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    Eugenol derived immunomodulatory molecules against visceral leishmaniasis.
    Eur J Med Chem 2017 Aug 12;139:503-518. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India. Electronic address:
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening infectious disease caused by Leishmania donovani. It leads to the severe immune suppression in the host defense system. Higher cytotoxicity, rigorous side effects and lower therapeutic indexes (TI) of current antileishmanial drugs have created a necessity to develop new molecules with better antileishmanial activity and high TI value. Read More

    Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies and putative reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis in a border area in Northeastern Mexico: implications for the risk of transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and the USA.
    Parasite 2017 21;24:33. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66450, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México - Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Carlos Canseco S/N. C.P. 64460, Mitras Centro, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
    Leishmaniases are a group of important diseases transmitted to humans through the bite of sandfly vectors. Several forms of leishmaniases are endemic in Mexico and especially in the Southeast region. In the Northeastern region, however, there have only been isolated reports of cases and scanty records of sandfly vectors. Read More

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Inositol Phosphorylceramide: Distinctive Sphingoid Base Composition.
    Front Microbiol 2017 4;8:1453. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Departamento de Bioquímica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São PauloSão Paulo, Brazil.
    Inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC), the major sphingolipid in the genus Leishmania but not found in mammals, is considered a potentially useful target for chemotherapy against leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is endemic in Latin America and causes American tegumentary leishmaniasis. We demonstrated that IPCs are localized internally in parasites, using a specific monoclonal antibody. Read More

    In cutaneous leishmaniasis, induction of retinoic acid in skin-derived Langerhans cells is not sufficient for induction of parasite persistence-mediating regulatory T cells.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Hospital of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

    Chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Aug 15;111:41-49. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Laboratory of Human Pathologies Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Genomic Center of Human Pathologies, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco.
    The aim of the study was the determination of the chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils and the evaluation of their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Read More

    Main lesions in the central nervous system of dogs due to Leishmania infantum infection.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 18;13(1):255. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Pathology, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, São Luís, MA, CEP 65055-000, Brazil.
    Background: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in São Luís Maranhão/Brazil and it leads a varied clinical picture, including neurological signs.

    Results: Histopathological evaluation showed that 14 dogs exhibited pathological alterations in at least one of the analyzed areas. Of these, mononuclear inflammatory reaction was the most frequent, although other lesions, such as hemorrhage, chromatolysis and gliosis were also observed. Read More

    The photodynamic action of pheophorbide a induces cell death through oxidative stress in Leishmania amazonensis.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2017 Aug 11;174:342-354. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Post-Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil; Post-Graduate Program in Biological Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Biological Concentration Area, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by hemoflagellate protozoa, affecting millions of people worldwide. The difficulties of treating patients with this parasitosis include the limited efficacy and many side effects of the currently available drugs. Therefore, the search for new compounds with leishmanicidal action is necessary. Read More

    Identification of Leishmania donovani antigen in circulating immune complexes of visceral leishmaniasis subjects for diagnosis.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(8):e0182474. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Microbiology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.
    The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. Read More

    Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Colombian Municipality.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Grupo de Investigación en Farmacoepidemiología y Farmacovigilancia, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira-Audifarma S.A, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia.
    This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis and the pharmacological treatment of this disease in the municipality of Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, between January 2010 and December 2014. An observational study was conducted using information from the clinical records and epidemiological reports of patients diagnosed and confirmed with leishmaniasis of any age and sex, including sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables of the therapy received. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Read More

    Case Report: Treatment of Widespread Nodular Post kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with Extended-Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B in Bangladesh: A Series of Four Cases.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Dev Care Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin manifestation which usually appears after visceral leishmaniasis. It is now proved that PKDL patients serve as a reservoir for anthropometric leishmanial transmission. Hence, to achieve the kala-azar elimination target set by the World Health Organization in the Indian Subcontinent, PKDL cases should be given priority. Read More

    The Phenotype of Circulating Neutrophils during Visceral Leishmaniasis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease associated with suppressed T cell responses. Although parasites reside intracellularly in macrophages during chronic VL, neutrophils are the first host cell to infiltrate the infection site and phagocytose the parasite. Subsets of neutrophils with unusual characteristics have been documented in human VL, but whether the total neutrophil population is aberrant during disease is not known. Read More

