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    Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the rainforest of Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.
    Trop Med Health 2018 17;46. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    2Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Bolivia, particularly in the rainforest of Cochabamba, in the municipality of Villa Tunari. The precarious, dispersed, and poorly accessible settlements in these farming communities make it difficult to study them, and there are no epidemiological studies in the area. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Read More

    Medicinal plants from the Brazilian Amazonian region and their antileishmanial activity: a review.
    J Integr Med 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    National Institute of Science and Technology in Structural Biology and Bioimaging, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-901, Brazil; Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Department of Health Surveillance, Ministry of Health, Evandro Chagas Institute, Belém, Pará 66087-082, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis, a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoans, primarily affects people in tropical and subtropical areas. Chemotherapy based on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B is currently the only effective treatment. However, adverse effects, long-term treatment and the emergence of parasite resistance have led to the search for alternative treatments. Read More

    Anti-Parasitic Activities of and against and .
    Medicines (Basel) 2018 Apr 21;5(2). Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. and were used to investigate the anti-parasitic effects of dichloromethane extracts of (garlic) and (onion) bulbs. Read More

    Genomic and transcriptomic alterations in Leishmania donovani lines experimentally resistant to antileishmanial drugs.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 Apr 13;8(2):246-264. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a serious medical issue in many countries around the World, but it remains largely neglected in terms of research investment for developing new control and treatment measures. No vaccines exist for human use, and the chemotherapeutic agents currently used are scanty. Furthermore, for some drugs, resistance and treatment failure are increasing to alarming levels. Read More

    Solution-combustion synthesis of doped TiO compounds and its potential antileishmanial activity mediated by photodynamic therapy.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Apr 13;183:64-74. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil.
    Photodynamic therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, and compounds with photocatalytic behavior are promising candidates to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this parasitic disease. Titanium dioxide TiO is a semiconductor ceramic material that shows excellent photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity under Ultraviolet irradiation. Due to the harmful effects of UV radiation, many efforts have been made in order to enhance both photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of TiO in the visible region of the spectrum by doping or through modifications in the route of synthesis. Read More

    Emerging role of Amiodarone and Dronedarone, as antiarrhythmic drugs, in treatment of leishmaniasis.
    Acta Trop 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Department of Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.
    Leishmaniasis is a group of human and animal diseases causing 20,000 to 40,000 annual deaths and its etiological agents belong to the Leishmania genus. The most current treatment against leishmaniasis is chemotherapy. Pentavalent antimonials such as glucantime and pentostam have been administrated as the first-line drugs in treatment of various forms of leishmaniasis. Read More

    Detection of DNA of Leishmania siamensis in Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) iyengari (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Molecular Identification of Blood Meals of Sand Flies in an Affected Area, Southern Thailand.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.
    In Thailand, leishmaniasis is an emerging vector-borne disease that has become a public health concern. In related epidemiological surveys to identify potential Leishmania vectors in the affected areas, DNA of Leishmania martiniquensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) was detected in Sergentomyia (Neophebotomus) gemmea (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) barraudi (Diptera: Psychodidae). Recently, a more elaborate study was conducted in the same areas that included sand fly species identification, screening sand flies for the presence of Leishmania DNA and blood meal analysis to identify potential reservoir hosts directed toward assessing the risk of human infection. Read More

    Why Funding for Neglected Tropical Diseases Should be a Global Priority.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science UCSD.
    Neglected Tropical Diseases affect more than 1 billion of the world's poorest people. Control programs range from near elimination (dracunculiasis) to increasing prevalence (dengue and cutaneous leishmaniasis). These are some of the most cost-effective public health interventions in the world and should be a global priority. Read More

    A versatile and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.
    Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Veterinary Science, University of Turin, Via Verdi 8, 10124, Turin, Italy.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic infectious disease with a severe impact on humans and animals. Infection is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, and several domestic and wild mammals act as reservoirs for the infection, so the prompt detection of infected hosts is crucial to preventing and controlling the spread of the disease and its transmission to humans. A rapid and portable tool for VL diagnosis based on the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) technology is described herein. Read More

    Spatial and simultaneous seroepidemiology of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in dog owners and their dogs from randomly selected households in a major city of southern Brazil.
    Prev Vet Med 2018 Jun 23;154:47-53. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Londrina State University, Londrina, PR, 86057-970, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. Read More

