalophen: a vanadium complex with a stilbene derivative-induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and efficiency in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    J Biol Inorg Chem 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, 36036-900, Brazil.
    In our previous work, we demonstrated the promising in vitro effect of VOSalophen, a vanadium complex with a stilbene derivative, against Leishmania amazonensis. Its antileishmanial activity has been associated with oxidative stress in L. amazonensis promastigotes and L. Read More

    [Leishmaniasis : Diagnosis and therapy].
    Hautarzt 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Hautklinik, Universitätsmedizin Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131, Mainz, Deutschland.
    The delayed appearance of a papule after returning from travelling hints towards the diagnosis cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, a granulomatous inflammatory response is seen, and using Giemsa staining, intracellular parasites can be visualized within histiocytes. Polymer chain reaction (PCR) from the tissue or subsequent cultures not only aids in excluding other differential diagnoses, but also in the identification of the causing Leishmania subspecies. Read More

    Alkaloids and leishmania donovani UDP-galactopyarnose mutase: Anovel approach in drug designing against Visceral leishmaniasis.
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 2017 Jun 5. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Lucknow University - Biochemistry Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. India.
    Background: The unsatisfactory treatment options for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), needs identification of new drug targets. Among natural products, Alkaloids have been proved to be highly effective against number of diseases. In Leishmania UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a critical enzyme required for cell wall synthesis and thus a drug target for structure based drug designing against L. Read More

    Risk Factors associated with defaulting from visceral leishmaniasis treatment: analysis under routine program conditions in Bihar, India.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
    Objective: To assess the rate of default from treatment in the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program and to identify risk factors and its underlying causes.

    Methods: Case control study conducted between December 2009 and June 2012 in three Primary Health Centres (PHC) of Muzaffarpur District, India. Patients who defaulted from treatment from the PHCs were considered as "cases", and those who completed their treatment as "controls". Read More

    Attractiveness of black and white modified Shannon traps to phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, an area of intense transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Parasite 2017 8;24:20. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. Read More

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in immigrant workers returning to Bangladesh - An emerging problem.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2017 Jun 5. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK; Junior Consultant, Medicine, OSD, Health Directorate, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

    Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Jun;112(6):419-427
    Centro de Diagnóstico e Investigación en Endemo-Epidemias, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking.

    Objectives: We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020.

    Methods: Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Read More

    Trichophoromyia auraensis is a putative vectorComments about the finding of Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira 1942) sandfly specimens infected by Leishmania (Viannia) parasites in Acre stateA new sandfly in the subgenus Nyssomyia (Diptera, Psychodidae) from the Amazon Basin of BrazilThe known geographical distribution of sandflies in the state of Acre, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae)Studies on the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from transmission areas of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Acre, BrazilDevelopment and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identification of the parasite speciesFirst description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, BrazilSand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre, BrazilIdentification of naturally infected Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia migonei with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) revealed by a PCR multiplex non-isotopic hybridization assayNotas sobre os flebotomíneos do estado do Acre, com a descrição de duas espécies novas (Diptera, Psychodidae)Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre state, Brazilian AmazonEpidemiologia da Leishmaniose Tegumentar e descrição das populações de flebotomíneos no município de Acrelândia, Acre, BrasilPhlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and BoliviaDescription of a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and new records of sand flies from the state of Acre, Northern BrazilNatural Leishmania infection of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) auraensis in Madre de Dios, Peru, detected by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based real-time polymerase chain reactionGuide to the identification and geographic distribution of Lutzomyia sandflies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae).
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Jul;112(7):517-519
    Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Monte Negro, RO, Brasil.
    The sandfly Trichophoromyia auraensis has recently evolved as a proven vector of Leishmania (Viannia) endemic to state of Acre in the north of Brazil. This note is intended to propose a correction in the report of the first occurrence of natural infection of Leishmania (Viannia) in this species. We and the other scientific groups reinforced that Tr. Read More

    The performance of serological tests for Leishmania infantum infection screening in dogs depends on the prevalence of the disease.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e39. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Universidade Federal do Piauí, Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portella, Laboratório de Leishmanioses, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil.
    Dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum. This protozoan causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an uncontrolled urban zoonosis in Brazil. Serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on peripheral blood were performed to identify infected dogs in scenarios of higher and lower prevalence of the disease (Teresina and Vitória). Read More

    Efficiency of noninvasive sampling methods (swab) together with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for diagnosing American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e38. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Traditional diagnostic methods used to detect American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis, such as histopathology using biopsy samples, culture techniques, and direct search for parasites, have low sensitivity and require invasive collection procedures. This study evaluates the efficiency of noninvasive sampling methods (swab) along with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for diagnosing American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis using skin and mucous samples from 25 patients who had tested positive for leishmaniasis. The outcome of the tests performance on swab samples was compatible with PCR results on biopsy samples. Read More

    Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Southern Brazil.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e37. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
    The authors report a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, in a 55 years old patient with 1,119 lesions distributed throughout the body. The patient resides in Sabáudia municipality, North of Paraná State, Southern Brazil, where there was no previous report of this form of leishmaniasis. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate was successful, although the diagnosis was made only five months later. Read More

    Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis: a cross-sectional clinical, epidemiological and laboratory study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e33. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Atypical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis include sporotrichoid leishmaniasis (SL), which is clinically described as a primary ulcer combined with lymphangitis and nodules and/or ulcerated lesions along its pathway.

    Aims: To assess the differences between patients with sporotrichoid leishmaniasis and typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).

    Methods: From January 2004 to December 2010, 23 cases of SL (4. Read More

    A secondary wave of neutrophil infiltration causes necrosis and ulceration in lesions of experimental American cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(6):e0179084. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Medicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia.
    We evaluated the importance of neutrophils in the development of chronic lesions caused by L. Viannia spp. using the hamster as experimental model of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Read More

    Repurposing of human kinase inhibitors in neglected protozoan diseases.
    ChemMedChem 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Universita degli Studi di Catania, Department of Drug Sciences, Viale A. Doria, 6, 95100, Catania, ITALY.
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, belong to a group of infectious diseases defined as neglected tropical diseases, induced by infection with protozoan parasites named trypanosomatids. Current drugs present several issues and the development of new candidates appears to be needed. The majority of the current therapeutic trypanosomatid targets are represented by enzymes or cell surface receptors. Read More

    1,3-Bis(aryloxy)propan-2-ols as potential antileishmanial agents.
    Chem Biol Drug Des 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte,, MG, 31.270-901, Brazil.
    We describe herein the synthesis and antileishmanial activity of 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-ols. Five compounds (2, 3, 13, 17 and 18) exhibited an effective antileishmanial activity against stationary promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 < 15.0 μM) and an influence of compound lipophilicity on activity was suggested. Read More

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