    Efficacy, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Thermotherapy in the Treatment of Leishmania donovani-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Leishmania donovani causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Standard treatment is multiple, painful doses of intralesional sodium stibogluconate (IL-SSG). Treatment failures are increasingly reported, hence the need to investigate alternatives. Read More

    Emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a newly established health threat.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Aug 18:1-10. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    a Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine , University of Colombo , Sri Lanka.
    Background: Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. Read More

    Effect of trapping methods on the estimation of alpha diversity of a phlebotomine sandfly assemblage in southern Mexico.
    Med Vet Entomol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico.
    The aims of the study were to (a) investigate the effect of trapping methods on alpha diversity; and (b) enhance the knowledge of the sandfly assemblage in the state of Quintana Roo. Field work was undertaken in a tropical forest of southern Mexico from August 2013 to July 2014. Sampling was conducted monthly during three consecutive nights. Read More

    Unveiling Cerebral Leishmaniasis: parasites and brain inflammation in Leishmania donovani infected mice.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 16;7(1):8454. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Institut Pasteur, Laboratoire des Processus Infectieux à Trypanosomatidés, Département Infection et Epidémiologie, 25-28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724, Cedex 15, Paris, France.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease with multifaceted clinical manifestations, including neurological signs, however, the involvement of the nervous system during VL is underestimated. Accordingly, we investigated both brain infection and inflammation in a mouse model of VL. Using bioluminescent Leishmania donovani and real-time 2D-3D imaging tools, we strikingly detected live parasites in the brain, where we observed a compartmentalized dual-phased inflammation pattern: an early phase during the first two weeks post-infection, with the prompt arrival of neutrophils and Ly6C(high) macrophages in an environment presenting a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, IL-1β, CXCL-10/CXCR-3, CCL-7/CCR-2), but with an intense anti-inflammatory response, led by IL-10; and a re-inflammation phase three months later, extremely pro-inflammatory, with novel upregulation of mediators, including IL-1β, TNF-α and MMP-9. Read More

    Exploring Leishmania secretory proteins to design B and T cell multi-epitope subunit vaccine using immunoinformatics approach.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 15;7(1):8285. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, NH-8, Bandarsindri, Kishangarh, 305817, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal form of leishmaniasis which affects 70 countries, worldwide. Increasing drug resistance, HIV co-infection, and poor health system require operative vaccination strategy to control the VL transmission dynamics. Therefore, a holistic approach is needed to generate T and B memory cells to mediate long-term immunity against VL infection. Read More

    A Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis guyanensis Mimicking Otitis Externa.
    Mil Med 2017 Jul;182(7):e1969-e1972
    Department of Dermatology, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, 620 John Paul Jones Circle Portsmouth, VA 23708.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis typically presents as a painless papule progressing to an ulcer or plaque. In this case study of the ear, the disease manifested as a small painful bump progressing into redness and swelling about the ear with purulent drainage. After multiple oral/intravenous antipseudomonal, antistaphylococcal, and antifungal treatments, there was no improvement. Read More

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Saudi Arabian Soldier Stationed in the United States.
    Mil Med 2017 Jul;182(7):e1953-e1956
    San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, JBSA-Fort Sam Houston, 3551 Roger Brooke Drive, San Antonio, TX 78219.
    Background: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Read More

    Association between mast cells, tissue remodelation and parasite burden in the skin of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
    Vet Parasitol 2017 Aug 9;243:260-266. Epub 2017 Jul 9.
    Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas/NUPEB, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Doenças Tropicais, INCT-DT, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is a zoonosis of major public health impact caused by organisms of the genus Leishmania which is transmitted to human and animals by phlebotomine sand flies. The skin is the first point of contact with Leishmania parasites for sandy fly vectors and it is considered an important reservoir compartment in infected dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the main histophatologic alterations in ear skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum with different clinical status and different degrees of parasitism. Read More

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Overview.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    1 Infectious Diseases Control Directorate, Ministry of Health , Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia .
    Despite the great efforts by health authorities in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) continues to be a major public health problem in the country. Many risk factors make KSA prone to outbreaks and epidemics; among these, rapid urbanization and the huge population movement are the most important. The disease is endemic in many parts of KSA, with the majority of cases concentrated in six regions, including Al-Qaseem, Riyadh, Al-Hassa, Aseer, Ha'il, and Al-Madinah. Read More

