5,273 results match your criteria Legionnaires Disease
Swiss Med Wkly 2018 Nov 2;148:w14687. Epub 2018 Dec 2.
Laboratory of Virology, Division of Laboratory Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals, Switzerland; University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland.
Purpose: Eight confirmed cases of Legionnaires’ disease were identified at the Geneva University Hospitals between 28 July 2017 and 02 August 2017, leading to a detailed outbreak investigation.
Methods: Legionnaires’ disease cases were defined according to Swiss and European (ELDSNet) consensus guidelines. An outbreak investigation task force was put in place. Read More
Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences, Medical Sciences University Islamic Azad, Tehran, Iran.
Legionella pneumophila causes a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease especially in patients with impaired cellular immune response. In order to prevent the disease, immunogenicity and the level of the induction of protective immunity from the recombinant peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (rPAL) against Legionella pneumophila in BALB/c mice was examined. Mice immunized with (rPAL) rapidly increased an antibody response in serum and also displayed a strong activation of both innate and adaptive cell-mediated immunity as determined by antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation, an early production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in the splenocyte cultures. Read More
MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
is the causative agent of a pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The facultative intracellular bacterium employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) and a plethora of translocated "effector" proteins to interfere with host vesicle trafficking pathways and establish a replicative niche, the -containing vacuole (LCV). Internalization of the pathogen and the events immediately ensuing are accompanied by host cell-mediated phosphoinositide (PI) lipid changes and the Icm/Dot-controlled conversion of the LCV from a PtdIns(3)-positive vacuole into a PtdIns(4)-positive replication-permissive compartment, which tightly associates with the endoplasmic reticulum. Read More
Int J Hyg Environ Health 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
In Germany community-acquired Legionnaires' disease is usually caused by the species Legionella pneumophila. Recurrent cases of Legionnaires' disease are rarely reported and are due either to a second infection (reinfection) or a relapse of a previous case. We report a case of recurrent Legionnaires' disease in an 86-year-old female patient infected with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal antibody-subtype Knoxville, sequence type unknown. Read More
Epidemiol Infect 2018 Dec 3:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Biolinea Int.,Palma de Mallorca,Spain.
According to European Guidelines for Legionnaires' Disease prevention and control, travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) cases are managed differently if classified as sporadic or as part of a cluster and more stringent control measures are deployed after clusters are identified. In this study, we propose to modify the current cluster definition: 'two or more cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) who stayed at, or visited, the same commercial accommodation site 2-10 days before onset of illness and whose onset is within the same 2-year period' with a new cluster definition, i.e. Read More
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 30;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Thessaly, 41222 Larissa, Greece.
This study aimed to assess the colonization of hotel water systems in central Greece and Corfu by , and to investigate the association between physicochemical parameters and colonization. Standardized hygiene inspection was conducted in 51 hotels, and 556 water samples were analyzed for spp Free chlorine concentration, pH, hardness, conductivity, and trace metals were defined in cold water samples. The results of inspections and chemical analyses were associated with the microbiological results using univariate and logistic regression analysis. Read More
Water Res 2018 Nov 1;149:21-34. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
Leibniz University Hannover, Institute for Sanitary Engineering and Waste Management, Hannover, 30167, Germany.
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as confirmed but until today underestimated sources of Legionella, playing an important role in local and community cases and outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. In general, aerobic biological systems provide an optimum environment for the growth of Legionella due to high organic nitrogen and oxygen concentrations, ideal temperatures and the presence of protozoa. However, few studies have investigated the occurrence of Legionella in WWTPs, and many questions in regards to the interacting factors that promote the proliferation and persistence of Legionella in these treatment systems are still unanswered. Read More
Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Jul-Sep;36(3):324-333
Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India.
Legionella pneumophila was first recognised as a fatal cause of pneumonia more than four decades ago, during the 1976-American Legion convention in Philadelphia, USA. Legionella spp. continue to cause disease outbreaks of public health significance, and at present, Legionnaires' disease (LD) has emerged as an important cause of community and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Read More
Biomed Res Int 2018 22;2018:8194368. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Laboratoire Ecologie & Biologie des Interactions, UMR CNRS 7267, Université de Poitiers, France.
, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a waterborne bacterium mainly found in man-made water systems in close association with free-living amoebae and multispecies biofilms. strains, originating from various environments including freshwater systems or isolated from hospitalized patients, were tested for their antagonistic activity towards . A high amount of tested strains was thus found to be active. Read More
Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
School of Basic Medical Science, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050017, People's Republic of China.
