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    Limitations of current therapeutic options, possible drug targets and scope of natural products in control of leishmaniasis.
    Mini Rev Med Chem 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Biochemistry Institute of Science Banaras Hindu University Varanasi - 221 005. India.
    Soon after the identification of Leishmania parasites,the pentavalent antimony compounds have been the mainstay to treat leishmanial infections, worldwide. These compounds were also considered true antileishmanial but the growing incidences of resistance have forced clinicians to use other options. However, due to unavailability of antileishmanial compounds, few drugs like pentamidine (antimicrobial), amphotericin B (antifungal) or miltefosine (antitumor) agents, which are associated with serious side effects, are currently being used. Read More

    Investigation of the Anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Activity of Some Natural Sesquiterpene Lactones.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 25;22(5). Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Centre for Parasitology and Mycology, Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL), Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 351, CEP 01246-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Leishmaniases are neglected infectious diseases caused by parasites of the 'protozoan' genus Leishmania. Depending on the parasite species, different clinical forms are known as cutaneous, muco-cutaneous, and the visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is particularly fatal and the therapy presents limitations. Read More

    Type I interferons induced by endogenous or exogenous viral infections promote metastasis and relapse of leishmaniasis.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland;
    The presence of the endogenous Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) replicating stably within some parasite species has been associated with the development of more severe forms of leishmaniasis and relapses after drug treatment in humans. Here, we show that the disease-exacerbatory role of LRV1 relies on type I IFN (type I IFNs) production by macrophages and signaling in vivo. Moreover, infecting mice with the LRV1-cured Leishmania guyanensis (LgyLRV1(-) ) strain of parasites followed by type I IFN treatment increased lesion size and parasite burden, quantitatively reproducing the LRV1-bearing (LgyLRV1(+) ) infection phenotype. Read More

    Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in conjunctival swabs of cats by quantitative real-time PCR.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia Experimental Aplicada às Zoonoses, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Although some studies have investigated the potential role of cats as a reservoir for Leishmania, their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still poorly understood. Molecular diagnostic techniques are an important tool in VL diagnosis, and PCR shows high sensitivity and specificity for Leishmania spp. detection. Read More

    Use of Two-Photon Microscopy to study Leishmania major infection of the skin.
    Methods 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, Departments of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Cumming School of Medicine and Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6, Canada. Electronic address:
    Intra-vital two-photon microscopy (2P-IVM) allows for in-situ investigation of tissue organization, cell behavior and the dynamic interactions between different cell types in their natural environment. This methodology has also expanded our understanding of the immune response against pathogens. Leishmania are protozoan intracellular parasites that have adapted to successfully establish infection within the context of an inflammatory response in the skin following transmission by the bite of an infected sand fly. Read More

    Computer-aided discovery of two novel chalcone-like compounds active and selective against Leishmania infantum.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    LabMol - Laboratory for Molecular Modeling and Drug Design, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal de Goias, Rua 240, Qd.87, Setor Leste Universitário, Goiania, Goias 74605-510, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis are infectious diseases caused by parasites of genus Leishmania that affect affects 12 million people in 98 countries mainly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Effective treatments for this disease are urgently needed. In this study, we present a computer-aided approach to investigate a set of 32 recently synthesized chalcone and chalcone-like compounds to act as antileishmanial agents. Read More

    Evaluation of vaccinal effectiveness of preparations containing membrane antigens of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis model.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Apr 20;47:227-230. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Laboratório de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz Rondônia), Porto Velho, RO, Brazil; Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz Ceará), Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:
    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is considered a neglected disease, for which an effective vaccine or an efficient diagnosis is not yet available and whose chemotherapeutic arsenal is threatened by the emergence of resistance by etiological agents such as Leishmania amazonensis. ATL is endemic in poor countries and has a high incidence in Brazil. Vaccines developed from native parasite fractions have led to the identification of defined antigenic subunits and the development of vaccine adjuvant technology. Read More

    Aryl thiosemicarbazones: In vitro and immunomodulatory activities against L. amazonensis.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by different species of Leishmania genus. Currently, there is no vaccine available for Leishmania infections in humans and conventional treatments are limited due to side effects. Therefore, the development of new antileishmanial drugs is an urgent need. Read More

    Corrigendum to "Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis" [Int. J. Parasitol. Drugs Drug Resist. 7 (2017) 1-11].
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    São Paulo State University (Unesp), Institute of Biosciences, São Vicente, Praça Infante Dom Henrique, s/n, 11330-900 São Vicente, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

    Efficacy of fractionated microneedle radiofrequency with and without adding subcision for the treatment of atrophic facial acne scars: A randomized split-face clinical study.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: There is no gold standard treatment for facial acne scars, and overall, little literature exists about the combination therapy for treatment of acne scar.