    Recent advances in understanding Leishmania donovani infection: The importance of diverse host regulatory pathways.
    IUBMB Life 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Invasion of host cell by pathogens induce various intracellular signalling pathways. The host cell through the initiation of these signalling circuits desperately wants to get rid of the pathogen, whereas the pathogen tries to subvert these defence strategies to create an environment for their successful survival. Leishmania spp. Read More

    Impact of 4% Deltamethrin-Impregnated Dog Collars on the Prevalence and Incidence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    4 Instituto de Medicina Social , Universidade do Estadodo Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
    In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis and with the dog as its main urban reservoir. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars (DMC) DIC, Scalibor 65 cm model and MSD manufacturer, on the prevalence and incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and on the rate of infection of sandflies by L. infantum. Read More

    Synthetic Polymannose as a Drug Carrier: Synthesis, Toxicity and Anti-Fungal Activity of Polymannose-Amphotericin B Conjugates.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2018 Apr 23:1-30. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    c Indian Institute of Technology Madras , Chennai 600036 , Tamil Nadu , India.
    Polymannose (PM) having a weight-average molar mass (M) of 30-53 kDa was synthesized by the polycondensation of mannose using phosphorous acid as the catalyst and characterized by various techniques such as NMR, IR, GPC and polarimetry. 2D NMR results confirmed the presence of (1→ 6)-linked α-D-mannose residues as backbone with O-3 and O-2 substituted linear or branched chains in PM. Amphotericin B (AmB) was conjugated to periodate-oxidized PM through Schiff's linkages at 20 wt% concentration. Read More

    Antimicrobial effects of photodynamic therapy: an overview.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    IIS Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain -
    The microorganisms that cause infections are increasing their resistance to antibiotics. In this context, alternative treatments are necessary. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a therapeutic modality based on photosensitizing molecules that end up generating reactive oxygen species that induce the destruction of the target cells when are irradiated with light of a suitable wavelength and at a proper dose. Read More

    Intralesional uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) treatment induced resistance to Leishmania amazonensis infection by boosting Th immune responses and reactive oxygen species production.
    Purinergic Signal 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Edifício do Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco G. Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Brazil.
    Leishmania amazonensis is the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, an immune-driven disease causing a range of clinical symptoms. Infections caused by L. amazonensis suppress the activation and function of immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4 T cells. Read More

    Structural and functional highlights of methionine aminopeptidase 2 from Leishmania donovani.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046, India. Electronic address:
    Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP2) is a principal regulator of apoptosis for Leishmania donovani and a potential candidate for the design and synthesis of novel antileishmanials. The LdMAP2 gene was cloned in pET28a(+)-SUMO vector, expressed in E. coli and then purified by chromatographic methods. Read More

    Level of agreement between two commercially available rapid serological tests and the official screening test used to detect Leishmania seropositive dogs in Brazil.
    Vet J 2018 Apr 14;234:102-104. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Immunology, Aggeu Magalhães Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    This study compared the level of agreement between two commercially available rapid serological tests and the official screening test used to detect Leishmania seropositive dogs in Brazil. Ninety-five canine sera from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area were tested by using the official immunochromatographic test (T1; rK28 antigen) based on dual path platform technology, a rapid ELISA (T2; purified Leishmania antigens) and an immunochromatographic test (T3; rK28 antigen) based on lateral flow. There was substantial agreement (Kappa 0. Read More

    Integrated genomic and metabolomic profiling of ISC1, an emerging Leishmania donovani population in the Indian subcontinent.
    Infect Genet Evol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Leishmania donovani is the responsible agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). The disease is lethal without treatment and causes 0.2 to 0. Read More

    Morphophysiological changes in the splenic extracellular matrix of Leishmania infantum-naturally infected dogs is associated with alterations in lymphoid niches and the CD4+ T cell frequency in spleens.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Apr 20;12(4):e0006445. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Laboratório de Pesquisas em Leishmaniose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The spleen is one of the main affected organs in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Disorganization of the splenic white pulp (SWP) has been associated with immunosuppression and disease progression. This study aims to assess structural and cellular changes in the splenic extracellular matrix of dogs with CVL, correlating these changes with the parasite load and clinical signs. Read More

    Characterization of Leishmania species from Central-West Region of Brazil.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária s/n, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, 79090-900, Brazil.
    Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with a broad clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity. Involving a variety of agents, reservoirs, and vectors, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presents different transmission patterns, which makes its control especially difficult. Epidemiological characterization with identification of existing Leishmania species in a particular region is essential for understanding this parasitosis epidemiology. Read More

