5,729 results match your criteria Legionnaires Disease


Terpinen-4-ol, the Main Bioactive Component of Tea Tree Oil, as an Innovative Antimicrobial Agent against .

Pathogens 2022 Jun 14;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

(), responsible for a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease, represents an important health burden in Europe. Prevention and control of contamination in warm water systems is still a great challenge often due to the failure in disinfection procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of Terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol) as potential agent for control, in comparison with the essential oil of (tea tree) (TTO. Read More

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Immensely High Creatine Kinase Levels in a Case of Rhabdomyolysis Due to Legionnaires' Disease in a Patient on Tofacitinib: A Case Report and Literature Review.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2022 12;12(2):45-49. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine, Saint Agnes Healthcare, Baltimore, MD, USA.

A 58-year-old female patient presented with altered mental status, diarrhea, and fever. She was hospitalized for acute kidney injury [AKI] and a patchy right lower lobe infiltrates on chest X-ray. Subsequent testing revealed rhabdomyolysis and a positive urinary Legionella antigen test. Read More

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A Search for Novel  Effector Proteins Reveals a Strain Specific Nucleotropic Effector.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 31;12:864626. Epub 2022 May 31.

UCIBIO- Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit, Department of Life Sciences, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal.

is an accidental human pathogen that causes the potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease, a severe type of pneumonia. The main virulence mechanism of is a Type 4B Secretion System (T4SS) named Icm/Dot that transports effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. The concerted action of effectors on several host cell processes leads to the formation of an intracellular Legionella-containing vacuole that is replication competent and avoids phagolysosomal degradation. Read More

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The effect of seasonal and extreme floods on hospitalizations for Legionnaires' disease in the United States, 2000-2011.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Jun 15;22(1):550. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: An increasing severity of extreme storms and more intense seasonal flooding are projected consequences of climate change in the United States. In addition to the immediate destruction caused by storm surges and catastrophic flooding, these events may also increase the risk of infectious disease transmission. We aimed to determine the association between extreme and seasonal floods and hospitalizations for Legionnaires' disease in 25 US states during 2000-2011. Read More

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Atypical Legionnaires' Disease in the Setting of Suspected Recurrent Lung Cancer.

Cureus 2022 May 5;14(5):e24760. Epub 2022 May 5.

Family Medicine, Pontiac General Hospital, Pontiac, USA.

Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. This type of bacteria can be found anywhere across the world, mostly in moist environments (e.g. Read More

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The Triad of Legionnaires' Disease, Rhabdomyolysis, and Acute Kidney Injury: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Jun 3;23:e936264. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center Sinai Grace Hospital, Detroit, USA.

BACKGROUND Legionella infection is a common cause of atypical pneumonia, known as Legionnaires' disease when infection extends to extrapulmonary involvement, which often leads to hospitalization. The triad of Legionella pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure displays a rare yet fatal complication without prompt management. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 62-year-old man with no significant medical history who developed Legionnaires' disease with severely elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) of 9614 mcg/L, consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Read More

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Cerebellar syndrome associated with legionellosis: A case report and literature review.

Rev Med Interne 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Infective and Tropical Diseases and Internal Medicine, University Hospital of la Reunion, Saint-Pierre, Reunion.

Introduction: Legionnaire's disease is a community-acquired pneumonia caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. This disease is often associated with neurological symptoms, the clinical presentation of which can be very varied.

Case Report: We report a 47-year-old female patient who developed Legionnaires' disease with cerebellar symptoms (ataxia, dysarthria and hypermetria). Read More

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Legionnaires' disease - a qualitative study on Swiss physicians' approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

Swiss Med Wkly 2022 04 2;152(17-18). Epub 2022 May 2.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The number of reported cases of Legionnaires' disease has increased significantly over the last decade in Switzerland and abroad. Along with the number of cases, the volume of testing has increased as well, which has been partially attributed to a change in awareness of the disease. Yet, while there are numerous guidelines and recommendations for the case management of community-acquired pneumonia, little is known about how physicians in Switzerland perceive and manage Legionnaires' disease. Read More

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Influence of Metal Concentration and Plumbing Materials on Contamination.

Microorganisms 2022 May 19;10(5). Epub 2022 May 19.

Public Health Institute of Split-Dalmatia County, Vukovarska 46, 21000 Split, Croatia.

colonization of water supply pipes is a significant public health problem. The objective of this work was to evaluate colonization in hotel hot water systems and to investigate the relationship between metal concentrations, piping materials (galvanized iron pipes and plastic pipes), and proliferation. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions and the presence of were determined in a total of 108 water samples from the hot water systems of four hotels in Split-Dalmatia County over a 12-month period, and additional data on piping materials were collected. Read More

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Unusual Lipid Components of Membranes.

Metabolites 2022 May 6;12(5). Epub 2022 May 6.