Gram-negative bacterium Legionella is able to proliferate intracellularly in mammalian host cells and amoeba, which became known in 1976 since they caused a large outbreak of pneumonia. It had been reported that different strains of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella feeleii caused human respiratory diseases, which were known as Pontiac fever or Legionnaires' disease. However, the differences of the virulence traits among the strains of the single species and the pathogenesis of the two diseases that were due to the bacterial virulence factors had not been well elucidated. Read More
PLoS One 2018 18;13(10):e0206110. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
Pneumonia Response and Surveillance Laboratory, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
Legionella spp. are the cause of a severe bacterial pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease (LD). In some cases, current genetic subtyping methods cannot resolve LD outbreaks caused by common, potentially endemic L. Read More
Epidemiol Infect 2018 Oct 18:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene,Bureau of Communicable Disease,Queens, New York,USA.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) incidence in the USA has quadrupled since 2000. Health departments must detect LD outbreaks quickly to identify and remediate sources. We tested the performance of a system to prospectively detect simulated LD outbreaks in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA. Read More
Infect Immun 2018 Oct 15. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106, Braunschweig
The gamma-proteobacterium is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, an atypical pneumonia that manifests itself with severe lung damage. , a common inhabitant of fresh water environments, replicates in free-living amoebae, and persists in biofilms in natural and man-made water systems. Its environmental versatility is reflected in its ability to survive and grow within a broad temperature range as well as its capability to colonize and infect a wide range of hosts including protozoa and humans. Read More
Trends Parasitol 2018 Dec 12;34(12):1027-1037. Epub 2018 Oct 12.
Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions - UMR CNRS 7267, F-86073 Poitiers, France.
Bacteria of the order Legionellales, such as Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease, and Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, are widely recognized as human pathogens. While our view of the Legionellales is often limited to clinical isolates, ecological surveys are continually uncovering new members of the Legionellales that do not fall into the recognized pathogenic species. Here we emphasize that most of these Legionellales are nonpathogenic forms that have evolved symbiotic lifestyles with nonvertebrate hosts. Read More
Microb Genom 2018 Oct 12;4(10). Epub 2018 Oct 12.
1Pathogen Genomics, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.
The diversity of Legionella pneumophila populations within single water systems is not well understood, particularly in those unassociated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. Here, we performed genomic analysis of 235 L. pneumophila isolates obtained from 28 water samples in 13 locations within a large occupational building. Read More
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 Dec 8;39(12):1470-1472. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
1Rollins School of Public Health,Emory University,Atlanta,Georgia.
In 2017, we surveyed 101 SHEA Research Network hospitals regarding Legionnaires' disease (LD). Of 29 respondents, 94% have or are developing a water management plan with varying characteristics and personnel engaged. Most LD diagnostic testing is limited to urine antigen testing. Read More
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 19;8:328. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc 2018 Jul;29(1):44-50
University of Michigan-Flint School of Nursing, 2180 William S. White Building, 303 E. Kearsley Street, Flint, MI 48502- 1950.
The water crisis in Flint, Michigan raised national awareness about lead- tainted drinking water, particularly its harm to children and pregnant and lactating women. However, according to recent findings, there may be another by-product of this man-made crisis. Failure to use anticorrosive material in the water, a practice mandated by the 1978 Clean Water Act, is being linked to an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, an illness detrimental primarily to adults over 65 years of age. Read More
J Occup Health 2018 Nov 27;60(6):527-528. Epub 2018 Sep 27.
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital.
Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1841:59-76
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, replicates in free-living amoebae as well as in macrophages of the innate immune system within a distinct membrane-bound compartment, the "Legionella-containing-vacuole" (LCV). LCV formation is a complex process and requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 different "effector" proteins. Intact LCVs from infected Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae or RAW 264. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1844:33-38
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue Institute for Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
Ubiquitination is one of the most important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells where it regulates the activity, cellular localization, and half-life of proteins. Ubiquitination thus affects many essential cellular processes, including vesicle trafficking, cell cycle, DNA repair, immune response, and protein homeostasis. The ubiquitin system is exclusive to eukaryotes; however, pathogenic bacteria have developed effective strategies to influence the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Oct;24(10):1914-1918
A biologic wastewater treatment plant was identified as a common source for 2 consecutive Legionnaires' disease clusters in the Netherlands in 2016 and 2017. Sequence typing and transmission modeling indicated direct and long-distance transmission of Legionella, indicating this source type should also be investigated in sporadic Legionnaires' disease cases. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2018 Sep 17;18(1):467. Epub 2018 Sep 17.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok, Thailand.
Background: Legionellosis is a well-known cause of pneumonia. Primary cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by Legionella pneumophila is rare and the diagnosis is challenging.