    Repurposing as a strategy for the discovery of new anti-leishmanials: the-state-of-the-art.
    Parasitology 2017 Aug 14:1-18. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Chemistry,University Science Laboratories,South Road,Durham DH1 3LE,UK.
    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania for which there is a paucity of effective viable non-toxic drugs. There are 1·3 million new cases each year causing considerable socio-economic hardship, best measured in 2·4 million disability adjusted life years, with greatest impact on the poorest communities, which means that desperately needed new antileishmanial treatments have to be both affordable and accessible. Established medicines with cheaper and faster development times may hold the cure for this neglected tropical disease. Read More

    3M-052 as an adjuvant for a PLGA microparticle-based Leishmania donovani recombinant protein vaccine.
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Pediatrics (Section of Tropical Medicine), National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    It is believed that an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will require a T helper type 1 (TH 1) immune response. In this study, we investigated the adjuvanticity of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist 3M-052 in combination with the Leishmania donovani 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase recombinant protein antigen (NH36). NH36 and 3M-052 were encapsulated in separate batches of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs). Read More

    Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Apr;20(4):415-422
    Zanjan Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
    Objectives: In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine.

    Materials And Methods: Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and multi-drug resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Read More

    Optimized transitory ectopic expression of promastigote surface antigen protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, a potential anti-leishmaniasis vaccine candidate.
    J Biosci Bioeng 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    IRD, CIRAD, Université Montpellier, Interactions Plantes Microorganismes et Environnement (IPME), 911 Avenue Agropolis BP64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; INERA/LMI Patho-Bios, Institut de L'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), Laboratoire de Virologie et de Biotechnologies Végétales, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso. Electronic address:
    In recent years, plants have been shown to be an efficient alternative expression system for high-value pharmaceuticals such as vaccines. However, constitutive expression of recombinant protein remains uncertain on their level of production and biological activity. To overcome these problems, transitory expression systems have been developed. Read More

    Structure-Based Approaches Targeting Parasite Cysteine Proteases.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG. Brazil.
    Cysteine proteases are essential hydrolytic enzymes present in the majority of organisms, including viruses and unicellular parasites. Despite the high sequence identity displayed among these proteins, specific structural features across different species grant distinct functions to these biomolecules, frequently related to pathological conditions. Consequently, their relevance as promising targets for potential specific inhibitors has been highlighted and occasionally validated in recent decades. Read More

    Molecular detection of Wolbachia pipientis in natural populations of sandfly vectors of Leishmania infantum in endemic areas: first detection in Lutzomyia longipalpis.
    Med Vet Entomol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.
    A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to screen sandflies for infection with Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont found in many arthropods and filarial hosts. Positive results were obtained in five of 200 field-collected sandflies and were confirmed by sequencing. All sandflies were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) captured in a region endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Read More

    Evidence for Tissue Toxicity in BALB/c Exposed to a Long-Term Treatment with Oxiranes Compared to Meglumine Antimoniate.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 17;2017:9840210. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Doenças Endêmicas, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Leishmaniasis remains a serious public health problem in developing countries without effective control, whether by vaccination or chemotherapy. Part of the failure of leishmaniasis control is due to the lack of new less toxic and more effective drugs able to eliminate both the lesions and the parasite. Oxiranes derived from naphthoquinones now being assayed are promising drugs for the treatment of this group of diseases. Read More

    l-Arginine Uptake by Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Promotes Intra-Macrophage Survival of Leishmania donovani by Enhancing Arginase-Mediated Polyamine Synthesis.
    Front Immunol 2017 26;8:839. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, India.
    The survival of intracellular protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL), depends on the activation status of macrophages. l-Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid plays a crucial regulatory role for activation of macrophages. However, the role of l-arginine transport in VL still remains elusive. Read More

    Frontline Science: Leishmania mexicana amastigotes can replicate within neutrophils.
    J Leukoc Biol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Biochemistry, World Health Organization-Immunology Research and Training Collaborative Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland; and
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, causing a spectrum of clinical manifestations varying from self-healing to unhealing lesions that may be very difficult to treat. Emerging evidence points to a detrimental role for neutrophils during the first hours following infection with many distinct Leishmania species (spp.) at a time when the parasite is in its nonreplicative promastigote form. Read More

    Identification of two natural compound inhibitors of Leishmania donovani Spermidine Synthase (SpdS) through molecular docking and dynamic studies.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn 2017 Aug 10:1-47. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    a Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics , University of Madras , Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025 , India.
    Visceral leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania donovani is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and it is potentially lethal if untreated. Despite the availability of drugs for treating the disease, the current drug regime suffers from drawbacks like antibiotic resistance and toxicity. New drugs have to be discovered in order to overcome these limitations. Read More