Core Facility Metabolomics, Research Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

spp. cause Legionnaires' disease with pneumonia as the predominant clinical symptom. is the second most prevalent causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia after . Read More

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Zinc Metalloprotease ProA from Inhibits the Pro-Inflammatory Host Response by Degradation of Bacterial Flagellin.

Biomolecules 2022 Apr 22;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Spielmannstr. 7, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.

The environmental bacterium is an intracellular pathogen of various protozoan hosts and able to cause Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia in humans. By encoding a wide selection of virulence factors, the infectious agent possesses several strategies to manipulate its host cells and evade immune detection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the zinc metalloprotease ProA functions as a modulator of flagellin-mediated TLR5 stimulation and subsequent activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. Read More

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Environmental surveillance of in tourist facilities of the Balearic Islands, Spain, 2006 to 2010 and 2015 to 2018.

Euro Surveill 2022 May;27(21)

Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud (IUNICS), Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

BackgroundLegionnaires' disease is a respiratory illness often associated with hotels and travel. Spain is a major tourist destination and one of the European countries with most cases of Legionnaires' disease , both community- and travel-associated. However, the prevalence of in tourist facilities is unknown. Read More

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Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome and Legionella pneumonia: a case report and literature review.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 May 24;22(1):205. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare clinicopathological condition. Studies in the literature have reported that AFOP may be associated with respiratory infections, such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Penicillium citrinum, and Chlamydia infections. However, AFOP associated with Legionella infection has not been reported previously. Read More

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Investigation of a cluster of Legionnaires' disease during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in northeastern Taiwan, June 2021.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kee-Lung, Kee-Lung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe the investigation and intervention of a cluster of Legionnaires' disease detected during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: From June 7 to 22, 2021, 15 cases in the neighborhood near our hospital were detected. Information about residence, workplace, hospital visit, and potential exposures was collected. Read More

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Use of Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy With IR Biotyper® System for Serogroups Identification.

Front Microbiol 2022 26;13:866426. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

spp. are Gram-negative bacteria that inhabit freshwater environments representing a serious risk for human health. () is the species most frequently responsible for a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Read More

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Validating a clinical prediction score for Legionella-related community acquired pneumonia.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 May 9;22(1):442. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Pulmonology, Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, Netherlands.

Background: Legionella-related community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease with an increasing incidence and a high mortality rate, especially if empirical antibiotic therapy is inadequate. Antibiotic treatment highly relies on clinical symptoms, although proven non-specific, because currently available diagnostic techniques provide insufficient accuracy for detecting Legionella CAP on admission. This study validates a diagnostic scoring system for detection of Legionella-related CAP, based on six items on admission (Legionella prediction score). Read More

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Temporal trends in legionellosis national notification data and the effect of COVID-19, Switzerland, 2000-2020.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2022 Apr 26:113970. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Federal Office of Public Health, Berne, Switzerland.

The notification rate of legionellosis in Switzerland and other European countries has markedly increased over the last 20 years. Here, we investigated the Swiss notification data on legionellosis from 2000 to 2020 in regards of overall time trend, content and data quality. We further explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the reported case numbers using an interrupted time series approach. Read More

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Legionnaires' Disease: Update on Diagnosis and Treatment.

Infect Dis Ther 2022 Jun 3;11(3):973-986. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Insitute (IDIBELL), Feixa Llarga s/n, Barcelona, Spain.

Legionellosis is the infection caused by bacteria of the genus Legionella, including a non-pneumonic influenza-like syndrome, and Legionnaires' disease is a more serious illness characterized by pneumonia. Legionellosis is becoming increasingly important as a public health problem throughout the world; although it is an underreported disease, studies have consistently documented a high incidence. In addition, health costs associated with the disease are high. Read More

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Legionella water testing and the EU Drinking Water Directive: could potentially harmful bacteria slip through the gaps?

Biotechniques 2022 Jun 26;72(6):229-231. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

BioProbe Diagnostics, Room 218, Business Innovation Centre, Newcastle Road, NUI Galway, H91 NV29, Ireland.

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Four-Year Environmental Surveillance Program of spp. in One of Palermo's Largest Hospitals.

Microorganisms 2022 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Legionella Reference Laboratory, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

is a ubiquitous bacterium that lives in freshwater environments and colonizes human-made water systems. is the most virulent species, and risk factors for Legionnaires' disease include increasing age, smoking, chronic diseases, and immunodeficiency. For this reason, it is very important to assess and monitor hospital water systems in order to prevent legionellosis. Read More

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Presence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Bacteria in Environmental Water and Soil Sources of China.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Apr 19:e0114021. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

The distribution of pathogenic in the environmental soil and water of China has not been documented yet. In this study, was detected in 129 of 575 water (22.43%) and 41 of 442 soil samples (9. Read More

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New Global Insights on the Regulation of the Biphasic Life Cycle and Virulence Via ClpP-Dependent Proteolysis in Legionella pneumophila.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2022 May 12;21(5):100233. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Run Ze Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Microbiome Study, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Legionella pneumophila, an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, causes Legionnaires' disease in humans that is characterized by severe pneumonia. This bacterium adopts a distinct biphasic life cycle consisting of a nonvirulent replicative phase and a virulent transmissive phase in response to different environmental conditions. Hence, the timely and fine-tuned expression of growth and virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner is crucial for survival and replication. Read More

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DNA aptamers specific for Legionella pneumophila: systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment in whole bacterial cells.

