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    Final diagnosis of 86 cases included in differential diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a Brazilian sample: a retrospective cross-sectional study.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;92(5):642-648
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medical Clinics, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP) - Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil.
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is distributed worldwide, including Brazil. Its several clinical forms need to be distinguished from other dermatoses. Clinical similarities and lack of a gold standard diagnostic tool make leishmaniasis-like lesions a challenging diagnosis. Read More

    Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016.
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):27-40. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Programa de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores, Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.
    Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores representan más de 17 % de todas las enfermedades infecciosas y causan anualmente un millón de defunciones a nivel mundial. En Colombia, la malaria, el dengue, la enfermedad de Chagas y las leishmaniasis son condiciones endemoepidémicas persistentes. Read More

    Miltefosine-resistant Leishmania infantum strains with an impaired MT/ROS3 transporter complex retain amphotericin B susceptibility.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Nov 18. Epub 2017 Nov 18.
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene (LMPH), University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Objectives: Increasing numbers of miltefosine treatment failures in visceral leishmaniasis therapy and reports of miltefosine resistance in the Indian subcontinent resulted in the recommendation to use liposomal amphotericin B as first-line therapy. Cross-resistance between miltefosine and amphotericin B has recently been documented, suggesting a role of mutations in the miltefosine transporter, a complex encoded by the MT and ROS3 genes. This study aimed to further explore the putative role of MT/ROS3 defects in the molecular basis of amphotericin B cross-resistance. Read More

    Blood Meal Analysis of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) for Leishmania spp. Identification and Vertebrate Blood Origin, Central Tunisia, 2015-2016.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University (AGU), Manama, Bahraïn.
    During the time periods of June 2015 and from July to August 2016, sandflies were collected among seven collection sites of the three leishmaniasis endemic villages of Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. A total of 690 sandflies were captured and identified (380 males and 310 females). Four species belonging to genus Phlebotomus (Ph. Read More

    Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence for Sex-Dependent Differences in the Outcome of Leishmania infantum Infection.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Veterans' Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa.
    Leishmania infantum causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. We previously observed that VL is more common in males than females living in endemic neighborhoods, despite similar exposure. Using a larger sample, we document that VL is more common in males than females, but only after puberty. Read More

    Case Report: First Coinfection Report of Mixed Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Vector-Born Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Science, Bojnurd, Iran.
    Visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is the third most common opportunistic disease in immunosuppressed patients, such as those affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Although the reports have been characterized as Leishmania/HIV coinfections, the occurrence of a mixed infection by two Leishmania species in HIV-positive patients is rare. Here, we present an atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) in a 26-year-old HIV-positive man. Read More

    The Equivocal Role of Th17 Cells and Neutrophils on Immunopathogenesis of Leishmaniasis.
    Front Immunol 2017 30;8:1437. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Microbiology, Aggeu Magalhães Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Advances in the understanding of leishmaniasis progression indicate that cellular interactions more complex than the Th1/Th2 paradigm define the course of infection. Th17 cells are a crucial modulator of adaptive immunity against Leishmania parasites acting mainly on neutrophil recruitment and playing a dual role at the site of infection. This review describes the roles of both these cell types in linking innate defense responses to the establishment of specific immunity. Read More

    Clinical and immunopathological findings during long term follow-up in Leishmania infantum experimentally infected dogs.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 21;7(1):15914. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, which in the New World is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. While prospective clinical and immunological assessments of dogs experimentally challenged with L. infantum have been previously reported over a relatively short follow-up period, the long-term characterization of infected animals has not been performed to date. Read More

    Modeling and analyzing the transmission dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis.
    Math Biosci Eng 2017 Oct/Dec 1;14(5-6):1585-1604
    Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, United States
    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to study the transmission dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis. Three populations: dogs, sandflies and humans, are considered in the model. Based on recent studies, we include vertical transmission of dogs in the spread of the disease. Read More

    Species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected from natural reserves in the Pacific and Darien regions of Colombia.
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):215-223. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia Grupo de Investigación en Sistemática Molecular y Biología de Insectos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Introduction: The departments of Chocó and Antioquia in Colombia show climatic and vegetation conditions favoring the establishment of vector species of the genus Lutzomyia and the transmission of Leishmania spp. to human populations entering conserved forest environments.

    Objective: To report the species of Phlebotomine sandflies present in three natural reserves in the Darien and Pacific regions of Colombia. Read More

    Detection of Leishmania (V) guyanensis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Pecari tajacu.
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):208-214. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Laboratorios de Biología Molecular y Celular, Escuela de Medicina Humana, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Perú.
    Introduction: Previous studies identified the presence of Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and indicated the possibility that it could transmit leishmaniasis to a variety of hosts.