    Analysis of the Antigenic and Prophylactic Properties of the Translation Initiation Factors eIF2 and eIF2B in Natural and Experimental Leishmaniasis.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 5;8:112. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Departamento de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.
    Different members of intracellular protein families are recognized by the immune system of the vertebrate host infected by parasites of the genus . Here, we have analyzed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of the eIF2 and eIF2B translation initiation factors. An in silico search in sequence databases allowed the identification of the genes encoding the α, β, and γ subunits and the α, β, and δ subunits of the putative orthologs of the eukaryotic initiation factors F2 (LieIF2) or F2B (LieIF2B), respectively. Read More

    Lipophosphoglycan-Deficient Mutants: A Tool to Study Host Cell-Parasite Interplay.
    Front Microbiol 2018 5;9:626. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Laboratory of Inflammation and Biomarkers, Gonçalo Moniz Institut, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Brazil.
    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major surface glycoconjugate of metacyclic promastigotes and is associated with virulence in various species of this parasite. Here, we generated a LPG-deficient mutant of , the foremost etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The LPG-deficient mutant (Δ) was obtained by homologous recombination and complemented via episomal expression of (Δ + ). Read More

    Comparative efficacy, toxicity and biodistribution of the liposomal amphotericin B formulations Fungisome and AmBisome in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 Apr 12;8(2):223-228. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Fungisome (F), a liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) product, is marketed in India as a safe and effective therapeutic for the parasitic infection visceral leishmaniasis. Its potential in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a disfiguring form of the disease affecting the skin, is currently unknown. Here, we report the evaluation of the efficacy of F in the Leishmania major BALB/c murine model of CL, including a head-to-head comparison with the standard liposomal AmB formulation AmBisome (A). Read More

    Rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in Iran.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Apr 19;12(4):e0006256. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. Rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. Considering the distribution of rodents throughout Iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. Read More

    Is There an Association Between Exposure to Cats and Occurrence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs?
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Epidemiology, State University of Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
    The domestic dog is considered the main reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, but the identification of cats infected by Leishmania suggests the possibility of these animals also acting as reservoirs. The incrimination of a species as reservoir requires the accumulation of epidemiological evidence on the co-occurrence between such species and the infection in question. This is a systematic review of epidemiological studies evaluating the association between exposure to cats and occurrence of VL in humans (HVL) or dogs (CVL). Read More

    Metabolic Clustering Analysis as a Strategy for Compound Selection in the Drug Discovery Pipeline for Leishmaniasis.
    ACS Chem Biol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Centre for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis (CEMBIO) , Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad CEU San Pablo , Campus Montepríncipe, Boadilla del Monte , 28668 Madrid , Spain.
    A lack of viable hits, increasing resistance, and limited knowledge on mode of action is hindering drug discovery for many diseases. To optimize prioritization and accelerate the discovery process, a strategy to cluster compounds based on more than chemical structure is required. We show the power of metabolomics in comparing effects on metabolism of 28 different candidate treatments for Leishmaniasis (25 from the GSK Leishmania box, two analogues of Leishmania box series, and amphotericin B as a gold standard treatment), tested in the axenic amastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Read More

    Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 in the skin of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary and Agrarian Sciences (FCAV), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The skin is the first organ to be infected by the parasite in canine visceral leishmaniasis. The enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) acts towards degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulation of the inflammatory response against many kinds of injuries. The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through immunohistochemistry and zymography on the skin (muzzle, ears, and abdomen) of dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Read More

    Integrated Analysis Reveals That miR-193b, miR-671, and TREM-1 Correlate With a Good Response to Treatment of Human Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by .
    Front Immunol 2018 4;9:640. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Gonçalo Moniz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Salvador, Brazil.
    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is a chronic disease characterized by ulcerated skin lesion(s) and uncontrolled inflammation. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of LCL are not completely understood, and little is known about posttranscriptional regulation during LCL. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression and can be implicated in the pathogenesis of LCL. Read More

    Modulates the Immune Response and Promotes Intracellular Death.
    Mediators Inflamm 2018 13;2018:6148351. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, The State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.
    is a plant from the Brazilian rain forests and has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including leishmaniasis. This infectious disease depends on the sp. and the host immune response. Read More

    Molecular Preadaptation to Antimony Resistance in Leishmania donovani on the Indian Subcontinent.
    mSphere 2018 Apr 18;3(2). Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of : the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Read More