Case Presentation: A 38-year-old Thai woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and myasthenia gravis treated with prednisolone and azathioprine presented to our hospital with low-grade fever, diarrhea, and indurated skin lesions on both thighs. Read More
Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 15;2018:2570758. Epub 2018 Aug 15.
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.
Healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease often leads to fatal respiratory tract infection among hospitalized patients. In this report, three cases of Legionnaires' disease among patients in two different hospitals (Hospital A and Hospital B) were investigated. After conducting an epidemiologic and environmental investigation, the water distribution systems (WDSs) were identified as the possible source of infection, as serogroup 1 (1) was isolated from both clinical and environmental samples. Read More
Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Sep 5;7(1):151. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.
Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Sep 5;7(1):150. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Bureau of Communicable Disease, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Long Island City, NY, 11101, USA.
Transplant Proc 2018 Sep 13;50(7):2053-2058. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
Department of Cardiac, Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and Transplantology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Silesian Center for Heart Diseases, Zabrze, Poland. Electronic address:
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of infections caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae among lung transplant recipients in the context of immunosuppression.
Methods: The study group consisted of 94 patients (37 women and 57 men; mean age 42.03 years) transplanted between 2009 and 2016 at the Silesia Center for Heart Diseases (SCCS). Read More
J Occup Health 2018 Nov 17;60(6):525-526. Epub 2018 Aug 17.
Department of Pathological Cell Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University.
Przegl Epidemiol 2018 ;72(2):143-147
National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2016 in comparison to the preceding years.
Material And Methods: The assessment was based on national surveillance data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2016” and its prior versions along with data from legionellosis case reports sent from Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH.
Results: In Poland, both two main forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever are routinely reported to the surveillance system. Read More
Cent Eur J Public Health 2018 Jun;26(2):154-155
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden.
Letter to the editor, in response to the paper "Legionellosis: a walk-through to identification of the source of infection", Cent Eur J Public Health 2017;25(3):235-239. Read More
Commun Integr Biol 2018 6;11(2):1-5. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
The ubiquitous environmental bacterium is the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia and replicates in free-living protozoa and mammalian macrophages in a specific compartment, the -containing vacuole (LCV). LCVs communicate with the endosomal, retrograde and secretory vesicle trafficking pathway, and eventually tightly interact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In amoebae and macrophages, the ER tubule-resident large GTPase Sey1/atlastin3 (Atl3) accumulates on LCVs and promotes LCV expansion and intracellular replication of . Read More
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 07 30;15(8). Epub 2018 Jul 30.
Unit of Hygiene, Public Health and Medical Statistics, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, via S. Giacomo 12, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
spp. is widespread in many natural and artificial water systems, such as hot water distribution networks, cooling towers, and spas. A particular risk factor has been identified in the use of whirlpools and hot tubs in spa facilities and public baths. Read More
J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Oct;73(10):2757-2761
Public Health England, Colindale, London, UK.
Objectives: Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila is poorly understood, with treatment of Legionnaires' disease often based on empirical choice. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of L. pneumophila strains. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Nov 11;210:550-556. Epub 2018 Jul 11.
Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Piazza Polonia 94, 10126, Torino, Italy.
Disinfection of hot water systems is critical for reducing Legionnaires' disease in high-risk buildings. The use of neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEOW) is a promising method for the control of microorganisms in hot water systems. However, full-scale evaluations of the efficacy of NEOW devices to control Legionella pneumophila are currently lacking. Read More
J Appl Microbiol 2018 Nov 21;125(5):1534-1540. Epub 2018 Aug 21.
Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
Aims: To develop and evaluate a DNA-gold nanoparticle (DNA-AuNP) probe assay to detect Legionella pneumophila, which causes Legionnaires' disease, compared with the gold standard culture method.
Methods And Results: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with DNA probes to detect the mip gene of L. pneumophila. Read More
Elife 2018 07 17;7. Epub 2018 Jul 17.
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States.
The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, , delivers more than 330 virulent effectors to its host to establish an intracellular membrane-bound organelle called the containing vacuole. Among the army of effectors, SidC and its paralog SdcA have been identified as novel bacterial ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligases. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of SidC/SdcA as Ub ligases, we determined the crystal structures of a binary complex of the N-terminal catalytic SNL domain of SdcA with its cognate E2 UbcH5C and a ternary complex consisting of the SNL domain of SidC with the Ub-linked E2 UbcH7. Read More
Public Health Rep 2018 Sep/Oct;133(5):578-583. Epub 2018 Jul 13.