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMR) vs FMR combined with subcision for the treatment of atrophic acne scars.

    Patients/methods: This was a randomized, split-face clinical study of 25 patients with II-IV Fitzpatrick skin types with moderate to severe facial atrophic acne scars. Read More

    Production of a conjugate between the rK346 antigen from Leishmania infantum and the horseradish peroxidase C for the detection of rK346 antibodies.
    Invest Clin 2016 Jun;57(2):158-175
    It was designed and characterized a reporter system to be captured by an- tibodies bound to ELISA plates. The system was designed with the rK346 from Leishmania infantum, a highly antigenic and specific protein. The rK346 was coupled to the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPc) from Armoracia rusticana using glutaraldehyde or sulfo-SMCC. Read More

    Successful Treatment of Facial Acne Fulminans: Antimicrobial Agents and Oral Prednisolone as Promising Regimes.
    Case Rep Dermatol Med 2017 27;2017:7092910. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Acne fulminans (AF), also known as acne maligna, is a rare painful ulcerative form of acne with an abrupt onset and systemic symptoms. Its incidence appears to be decreasing, possibly because of earlier and better treatment of acne. This report highlights a case on a necrotizing facial wound due to AF that was successfully treated with oral prednisolone and antimicrobial medication. Read More

    Leishmania donovani tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase structure in complex with a tyrosyl adenylate analog and comparisons with human and protozoan counterparts.
    Biochimie 2017 Apr 17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:
    The crystal structure of Leishmania donovani tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (LdTyrRS) in complex with a nanobody and the tyrosyl adenylate analog TyrSA was determined at 2.75 Å resolution. Nanobodies are the variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies. Read More

    Canine β-defensin-1 (CBD1) gene as a possible marker for Leishmania infantum infection in dogs.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 20;10(1):199. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.
    Background: Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is a parasitic disease of great veterinary significance. Some dogs infected by L. infantum may mount a strong cellular immune response and clear the infection, while others may respond with exaggerated antibody production against the parasite and develop an overt disease, which may be fatal, if left untreated. Read More

    Control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, Phlebotomus papatasi, using attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB).
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(4):e0173558. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Introduction: Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) is a new vector control method that meets Integrated Vector Management (IVM) goals. In an experimental design, this study aimed to determine effects of ATSB on control of Phlebotomus papatasi, as a main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), in Qom Province, center of Iran.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional design, boric acid was mixed with brown sugar solution and tested as toxic baits for P. Read More

    A non-pathogenic recombinant Leishmania expressing Lipophosphoglycan 3 against experimental infection with Leishmania infantum.
    Scand J Immunol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean basin and affects primarily children and immunosuppressed individuals. Various strategies of vaccination have so far been examined by either protein or DNA without achievable complete protection against the disease. The live non-pathogenic lizard parasite, Leishmania tarentolae, expressing elected Leishmania antigens has recently provided a promising new approach as a safe and effective live vaccine candidate to prevent leishmaniasis. Read More

    What pre-Columbian mummies could teach us about South American leishmaniases?
    Pathog Dis 2017 Apr;75(3)
    MIVEGEC/Université de Montpellier CNRS/UMR 5244/IRD 224-Centre IRD, Montpellier 34394, France.
    A recent report on the taxonomic profile of the human gut microbiome in pre-Columbian mummies (Santiago-Rodriguez et al. 2016) gives for the first time evidence of the presence of Leishmania DNA (sequences similar to Leishmania donovani according to the authors) that can be reminiscent of visceral leishmaniasis during the pre-Columbian era. It is commonly assumed that Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) was introduced into the New World by the Iberian conquest. Read More

    Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 13;59:e12. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60. Read More

    Skin-resident CD4+ T cells protect against Leishmania major by recruiting and activating inflammatory monocytes.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Apr 18;13(4):e1006349. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
    Tissue-resident memory T cells are required for establishing protective immunity against a variety of different pathogens, although the mechanisms mediating protection by CD4+ resident memory T cells are still being defined. In this study we addressed this issue with a population of protective skin-resident, IFNγ-producing CD4+ memory T cells generated following Leishmania major infection. We previously found that resident memory T cells recruit circulating effector T cells to enhance immunity. Read More

    Occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the central nervous system of naturally infected dogs: Parasite load, viability, co-infections and histological alterations.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(4):e0175588. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses em Animais Domésticos, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and little is known about the occurrence and pathogenesis of this parasite in the CNS. The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence, viability and load of L. infantum in the CNS, and to identify the neurological histological alterations associated with this protozoan and its co-infections in naturally infected dogs. Read More

    A time series analysis of environmental and metrological factors impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in an endemic area of Dehloran, Iran.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Apr 17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the environmental and metrological variables and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission and its prediction in a region susceptible to this disease prevalence using a time series model. The accurate locations of 4437 CL diagnosed from 2011 to 2015 were obtained to be used in the time series model. Temperature, number of days with temperature over 30 °C, and number of earthquake were related to CL incidence using the Seasonal Auto-correlated Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model according to the Box-Jenkins method. Read More

    Leishmania major large RAB GTPase is highly immunogenic in individuals immune to cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 17;10(1):185. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Biotechnology and Biomolecules, LR11-IPT-06, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Background: We previously identified a Leishmania (L.) major large RAB GTPase (LmlRAB), a new atypical RAB GTPase protein. It is highly conserved in Leishmania species while displaying low level of homology with mammalian homologues. Read More

    Effect of piplartine and cinnamides on Leishmania amazonensis, Plasmodium falciparum and on peritoneal cells of Swiss mice.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1601-1607
    a Laboratory of Cell Immunology, Faculty of Medicine , University of Brasilia Campus Darcy Ribeiro , Brasilia - DF , Brazil.
    Context: Plants of the Piperaceae family produce piplartine that was used to synthesize the cinnamides.

    Objective: To assess the effects of piplartine (1) and cinnamides (2-5) against the protozoa responsible for malaria and leishmaniasis, and peritoneal cells of Swiss mice.

    Materials And Methods: Cultures of Leishmania amazonensis, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and peritoneal cells were incubated, in triplicate, with different concentrations of the compounds (0 to 256 μg/mL). Read More

    Development of high efficacy peptide coated iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated amphotericin B drug delivery system against visceral leishmaniasis.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Jun 4;75:1465-1471. Epub 2017 Mar 4.
    Microbiology Department, All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), Patna, India.
    Visceral leishmaniasis, a protozoan disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies which affect mostly in Indian sub-continent. The treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani are limited and unsatisfactory. Currently available drug against such as miltefosine and polymer based drugs amBisome has high efficacy against VL but found serious side effects and poor absorbance. Read More

    New iminodibenzyl derivatives with anti-leishmanial activity.
    J Inorg Biochem 2017 Apr 4;172:9-15. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Fundamental Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by sandflies. Current treatments are expensive and time-consuming, involving Sb(V)-based compounds, lipossomal amphotericin B and miltefosine. Recent studies suggest that inhibition of trypanothione reductase (TR) could be a specific target in the development of new drugs because it is essential and exclusive to trypanosomatids. Read More

    Knockdown resistance mutations predict DDT resistance and pyrethroid tolerance in the visceral leishmaniasis vector Phlebotomus argentipes.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 17;11(4):e0005504. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT has been the primary strategy for control of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector Phlebotomus argentipes in India but efficacy may be compromised by resistance. Synthetic pyrethroids are now being introduced for IRS, but with a shared target site, the para voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC), mutations affecting both insecticide classes could provide cross-resistance and represent a threat to sustainable IRS-based disease control.

    Methodology/principal Findings: A region of the Vgsc gene was sequenced in P. Read More

    Diagnostic antigens for visceral leishmaniasis: clarification of nomenclatures.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 13;10(1):178. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Stimulated by the increasing recent use of 'K' or 'rK' nomenclature for antigens reported for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnostic serology, we wished to give a chronological synopsis of their reporting and the potentially confusing terminology.

    Methods: The literature was examined for 'K' or 'rK' terminology for VL diagnostic antigens, with emphasis on the original publications in which terms were first used.