Biotechnol Lett 2022 Jun 13;44(5-6):777-786. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Innovative Institute for Plant Health, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, No. 24, Dongsha Street, Guangzhou, China.

Legionella pneumophila is the major causative agent of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever, which pose major public health problems. Rapid detection of L. pneumophila is important for global control of these diseases. Read More

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Migration of Acanthamoeba through Legionella biofilms is regulated by the bacterial Lqs-LvbR network, effector proteins and the flagellum.

Environ Microbiol 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zürich, Gloriastrasse 30, Zürich, 8006, Switzerland.

The environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes the pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. The opportunistic pathogen forms biofilms and employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) to replicate in amoebae and macrophages. A regulatory network comprising the Legionella quorum sensing (Lqs) system and the transcription factor LvbR controls bacterial motility, virulence and biofilm architecture. Read More

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Risk assessment and quantitative measurement along with monitoring of in hospital water sources.

New Microbes New Infect 2022 Jan 24;45:100948. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

spp. as a causative agent of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and an opportunistic pathogen creates a public health problem. Isolation and quantification of this bacteria from clinic water sources are essential for hazard appraisal and sickness avoidance. Read More

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January 2022

Extensive epigenetic modification with large-scale chromosomal and plasmid recombination characterise the Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 genome.

Sci Rep 2022 04 6;12(1):5810. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Molecular Epidemiology and Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Legionella longbeachae is an environmental bacterium that is the most clinically significant Legionella species in New Zealand (NZ), causing around two-thirds of all notified cases of Legionnaires' disease. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the geo-temporal genetic diversity of 54 L. longbeachae serogroup 1 (sg1) clinical isolates, derived from cases from around NZ over a 22-year period, including one complete genome and its associated methylome. Read More

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A sequential utilization of the UV-A (365 nm) fluence rate for disinfection of water, contaminated with Legionella pneumophila and Legionelladumoffii.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jul 26;304:119224. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Hygiene Laboratories: Water, Food, Environment, Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, via Cinthia 26, 80126, Naples, Italy; Centro Servizi Metrologici e Tecnologici Avanzati (CeSMA), University of Federico II, Corso Nicolangelo Protopisani, 80146, Naples, Italy.

Legionella species are the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, a pathology easily contracted from water circuits and by the inhalation of aerosol droplets. This bacterium mainly proliferates in water: Legionella pneumophila is the most commonly isolated specie in water environments and consequently in water system, although further Legionella species have frequently been isolated, including Legionella dumoffii. The simultaneous presence of the two species in the water system can therefore lead to the simultaneous infection of several people, giving rise to harmful outbreaks. Read More

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Variable Response to Building Occupancy Patterns and Precautionary Flushing.

Microorganisms 2022 Mar 3;10(3). Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Environmental Microbiology, Eawag-Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8306 Deubendorf, Switzerland.

When stay-at-home orders were issued to slow the spread of COVID-19, building occupancy (and water demand) was drastically decreased in many buildings. There was concern that widespread low water demand may cause unprecedented occurrence and Legionnaires' disease incidence. In lieu of evidenced-based guidance, many people flushed their water systems as a preventative measure, using highly variable practices. Read More

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in Municipal Shower Systems in Stavanger, Norway; A Longitudinal Surveillance Study Using Whole Genome Sequencing in Risk Management.

Microorganisms 2022 Feb 28;10(3). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

National Reference Laboratory for Legionella, Department of Medical Microbiology, Stavanger University Hospital, P.O. Box 8100, N-4068 Stavanger, Norway.

Following an incidence of Legionnaires disease (LD) in 2007, where a municipal shower system was the likely source of infection, Stavanger municipality initiated a surveillance program for as part of establishing internal risk evaluation and prevention routines. More than 250 shower systems were examined for cultivatable The prevalence and diversity of serogroups (sg) and sequence types (STs) of were mapped using available typing techniques over a period of more than 10 years (2010-2021). The surveillance showed an overall reduction in the colonisation rate in municipal systems from 11 to 4. Read More

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February 2022

SARS-CoV-2-Legionella Co-Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (2020-2021).

Microorganisms 2022 Feb 23;10(3). Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy.

Legionnaires' Disease (LD) is a severe, sometimes fatal interstitial pneumonia due to . Since the inception of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, some contradictory reports about the effects of lockdown measures on its epidemiology have been published, but no summary evidence has been collected to date. Therefore, we searched two different databases (PubMed and EMBASE) focusing on studies that reported the occurrence of LD among SARS-CoV-2 cases. Read More

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February 2022