1 Division of Disease Control, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, NY, USA.
Objectives: Death certificates are an important source of information for understanding life expectancy and mortality trends; however, misclassification and incompleteness are common. Although deaths caused by Legionnaires' disease might be identified through routine surveillance, it is unclear whether Legionnaires' disease is accurately recorded on death certificates. We evaluated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of death certificates for identifying deaths from confirmed or suspected Legionnaires' disease among adults in New York City. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Oct 5;166:638-646. Epub 2018 Jul 5.
Departament de Microbiologia, CATLAB Centre Analítiques AIE, Viladecavalls, Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Genètica i Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Spain.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor the spread, persistence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Legionella spp. strains found in a hospital water distribution system. These environmental studies are intended to help detect the presence of antibiotic resistant strains before they infect patients. Read More
Curr Microbiol 2018 Oct 6;75(10):1282-1289. Epub 2018 Jul 6.
EMSL Analytical, Inc., 5950 Fairbanks North Houston Rd, Houston, TX, 77040, USA.
Legiolert® is a new culture method for quantification of Legionella pneumophila, which is the primary species associated with Legionnaires' disease. The test is based on a most probable number approach, and differs significantly from traditional culture methods by providing results at 7 days, rapid sample preparation and analysis, and objective interpretation of test results. In this study, we compared the performance of Legiolert with the U. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jul;24(7):1345-1348
Two cases of Legionnaires' disease and 1 of Pontiac fever occurred among the crew of a merchant ship operating off the shores of Australia. PCR assays identified potential sources in the ship's cabins. Modification of maritime regulations for Legionnaires' disease prevention in commercial vessels is needed for nonpassenger merchant ships. Read More
Ann Acad Med Singapore 2018 05;47(5):194-195
Department of Medicine, Ng Teng Fong General Hospital, Singapore.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 06 11;115(25):E5835. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
Intern Med 2018 Oct 6;57(20):2975-2980. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
Division of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Japan.
Legionella pneumonia is occasionally accompanied by renal complications; however, the cause of this remains unknown. We herein report a 70-year-old Japanese man with Legionella pneumonia who presented with hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, and hypouricemia. The levels of urinary β2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase were remarkably high, indicating severe renal tubular damage. Read More
J Appl Microbiol 2018 Oct 23;125(4):1216-1225. Epub 2018 Jul 23.
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, Berne, Switzerland.
Aims: A molecular method for a rapid detection of viable Legionella pneumophila of all serogroups in tap water samples was developed as an alternative to the reference method (ISO). Legionellae are responsible for Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia in humans with high lethality.
Methods And Results: The developed method is based on a nutritional stimulation and detection of an increase in precursor 16S rRNA as an indicator for viability. Read More
Nature 2018 05 23;557(7707):734-738. Epub 2018 May 23.
Institute of Biochemistry II, Goethe University Frankfurt - Medical Faculty, University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Conventional ubiquitination regulates key cellular processes by catalysing the ATP-dependent formation of an isopeptide bond between ubiquitin (Ub) and primary amines in substrate proteins . Recently, the SidE family of bacterial effector proteins (SdeA, SdeB, SdeC and SidE) from pathogenic Legionella pneumophila were shown to use NAD to mediate phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination of serine residues in host proteins. However, the molecular architecture of the catalytic platform that enables this complex multistep process remains unknown. Read More
Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Aug;31(4):325-333
Office of Clinical Quality, Safety and Performance Improvement, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Purpose Of Review: The present review summarizes new knowledge about Legionella epidemiology, clinical characteristics, community-associated and hospital-based outbreaks, molecular typing and molecular epidemiology, prevention, and detection in environmental and clinical specimens.
Recent Findings: The incidence of Legionnaire's disease is rising and the mortality rate remains high, particularly for immunocompromised patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may help support patients with severe respiratory failure. Read More
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2018 08 19;1860(8):1544-1553. Epub 2018 May 19.
Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University, Campusring 1, 28759 Bremen, Germany. Electronic address:
Legionella pneumophila is an aerobic and nonspore-forming pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. It is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, also known as Legionellosis. The hosts of this organism are diverse, ranging from simple water borne protozoans such as amoebae to more complex hosts such as macrophages in humans. Read More
J Environ Health 2018 Apr;80(8):8-12
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires' disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) <1 km from patient residences, a market misting system, a community-wide water system used for heating and cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection. Read More
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 May 18;67(19):547-551. Epub 2018 May 18.
Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). Read More
Curr Environ Health Rep 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
Purpose Of Review: The global importance of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) has grown in recent years. While sporadic cases of LD and PF do not always provide contextual information for evaluating causes and drivers of Legionella risks, analysis of outbreaks provides an opportunity to assess these factors.
Recent Findings: A review was performed and provides a summary of LD and PF outbreaks between 2006 and 2017. Read More