    Objective: To identify parasites of Leishmania (Viannia) spp. in ticks collected from wild animals in an endemic area for leishmaniasis. Read More

    [Estimation of time detection limit for human cytochrome b in females of Lutzomyia evansi].
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):187-192. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Grupo de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Sucre, Sincelejo, Colombia.
    Introduction: Molecular biology techniques have allowed a better knowledge of sources of blood meals in vector insects. However, the usefulness of these techniques depends on both the quantity of ingested blood and the digestion process in the insect.

    Objective: To identify the time limit for detection of the human cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene in experimentally fed females of Lutzomyia evansi. Read More

    [Eco-epidemiological aspects, natural detection and molecular identification of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia reburra, Lutzomyia barrettoi majuscula and Lutzomyia trapidoi].
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):83-97. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador Programa Prometeo, Secretaría Nacional de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT), Quito, Ecuador Área de Ambiente, Turismo Histórico Cultural, Facultad de Comunicación Social, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
    Introduction: The province of Pichincha in Ecuador is an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, where anthropophilic sand flies with natural infection by Leishmania, have been reported as vectors. However, the role in transmission of zoophilic species has not been evaluated.

    Objective: To evaluate natural infection by Leishmania in two zoophilic phlebotomine sand fly species, Lutzomyia reburra and Lu. Read More

    [Performance of the KAtex test in screening and diagnosis for visceral leishmaniasis in a reference hospital].
    Rev Esp Quimioter 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    José Gutiérrez-Fernández. Laboratorio de Microbiología. Hospital Virgen de las Nieves. Avenida de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2. E-18012 Granada, Spain.
    Objective: Performing of diagnostic test simple using samples not invasive in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) may be very beneficial, being necessary comparing to traditional methods. The objective of this study was to know the reliability of test KAtex in the urine of patients with suspicion of VL.

    Methods: Retrospectively were reviewed the medical histories of patients with suspected of VL to which are performed the test between 2009 and 2015. Read More

    Visceral leishmaniasis and leishmaniasis-HIV coinfection: comparative study.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Sep-Oct;50(5):670-674
    Curso de Medicina, Centro Universitário Tocantinense Presidente Antônio Carlos, Araguaína, TO, Brasil.
    Introduction: This study aimed to draw clinical and epidemiological comparisons between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and VL associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Method: Retrospective study.

    Results: Of 473 cases of VL, 5. Read More

    Changes in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil from 2001 to 2014.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Sep-Oct;50(5):638-645
    Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
    Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease, with territorial expansion and regional differences in Brazil that require explanation. This study aimed to describe changes in the epidemiology of VL in Brazil from 2001 to 2014.

    Methods: The incidence rates, sociodemographic and clinical data, and case evolution were subgrouped from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2014 and presented descriptively. Read More

    Epidemiological profile of patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS in Northeast, Brazil.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Sep-Oct;50(5):613-620
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde do Adulto, Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luis, MA, Brasil.
    Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-infection has been a research topic of interest worldwide. In Brazil, it has been observed that there is a relative underreporting and failure in the understanding and management of this important association. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with VL with and without HIV/AIDS. Read More

    Leishmanicidal candidate LASSBio-1736, a cysteine protease inhibitor with favorable pharmacokinetics: low clearance and good distribution.
    Xenobiotica 2017 Nov 21:1-32. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    a Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Pampa, UNIPAMPA , Br 472, Km 592 , Uruguaiana , CEP 97500-970 , Brasil.
    1. LASSBio-1736 ((E)-1-4(trifluoromethyl) benzylidene)-5-(2-4-dichlorozoyl) carbonylhydrazine) is proposed to be an oral cysteine protease leishmanicidal inhibitor. 2. Read More

    Isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives induce regulated necrosis-like cell death on Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, s/n, 11340, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.
    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite of the genus Leishmania. About 13 million people are infected worldwide, and it is estimated that 350 million are at risk of infection. Clinical manifestations depend on the parasite species and factors related to the host such as the immune system, nutrition, housing, and financial resources. Read More

    Dataset generated for Dissection of mechanisms of Trypanothione Reductase and Tryparedoxin Peroxidase through dynamic network analysis and simulations in leishmaniasis.
    Data Brief 2017 Dec 19;15:757-769. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, SP Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, India.
    Leishmaniasis is the second largest parasitic killer disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of sand flies. It's endemic in the eastern India with 165.4 million populations at risk with the current drug regimen. Read More

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens as drug source against Leishmania amazonensis.
    Parasitology 2017 Nov 21:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia,Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS,Rua Sarmento Leite 500 - 90050-170, Porto Alegre, RS,Brazil.
    Leishmaniasis is a widely spread and zoonotic disease with serious problems as low effectiveness of drugs, emergence of parasite resistance and severe adverse reactions. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to secondary metabolites produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, an entomopathogenic bacterium. Here, we assessed the leishmanicidal activity of P. Read More