    Results: A chronological account of the first use of these 'K' and 'rK' nomenclatures was compiled. Read More

    The superfamily keeps growing: Identification in trypanosomatids of RibJ, the first riboflavin transporter family in protists.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 13;11(4):e0005513. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Laboratorio de Parasitología Molecular y Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Dr. Cesar Milstein, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Saladillo, (C1440FFX) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness), Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis), and Phytomonas spp. Read More

    Epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco, 2004-2013.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 Feb;27(1):44-51
    Institut national d'hygiène de Rabat, 10090 Rabat, Maroc.
    The main objective of our study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco. We therefore conducted a retrospective descriptive study covering the decade 2004-2013. Data were collected from the Moroccan Ministry of Health's annual reports about the national program against leishmaniasis. Read More

    Preparative chiral separation and absolute configuration of the synthetic pterocarpanquinone LQB-118.
    Chirality 2017 May 12;29(5):167-171. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos - UFSCar, São Carlos, Brazil.
    The racemic pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 is active, in mice and hamsters, against tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis. This compound also presents antiinflammatory and antineoplastic activity in mice. The low level of toxicity observed in these studies makes LQB-118 a promising drug candidate. Read More

    Epidemiological analysis of Leishmania tropica strains and giemsa-stained smears from Syrian and Turkish leishmaniasis patients using multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 12;11(4):e0005538. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Izmir, Turkey.
    Turkey is located in an important geographical location, in terms of the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, linking Asia and Europe. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the endemic diseases in a Turkey and according to the Ministry Health of Turkey, 45% of CL patients originate from Şanlıurfa province located in southeastern Turkey. Herein, the epidemiological status of CL, caused by L. Read More

    Leishmaniasis Recidivans in Pediatric Patients.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 May;36(5):534
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey Department of Dermatology, Special Lokman Physician Hospital, Van, Turkey Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis prevalence among farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.
    J Agromedicine 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    a Epidemiology and statistic department , Abderrahmen Mami hospital , Ariana , Tunisia.
    Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in Central Tunisia, and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas.

    Objective: The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease.

    Methods: A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, Central Tunisia was selected randomly. Read More

    Development of a scoring system using a statistical model to predict cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    J Res Med Sci 2017 27;22. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: The present study was performed to develop a scoring system for predicting cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).

    Materials And Methods: This study included 199 patients with CL from Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran). Data were collected as longitudinal in each visit of patients. Read More

    Development and evaluation of a cedrol-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier system for in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of wild and drug resistant Leishmania donovani amastigotes.
    Eur J Pharm Sci 2017 Apr 8;104:196-211. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Laboratory of Nanomedicine, Division of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India. Electronic address:
    Leishmaniasis is an epidemic in various countries, and the parasite Leishmania donovani is developing resistance against available drugs. In the present study the antileishmanial action of cedrol was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Activity potentiation was achieved via nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) complexation of cedrol. Read More

    Phlebotomine Sand Fly Composition (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Putative Vectors of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Porto Velho Municipality, Western Amazon, Brazil.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Laboratório de Entomologia, Fiocruz Rondônia, Rua da Beira, 7671, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brazil
    This study evaluated the species composition of sand flies and identified potential vectors of Leishmania Ross species in rural areas of Porto Velho, Rondônia State, Brazil. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is one of the gravest threats to public health in this state. Sand flies were collected over the course of 2014 and 2015 using HP light traps. Read More

    Short-Course Regimens of Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Mediterranean Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children: An 11-Year Retrospective Study at a Tertiary Care Center.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Second Department of Paediatrics, "P. & A. Kyriakou" Children's Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.
    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health problem in endemic regions. Current anti-leishmanial agents share several limitations including potentially serious side effects and the risk of clinical failure.

    Objectives: Aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of short-course liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens in the treatment of childhood VL in our area. Read More

    AIM2 inflammasome is associated to disease severity in tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (V.) braziliensis.
    Parasite Immunol 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Pesquisas Médicas-Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil.
    The inflammasome is a multiprotein signaling platform involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases. Herein, we investigated gene and protein expression of the inflammasome molecules AIM2 and NLRP3 in active lesions from patients with L. (V. Read More

    Protein malnutrition promotes dysregulation of molecules involved in T cell migration in the thymus of mice infected with Leishmania infantum.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 11;7:45991. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Laboratório de Pesquisas em Leishmaniose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
    Protein malnutrition, the most deleterious cause of malnutrition in developing countries, has been considered a primary risk factor for the development of clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Protein malnutrition and infection with Leishmania infantum leads to lymphoid tissue disorganization, including changes in cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus and spleen. Here we report that protein malnutrition modifies thymic chemotactic factors by diminishing the CCL5, CXCL12, IGF1, CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels in infected animals. Read More