    [Molecular typing of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and species of the subgenus Viannia associated with cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in Colombia: A concordance study].
    Biomedica 2018 Mar 15;38(1):86-95. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Centro Dermatológico Federico Lleras Acosta, E.S.E., Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.
    Introduction: Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) is the reference standard for the characterization of Leishmania species. The test is restricted to specialized laboratories due to its technical complexity, cost, and time required to obtain results. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is used to identify Leishmania species. Read More

    Evaluation of fluorimetry and direct visualization to interpret results of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification kit to detect Leishmania DNA.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 17;11(1):250. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have proven to be advantageous in the diagnosis of leishmaniases, allowing sensitive diagnosis of: (i) cutaneous leishmaniasis in long duration lesions and (ii) visceral leishmaniasis using a less-invasive sample like peripheral blood, in opposition to tissue aspiration required for parasite demonstration by microscopy. Despite their benefits, the implementation of NAATs for leishmaniasis diagnosis at the point-of-care has not been achieved yet, mostly due to the complexity and logistical issues associated with PCR-based methods.

    Methods: In this work, we have evaluated the performance of a ready-to-use loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit using two real time fluorimeters to amplify leishmanial DNA obtained by silica column-based and Boil & Spin protocols. Read More

    Antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of Brazilian red propolis and plant resin of Dalbergia ecastaphyllum (L) Taub.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Laboratório de Microbiologia e Biologia Molecular, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e Saúde, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Brazil.
    The treatment for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease can be hard and painful, such that many patients give up on the treatment. In order to find an alternative path for the treatment of these diseases, researchers are using natural products to fight these parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoan and cytotoxic activities of red propolis samples collected from different Brazilian states and seasons whilst searching for possible activity differences. Read More

    Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum, Lebanon.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 May;24(5):906-907
    Visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal disease if not treated, is caused by Leishmania parasites. This disease might be overlooked in the Middle East because of limited awareness and low incidence. We report 5 patients who died of visceral leishmaniasis in Lebanon and make recommendations to improve faster diagnosis and treatment. Read More

    : antileishmanial efficacy & immumomodulatory activity.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Dec;146(6):780-787
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Natural Product Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
    Background & Objectives: The existing antileishmanial drugs for complete cure of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are limited. The available drugs are either toxic or less effective leading to disease relapse or conversion to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Several herbal extracts have been shown to have antileishmanial activity, but a herbal drug may not always be safe. Read More

    Heterocyclic N-oxides - A Promising Class of Agents Against Tuberculosis, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases.
    Curr Pharm Des 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara. Brazil.
    Heterocyclic N-oxides have emerged as promising agents against a number of diseases and disorders, especially infectious diseases. This review analyzes the emergence and development of this scaffold in the medicinal chemistry, focusing mainly on the discovery of new heterocyclic N-oxide compounds with potent activity against tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases (i.e. Read More

    Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey.
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-born parasitic disease characterized by various skin lesions that cause disfiguration if healed spontaneously. Although CL has been endemic for many years in the southern regions of Turkey, an increasing incidence in nonendemic regions is being observed due to returning travelers and, more recently, due to Syrian refugees. Thus far, a limited number of national guidelines have been proposed, but no common Turkish consensus has emerged. Read More

    Clinical management of canine leishmaniosis versus human leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum: Putting "One Health" principles into practice.
    Vet Parasitol 2018 Apr 8;254:151-159. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    National Referral Unit for Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, IRICYS, Madrid, Spain.
    The initiative One World, "One Health" tries to rapidly detect emerging or reemerging human and animal infectious diseases and prevent epidemiological situations such as deforestation, some agricultural practices or the appearance of new foci of leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum with alternative reservoirs. With this objective in mind, we here consider leishmaniosis in the Mediterranean basin and compare its current clinical management from two perspectives: that of a veterinarian specialized in infectious and parasitic diseases, and that of a physician specialized in infectious tropical diseases. We thus prepared a list of 10 key questions from epidemiology to control of the disease in both species: dogs and humans. Read More

    Anti-leishmanial click modifiable thiosemicarbazones: Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and in silico studies.
    Eur J Med Chem 2018 Apr 3;151:585-600. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21521, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is a devastating tropical disease with limited therapeutic options. Depending on recently reported active anti-leishmanial compounds, we designed and synthesized a series of click modifiable 1,2,3-triazole and thiosemicarbazone hybrids. Most of the synthesized compounds showed comparable to superior activity to a well-established anti-leishmanial drug miltefosine. Read More

