121,188 results match your criteria Legal and Criminological Psychology [Journal]


Overcoming bioethical, legal, and hereditary barriers to mitochondrial replacement therapy in the USA.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Exergen Corporation, Watertown, MA, USA.

The purpose of the paper is to explore novel means to overcome the controversial ban in the USA against mitochondrial replacement therapy, a form of IVF, with the added step of replacing a woman's diseased mutated mitochondria with a donor's healthy mitochondria to prevent debilitating and often fatal mitochondrial diseases. Long proven effective in non-human species, MRT recently performed in Mexico resulted in the birth of a healthy baby boy. We explore the ethics of the ban, the concerns over hereditability of mitochondrial disease and its mathematical basis, the overlooked role of Mitochondrial Eve, the financial burden of mitochondrial diseases for taxpayers, and a woman's reproductive rights. Read More

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December 2018

Sudden unexpected infantile death due to undiagnosed ventricular septal defect-associated heart failure with single coronary artery.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Legal Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8521, Japan.

Ventricular septal defect (VSD) generally has a good prognosis unless complicated by heart failure (HF). We report a case of sudden infant death because of clinically undiagnosed VSD in a seemingly healthy 16-day-old boy. Although a cardiac murmur was auscultated at birth, detailed clinical examination was not performed. Read More

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December 2018

Ambient geochemical baselines for trace elements in Chernozems-approximation of geochemical soil transformation in an agricultural area.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 15;191(1):19. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Protection, Grunwaldzka 53, 50-357, Wrocław, Poland.

The legal regulatory/action levels of trace elements in soils are established at high concentrations, at which the crucial functions of soil are at risk or are eliminated. However, concentrations below these action levels, but above presumed natural levels, may also limit particular ecosystem services, including organic food production. Thus, defining the (ambient) background concentrations is an essential part of environmental or health risk assessment, e. Read More

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December 2018

Histological dating of subdural hematoma in infants.

Int J Legal Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Forensic Department, APHM, La Timone, 264 rue St Pierre, 13385, Marseille, Cedex 05, France.

Background: After infant deaths due to non-accidental head injury (NAHI) with subdural hematoma (SDH), the magistrates ask experts to date the traumatic event. To do so, the expert only has tools based on adult series of NAHI. We aimed to develop an SDH dating system applicable to infants aged under 3 years. Read More

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December 2018

A taxonomy of duties to report child sexual abuse: Legal developments offer new ways to facilitate disclosure.

Authors:
Ben Mathews

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 13;88:337-347. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Law, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia; Faculty of Law, QUT, Australia; Childhood Adversity Research Program, Faculty of Health, QUT, Australia; Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Child sexual abuse is undisclosed for many reasons that are resistant to change. Citizens can play an important role in disclosing cases of child sexual abuse to authorities. Professionals who deal with children also play a crucial role. Read More

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December 2018

Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in soils and crops. A field study in legume plants (Vicia faba L.) grown under different watering regimes.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 6;170:16-25. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Social concern has raised during the last years due to the development of antibiotic resistance hotspots in different environmental compartments, including the edible parts of crops. To assess the influence of the water quality used for watering, we collected samples from soil, roots, leaves and beans from the legume plant Vicia faba (broad beans) in three agricultural peri-urban plots (Barcelona, NE Spain), irrigated with either groundwater, river water, or reclaimed water. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) sul1, tetM, qnrS1, blabla, mecA, and bla were quantified by real-time PCR, along with 16S rDNA and intl1 sequences, as proxies for bacterial abundance and integron prevalence, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Surrogacy and ethics in women with cancer.

Authors:
Susan V Carr

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. Electronic address:

Women diagnosed with gynaecological cancer may face unwanted loss of fertility as well as all the other life-changing issues with which cancer and its treatments are associated. The decision to harvest and store gametes has to be made before commencement of treatment, and advances in these techniques have made this successful. Fertility sparing therefore must be discussed and offered at an early stage post diagnosis. Read More

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November 2018

Cannabis induced increase in striatal glutamate associated with loss of functional corticostriatal connectivity.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug and is known to alter state of consciousness and impair neurocognitive function. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be fully elucidated. Rodent studies suggest that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activates dopaminergic neurons in the limbic system, subsequently enhancing dopamine, which is implicated in the rewarding effects of cannabis. Read More

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December 2018

An evaluation of the effects of lowering blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers on the rates of road traffic accidents and alcohol consumption: a natural experiment.