    Resolvin D1 drives establishment of Leishmania amazonensis infection.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 10;7:46363. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Brazil.
    Previous studies have indicated that the balance between different eicosanoids reflect the intensity of the inflammatory profile in patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis. More recently, pro-resolution lipid mediators have been shown to play critical roles in dampening pathological inflammatory processes to reestablish homeostasis in a diverse range of experimental settings. Among these lipid mediator, resolvins from D series have been described as potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators, and its activities include inhibition of leukocyte chemotaxis and blockage production of proinflammatory cytokines, while increasing the expression of regulatory mediators. Read More

    Identification of Biomarkers for Schistosoma-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Based on RNA-Seq Data of Mouse Whole Lung Tissues.
    Lung 2017 Apr 9. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Surgical Department, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 250013, Shandong, China.
    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a deadly disease, and the molecular mechanism of PAH has not been clarified clearly. The objective of this study was to identify possible biomarkers and explore the potential mechanisms of Schistosoma-induced PAH.

    Methods: GSE49114 RNA-Seq data developed from mouse whole lung tissues were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Read More

    Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Energy-Dependent Efflux of Sb in Laboratory-Selected Resistant Strains of Leishmania (Viannia) Subgenus.
    Front Cell Dev Biol 2017 24;5:24. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    The growing resistance of leishmaniasis to first-line drugs like antimonials in some regions limits the control of this parasitic disease. The precise mechanisms involved in Leishmania antimony resistance are still subject to debate. The reduction of intracellular Sb(III) accumulation is a common change observed in both laboratory-selected and field isolated resistant Leishmania strains, but the exact transport pathways involved in antimony resistance have not yet been elucidated. Read More

    BmajPLA2-II, a basic Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops marajoensis snake venom with parasiticidal potential.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Centro de Estudos de Biomoléculas Aplicadas à Saúde, CEBio, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Fiocruz Rondônia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, UNIR, Porto Velho-RO, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Snake venoms contain various proteins, especially phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), which present potential applications in diverse areas of health and medicine. In this study, a new basic PLA2 from Bothrops marajoensis with parasiticidal activity was purified and characterized biochemically and biologically. B. Read More

    Revealing a Novel Otubain-Like Enzyme from Leishmania infantum with Deubiquitinating Activity toward K48-Linked Substrate.
    Front Chem 2017 23;5:13. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Pathogen-Host Interface Laboratory, Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia Brasilia, Brazil.
    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) play an important role in regulating a variety of eukaryotic processes. In this context, exploring the role of deubiquitination in Leishmania infantum could be a promising alternative to search new therapeutic targets for leishmaniasis. Here we present the first characterization of a DUB from L. Read More

    Addressing a clinical challenge: guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis.
    BMC Med 2017 Apr 7;15(1):76. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.
    Leishmaniasis is a chronic intracellular parasitic infection that travelers, immigrants, deployed military personnel, and refugees from endemic global areas acquire from the bite of infected sand flies and carry with them, including to non-endemic countries where leishmaniasis may be an unfamiliar illness to medical providers. This commentary discusses the first clinical practice guidelines produced by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene for the diagnosis and management of leishmaniasis, targeted for clinicians in North America. Read More

    Psychosocial impact of scars due to cutaneous leishmaniasis on high school students in Errachidia province, Morocco.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Apr 7;6(1):46. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is usually known to be a slowly healing localized skin disease, but in some cases, it can lead to mutilating scars. The outbreak of CL due to Leishmania major in the Errachidia province in southeastern Morocco between 2008 and 2010 left many adolescents with permanent scar tissue on the face or other exposed body parts. We studied the psychosocial impact of CL on these young people. Read More

    In vitro antileishmanial activity of fisetin flavonoid via inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis and arginase activity in Leishmania infantum.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Apr 7:1-10. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    a Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Pathobiology Department , Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz , Ahvaz , Iran.
    With the increasing emergence of drug resistant Leishmania sp. in recent years, combination therapy has been considered as a useful way to treat and control of Leishmaniasis. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the fisetin alone and combination of fisetin plus Meglumine antimoniate (Fi-MA) against Leishmania infantum. Read More

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