    Engineering riboswitch in L. major: From prediction to conceptualization.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Apr 12;115:98-105. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Computational and Systems Biology Lab, National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, SP Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:
    Post-transcriptional gene regulation is a vital process to regulate expression of the key genes in the eukaryotic cell. Such processes are essential for pathogens which reside inside the host cell. One such pathogen is Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis. Read More

    Locked nucleic acid -anti- let-7a induces apoptosis and necrosis in macrophages infected with Leishmania major.
    Microb Pathog 2018 Apr 12;119:193-199. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Department of Parasitology & Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:
    Background: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are etiologic agents which are intracellular pathogens of vertebrates and replicate inside infected macrophages. Leishmania have developed complex strategies to reverse host immune responses in favor of it. One of the major species causing cutaneous involvements is Leishmania major. Read More

    Identification of Leishmania (Viannia) species and clinical isolates of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis from Brazil using PCR-RFLP of the heat-shock protein 70 gene reveals some unexpected observations.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-900, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Hsp70 is a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein, encoded by a multicopy tandemly repeated gene that has recently been gaining popularity as a valuable marker for typing Leishmania species. In this study, we used a previously described hsp70 PCR-RFLP method for identifying Brazilian Leishmania isolates. We identified two distinct L. Read More

    Alternative host models for Testing Anti-Protozoal or Antifungal Compounds and fungal infection.
    Curr Top Med Chem 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Laboratorio de Imunologia Celular e Bioquimica de Fungos e Protozoarios, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - Campus Diadema. Rua Sao Nicolau, 210, 4º andar, 04023-900, Diadema. Brazil.
    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are caused by several parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect more than one billion people in the world. The control and prevention against NTDs need implementation of alternative methods for testing new compounds against these diseases. For the implementation of alternative methods, it is necessary to apply the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) for the use of laboratory animals. Read More

    Antigenuria to Predict Initial Treatment Failure and Relapse in Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfected Patients: An Exploratory Study Nested Within a Clinical Trial in Ethiopia.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 29;8:94. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Biomarkers predicting the risk of VL treatment failure and relapse in VL/HIV coinfected patients are needed. Nested within a two-site clinical trial in Ethiopia (2011-2015), we conducted an exploratory study to assess whether (1) levels of antigenuria measured at VL diagnosis were associated with initial treatment failure and (2) levels of antigenuria at the end of treatment (parasitologically-confirmed cure) were associated with subsequent relapse. antigenuria at VL diagnosis and cure was determined using KAtex urine antigen test and graded as negative (0), weak/moderate (grade 1+/2+) or strongly-positive (3+). Read More

    Enhancement of Th1 immune response against Leishmania cysteine peptidase A, B by PLGA nanoparticle.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Apr 9;59:97-105. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Recombinant cysteine peptidase vaccine can induce protective immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the antigenic diversity and variable immunogenicity prevents them from being approved for general vaccination. Different approaches like adjuvant application and antigen delivery systems are studied to increase their efficacy. Read More

    Leishmania amazonensis downregulates macrophage iNOS expression via Histone: Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1): A novel parasite evasion mechanism.
    Eur J Immunol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Laboratório de Parasitologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    The induced expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) controls the intracellular growth of Leishmania in infected macrophages. Histones deacetylases (HDACs) negatively regulate gene expression through the formation of complexes containing transcription factors such as NF-κB p50/50. Herein, we demonstrated the occupancy of p50/p50_HDAC1 to iNOS promoter associated with reduced levels of H3K9Ac. Read More

    Leishmaniasis: current challenges and prospects for elimination with special focus on the South Asian region.
    Parasitology 2018 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Parasitology,Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo,Brazil.
    SUMMARYLeishmania donovani, the most virulent species of Leishmania, is found in the South Asian region that harbours the majority of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases in the world. The traditionally accepted relationships between the causative species of Leishmania and the resultant disease phenotype have been challenged during recent years and have underscored the importance of revisiting the previously established taxonomy with revisions to its classification. The weak voice of the afflicted with decades of neglect by scientists and policy makers have led to the miserably inadequate and slow advancements in product development in the fields of diagnostics, chemotherapeutics and vector control that continue to hinder the effective management and control of this infection. Read More

    Concomitant visceral and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in two Moroccan infants.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Apr 12;7(1):32. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Research Team on Immunopathology of Infectious and Systemic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco.
    Background: Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases caused by the protozoa of the Leishmania genus. The clinical spectrum of these diseases extends from benign dermal lesions to visceral forms. In the Mediterranean region, zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is caused by L. Read More

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