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in the Mediterranean Basin: Human leishmaniasis and phlebovirus infections.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 10;11(8):e0005660. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Pathogens transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies are neglected, as they cause infectious diseases that are not on the priority list of national and international public health systems. However, the infections caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus and viruses belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (family Phenuiviridae)-the most significant group of viruses transmitted by sand flies-have a relevant role for human pathology. These infections are emerging in the Mediterranean region and will likely spread in forthcoming decades, posing a complex threat to human health. Read More

    Sensitive Molecular Diagnostics for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 24;4(2):ofx037. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Clinical Virology, and.
    Background: Rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and identification of Leishmania species is highly important for the disease management. In Israel, CL is caused mainly by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica species.

    Methods: We established an easy to handle point of care lesion-swabbing, combined with a highly sensitive multiplex real time PCR (multiplex qPCR) for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Leishmania species. Read More

    Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2017 Sep 27;21:63-80. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti-Leishmania activity which used in Iran.

    Methods: Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Read More

    Nanostructured delivery systems with improved leishmanicidal activity: a critical review.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2017 26;12:5289-5311. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, which are responsible for numerous clinical manifestations, such as cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the site of infection for particular species. These complexities threaten 350 million people in 98 countries worldwide. Amastigotes living within macrophage phagolysosomes are the principal target of antileishmanial treatment, but these are not an easy target as drugs must overcome major structural barriers. Read More

    Clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with early spontaneous healing in cutaneous localized leishmaniasis: a historical cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 10;17(1):559. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz IOC/FIOCRUZ, Pavilhão 26 - 4° andar, sala 406-C, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.
    Background: Skin ulcers in American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) may heal spontaneously after months/years. However, few cases may present quick heal even during diagnosis procedure (early spontaneous healing- ESH). The main objective of this study was to compare ESH patients with cases requiring specific treatment [non-ESH (NESH)]. Read More

    Distinct activation mechanisms trigger the trypanocidal activity of DNA damaging prodrugs.
    Mol Microbiol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    School of Biological & Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK.
    Quinone-based compounds have been exploited to treat infectious diseases and cancer, with such chemicals often functioning as inhibitors of key metabolic pathways or as prodrugs. Here, we screened an aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone (ABQ) library against the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis, identifying several potent structures that exhibited EC50 values of <100 nM. However, these compounds also displayed significant toxicity towards mammalian cells indicating that they are not suitable therapies for systemic infections. Read More

    In vitro antileishmanial activity and iron superoxide dismutase inhibition of arylamine Mannich base derivatives.
    Parasitology 2017 Aug 9:1-8. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Universidad de Navarra, Instituto de Salud Tropical,Campus Universitario, 31008 Pamplona,Spain.
    Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, and it has a worldwide prevalence of 12 million. There are no effective human vaccines for its prevention, and treatment is hampered by outdated drugs. Therefore, research aiming at the development of new therapeutic tools to fight leishmaniasis remains a crucial goal today. Read More

    Infection-adapted emergency hematopoiesis promotes visceral leishmaniasis.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006422. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Cells of the immune system are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the bone marrow. HSCs become activated in response to stress, such as acute infections, which adapt the bone marrow output to the needs of the immune response. However, the impact of infection-adapted HSC activation and differentiation on the persistence of chronic infections is poorly understood. Read More

    Hoigne Syndrome Caused by Intralesional Meglumine Antimoniate.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 21;5(4):483-485. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Universitario di Ruolo, Dipartimento di Scienze Dermatologiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Dermatology, Via Vittoria Colonna 11, Rome 00186, Italy.
    Hoigne syndrome (HS) is the term coined to describe an acute, non-allergic, psychiatrically based reaction occurring with a wide list of medications, mainly antibiotics. Since its first description by Hoigne and Schoch in 1959, few cases have been reported in medical literature and, although antimicrobials are commonly used, very rarely in dermatology. The authors describe the first case occurred after intralesional administration of meglumine antimoniate and briefly discuss the pathogenetic hypotheses on this atypical adverse drug reaction. Read More