    Leishmanicidal Activity of Biogenic Fe₃O₄ Nanoparticles.
    Sci Pharm 2017 Nov 20;85(4). Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Radiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Abstract: Due to the multiplicity of useful applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (ONPs) in medicine are growing exponentially, in this study, Fe₃O₄ (iron oxide) nanoparticles (IONPs) were biosynthesized using Rosemary to evaluate the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs. This is the first report of the leishmanicidal efficiency of green synthesized IONPs against Leishmania major. The resulting biosynthesized IONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Read More

    Prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection in Trang Province, southern Thailand.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 20;11(11):e0006095. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Autochthonous cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania siamensis have been considered emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. The disease burden is significantly underestimated, especially the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-positive patients.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection among patients with HIV/AIDS living in Trang province, southern Thailand, between 2015 and 2016. Read More

    Liposomal amphotericin B in travelers with cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis: Not a panacea.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 20;11(11):e0006094. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    INTS, Unité Biologie Intégrée du Globule Rouge, Laboratoire d'Excellence GR-Ex, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Background: Complex cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and MCL) often requires systemic therapy. Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) has a strong potential for a solid clinical benefit in this indication.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a French centralized referral treatment program and from the "LeishMan" European consortium database. Read More

    Effects of trans-stilbene and terphenyl compounds on different strains of Leishmania and on cytokines production from infected macrophages.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:
    Most of the antileishmanial modern therapies are not satisfactory due to high toxicity or emergence of resistance and high cost of treatment. Previously, we observed that two compounds of a small library of trans-stilbene and terphenyl derivatives, ST18 and TR4, presented the best activity and safety profiles against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study we evaluated the effects of ST18 and the TR4 in 6 different species of Leishmania and the modifications induced by these two compounds in the production of 8 different cytokines from infected macrophages. Read More

    [Comparison of polymerase chain reaction using kinetoplast DNA specific primers and other parasitological methods in the diagnosis of clinical samples of suspected patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Şanlıurfa].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Oct;51(4):340-349
    Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Parasitology, Izmir, Turkey.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are seen endemically in Turkey and CL caused by Leishmania tropica is an important public health problem in southeastern as well as other regions of Turkey. The diagnosis has been usually made by clinical view of lesion and/or parasitologically using lesion aspiration smears. Histological examination does not, always reveal the parasite in the skin biopsy, particularly in chronic lesions. Read More

    Atomic resolution snapshot of Leishmania ribosome inhibition by the aminoglycoside paromomycin.
    Nat Commun 2017 Nov 17;8(1):1589. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, and Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
    Leishmania is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite afflicting millions of humans worldwide, with current therapies limited to a poor selection of drugs that mostly target elements in the parasite's cell envelope. Here we determined the atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with paromomycin (PAR), a highly potent compound recently approved for treatment of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The structure reveals the mechanism by which the drug induces its deleterious effects on the parasite. Read More

    Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Nov 17;11:CD005067. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health & Immunology and Microbiology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Avda. Atenas s/n, Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain, 28922.
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. Read More

    Vector-borne diseases and climate change: a European perspective.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
    Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis. Read More

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: A threat to the South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 16;11(11):e0005877. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: The South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme (KAEP) is expected to enter the consolidation phase in 2017, which focuses on case detection, vector control, and identifying potential sources of infection. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to play a role in the recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)/kala-azar outbreaks, and control of PKDL is among the priorities of the KAEP.

    Methodology And Principal Finding: We reviewed the literature with regard to PKDL in Asia and interpreted the findings in relation to current intervention methods in the KAEP in order to make recommendations. Read More

    Serological Evaluation of Cutaneous Leishmania tropica Infection in Northern Israel.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Pediatrics, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
    Leishmania spp. are medically important unicellular parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The World Health Organization recently highlighted the importance of reliable diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis. Read More

    Assessment of a Leishmaniasis Reporting System in Tropical Bolivia Using the Capture-Recapture Method.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    This study evaluates the level of underreporting of the National Program of Leishmaniasis Control (NPLC) in two communities of Cochabamba, Bolivia during the period 2013-2014. Montenegro skin test-confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were identified through active surveillance during medical campaigns. These cases were compared with those registered in the NPLC by passive surveillance. Read More

    Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Either Natural Octyl Disaccharide-Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic or Phenolic Glycolipid-I Antigens for the Detection of Leprosy Patients in Colombia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical-Universidad CES, Sabaneta, Antioquia, Colombia.
    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Delays in attaining correct diagnosis permit progressive peripheral nerve damage that can produce irreversible disabilities. Tests detecting antigen-specific antibodies can aid the diagnostic process and potentially detect patients earlier. Read More