    A Misleading Anamnesis: Learning To Suspect.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 21;5(4):473-475. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Universitario di Ruolo, Dipartimento di Scienze Dermatologiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Dermatology, Via Vittoria Colonna 11, Rome 00186, Italy.
    Leishmaniasis represents a complex, globally widespread opportunistic infection ranging from the visceral form, also called kala-azar, to the mucocutaneous and cutaneous disease. It is endemic in the Mediterranian Basin, Leishmania infantum being demonstrated as the main causative agent of autochthonous cases in Sicily, Italy. The long-term use of systemic antipsoriatic agents, including biotechnological drugs, may cause a higher susceptibility to opportunistic infections, so physicians maintain a high level of suspicion with treated patients. Read More

    Dectin-1 Activation during Leishmania amazonensis Phagocytosis Prompts Syk-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species Production To Trigger Inflammasome Assembly and Restriction of Parasite Replication.
    J Immunol 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Cell Biology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14049-900, Brazil;
    Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, a disease that can be lethal and affects 12 million people worldwide. Leishmania replicates intracellularly in macrophages, a process that is essential for disease progression. Although the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accounts for restriction of parasite replication, Leishmania is known to induce ROS upon macrophage infection. Read More

    Anti-Leishmania activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes: Effect on parasite-host interaction.
    J Inorg Biochem 2017 Jul 24;175:225-231. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Instituto de Genética e Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, UFU, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The many complications presented by the current treatment - including high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance - make the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-Leishmania potential of new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis‑[Ru(II)(η(2)-O2CR)(dppm)2]PF6, with dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and R=4-butylbenzoate (bbato) 1, 4-(methylthio)benzoate (mtbato) 2 and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (hmxbato) 3, in promastigote cytotoxicity and their effect on parasite-host interaction. Read More

    J Parasitol 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    * Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo campus Diadema Ciências Biológicas Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo campus Diadema.
    B-1 cells are a subtype of B cells with peculiar characteristics. These cells are distinct from B-2 lymphocytes in their morphology, ontogeny, tissue distribution and phenotypic functional features. B-1 cells can participate in the immune response in several ways, for example, by being recruited to inflammatory foci, producing large amounts of IL-10 cytokine, and differentiating into IgM-secreting cells or phagocytes. Read More

    Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis investigated by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.
    Mol Biosyst 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Animal Biology, Biology Institute, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, Brazil.
    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is recognized as a powerful tool to investigate the spatial distribution of untargeted or targeted molecules of a wide variety of samples including tissue sections. Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. Leishmaniasis is a major public health risk in different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Read More

    Gastrointestinal Leishmaniasis in Non-Endemic Region.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Jun;65(6):106-107
    Professor, Department of Medicine.
    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in an immunocompetent native from non-endemic region of India that presented with chronic diarrhoea. VL was not a differential diagnosis and was unexpectedly diagnosed as intestinal leishmaniasis through the identification of the Leishman-Donovan (LD) bodies in duodenal and colonic mucosa. The patient expired before receiving antileishmanial therapy. Read More

    Chitosan coated PluronicF127 micelles for effective delivery of Amphotericin B in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, UP, India. Electronic address:
    The goal of study was to develop micellar formulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) to improve its antileishmanial efficacy. AmB loaded pluronic F127 (PF 127) micelles were developed and coated with chitosan (Cs-PF-AmB-M) to accord immunoadjuvant and macrophage targeting properties. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that Cs-PF-AmB-M was 7. Read More

    Membrane targeting peptides toward antileishmanial activity: Design, structural determination and mechanism of interaction.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil; Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Leishmaniasis threatens poor areas population worldwide, requiring new drugs less prone to resistance development. Antimicrobial peptides with antileishmanial activity are considered among fulfilling alternatives, but not much is known about the mode of action of membrane-targeting peptides, considering promastigote and infected macrophage membranes. In a previous work, structural features of very active known peptides were prospected using molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

    Comparative Assessment of Induced Immune Responses Following Intramuscular Immunization with Fusion and Cocktail of LeIF, LACK and TSA Genes Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice.
    Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box 14115-331, Tehran, Iran.
    In the present study, we evaluated induced immune responses following DNA vaccine containing cocktail or fusion of LeIF, LACK and TSA genes or each gene alone. Mice were injected with 100 µg of each plasmid containing the gene of insert, plasmid DNA alone as the first control group or phosphate buffer saline as the second control group. Then, cellular and humoral responses, lesion size were measured for all groups. Read More

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