    Human Competence to Transmit Leishmania infantum to Lutzomyia longipalpis and the Influence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Graduation Program in Sciences and Health, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, Brazil.
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a lethal disease transmitted by sand flies. Although, considered a zoonosis with dogs held as the main reservoirs, humans are also sources of infection. Therefore, control policies currently focused on dog culling may need to consider that VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/VL patients may also be infectious, contributing to transmission. Read More

    Co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Leishmania donovani modulates macrophage signalling and promotes T-cell repertoires bearing epitopes for both MHC-I and MHC-II.
    Parasitology 2017 Nov 15:1-15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences,Patna 800007,India.
    Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. Read More

    Laboratory colonization and mass rearing of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae).
    Parasite 2017 15;24:42. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 44, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Read More

    Amphotericin B for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis; a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective, comparative clinical studies including dose ranging studies.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Objectives: The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence for use of different formulations of amphotericin B, minimum effective dose for each formulation and its comparative efficacy against other drugs in achieving definitive cure of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis included following data sources; PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. Controlled prospective clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized, including dose ranging studies) conducted between 1996 and 2017, with at least one treatment group receiving amphotericin B were included (published data only). Read More

    Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families.
    Global Health 2017 Nov 14;13(1):82. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Background: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. Read More

    The potential use of melatonin to treat protozoan parasitic infections: A review.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Nov 7;97:948-957. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Razi Drug Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Read More

    Efficacy of a new rapid diagnostic test kit to diagnose Sri Lankan cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(11):e0187024. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Parasitology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. This study assessed the diagnostic value of a new rapid diagnostic immunochromatographic strip (CL-Detect™ IC-RDT), that captures the peroxidoxin antigen of Leishmania amastigotes.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We sampled 74 clinically suspected CL lesions, of which 59 (79. Read More

    The Importance of Collaboration between Industry, Academics, and Nonprofits in Tropical Disease Drug Discovery.
    ACS Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Northeastern University , Hurtig 102, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.
    Collaborations between academic, industrial, and nonprofit companies can provide sufficient impetus to propel projects that have little economic return; such projects are prevalent in tropical disease drug discovery. In these collaborations, each partner contributes a unique set of skills and technical expertise which is advantageous to the project as a whole. Highly product-focused processes and specialized expertise sets dominate industry groups. Read More

    Immunomodulation of dual specificity phosphatase 4 during visceral leishmaniasis.
    Microbes Infect 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 054, India. Electronic address:
    DUSP4, an inducible protein has a substrate specificity toward ERK1/2, a component of MAP kinase which is enhanced during Leishmania infection. The DUSP4(-/-) mice show increased susceptibility towards the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania mexicana. These observations emphatically established the fact that unlike DUSP1, DUSP4 has host protective role. Read More

    Germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones from Smallanthus sonchifolius with promising activity against Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma cruzi.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 13;10(1):567. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Cátedra de Farmacognosia, IQUIMEFA (UBA-CONICET), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956 2° F (1113), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are life-threatening illnesses caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. They are known as "neglected diseases" due to the lack of effective drug treatments and the scarcity of research work devoted to them. Read More

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Distinct functions of dendritic cells and macrophages in the interaction of the host immune system with Leishmania major.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Institute for Immunology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Leishmaniasis is transmitted by sand flies leading to parasite inoculation into skin. In the mammalian host, the parasite primarily resides in skin macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DC). MΦ are silently invaded by the parasite eliciting a stress response, whereas DC become activated, release IL-12, and prime antigen-specific T cells. Read More

    Effects of a new antiprotozoal drug, N,N'-diphenyl-4-methoxy-benzamidine, on energy-linked functions of rat liver mitochondria.
    Chem Biol Interact 2017 Nov 9;279:34-42. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Amidines are chemically characterized by the presence of two nitrogen atoms that bind to the same carbon atom in its structure. Several biological activities have been ascribed to these compounds. Pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine, is effective in the treatment against Pneumocystis carinii and leishmaniasis, but it can also have severe side effects. Read More

    Systems cues governing IL6 signaling in leishmaniasis.
    Cytokine 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, SPPU Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, India. Electronic address:
    IL-6 has been proposed to favor the development of Th2 responses and play an important role in the communication between cells of multicellular organisms. They are involved in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and act as key player during inflammation and immune response. Th2 cytokines play an immunoregulatory role in early infection. Read More

    Recombinant prohibitin protein of Leishmania infantum acts as a vaccine candidate and diagnostic marker against visceral leishmaniasis.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a serious public health problem, as Leishmania infantum is one of main disease causative agents in the Americas. In a previous immunoproteomic study, the prohibitin (PHB) protein was identified in L. infantum promastigote and amastigote extracts by antibodies in asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dog sera. Read More

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