Lancet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Public Health Observatory, NHS Health Scotland, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Drink driving is an important risk factor for road traffic accidents (RTAs), which cause high levels of morbidity and mortality globally. Lowering the permitted blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for drivers is a common public health intervention that is enacted in countries and jurisdictions across the world. In Scotland, on Dec 5, 2014, the BAC limit for drivers was reduced from 0·08 g/dL to 0·05 g/dL. Read More

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December 2018

The determinants of motorcyclists helmet use: Urban arterial road in Khon Kaen City, Thailand.

J Safety Res 2018 Dec 28;67:93-97. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand. Electronic address:

Introduction: Currently, Thailand incurs the highest death toll of motorcyclists in the world. The aim of this study was to explore the factors influencing helmet use of motorcyclists in Khon Kaen City, Thailand by using the Logistic regression analysis.

Method: The samples, consisting of 27,977 riders and 6,947 riding passengers, were collected by CCTV installed at several signalized intersections along urban arterial roads. Read More

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December 2018

Optimizing denaturing HPLC as a robust technique for identification of Short Tandem Repeats (STR) in forensic medicine.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Dec 10;61:108-114. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department and Biotechnology Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are defined as short lengths of 2-7 base pairs spreading through human genome which due to their highly diverse individually distribution are widely applied for identity detection and other forensic medicine purposes. Burdening considerable costs by the conventional methods such as capillary electrophoresis, we aimed to compare concomitant usage of multiplex PCR and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) as cheap, fast, highly accurate, and more accessible methods, with capillary electrophoresis (CE) to evaluate their potential for early screening of STRs.

Materials And Methods: The present study randomly included 20 blood samples from the subjects referred to forensic medicine of Semnan, Iran. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Evidence based survey of the distribution volume of ethanol: Comparison of empirically determined values with anthropometric measures.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 13;294:124-131. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Principal Forensic Services, Bromley, Kent, UK.

The Widmark equation is commonly used when blood alcohol calculations are required in forensic and legal medicine, such as in road-traffic cases and alcohol-related deaths. An important biological variable in this connection is the volume of distribution (V) of ethanol, which is commonly referred to as the rho-factor. Although a person's V can be determined empirically through controlled drinking experiments, this approach is not very practical in reality. Read More

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November 2018

Demarcating the dirty work: Canadian Fertility professionals' use of boundary-work in contentious egg donation.

Authors:
Skye A Miner

Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 1;221:19-26. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Sociology, McGill University, Room 712, Leacock Building, 855 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T7, Canada. Electronic address:

The potential medical risks to egg donors, in addition to the concern over the commodification of life, has led to debates surrounding the ethics of paying donors. In Canada, payment for eggs is prohibited by law; however, what is considered payment is contentious and has yet to be defined. The lack of legislative clarity coupled with increased ethical concerns over paying a donor has shifted egg donation from a medically-controlled procedure to a legal and social endeavor involving multiple professionals. Read More

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December 2018

Women's perspectives about cannabis use during pregnancy and the postpartum period: An integrative review.

Prev Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among general and pregnant populations. Despite recommendations to abstain from cannabis use, its use is increasing during the perinatal period. In this integrative review, we aim to understand women's perspectives about the health aspects of perinatal cannabis use. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A new mucin-binding lectin from the marine sponge Aplysina fulva (AFL) exhibits antibiofilm effects.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratório de Biotecnologia Marinha - BioMar-Lab, Departamento de Engenharia de Pesca, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici s/n, bloco 871, 60440-970, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:

A new mucin-binding lectin (AFL) was isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina fulva. AFL was purified by affinity chromatography on Sepharose™ matrix. Its hemagglutinating activity was independent of divalent ions, and it was weakly inhibited by simple sugars. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Dual use in the 21st century: emerging risks and global governance.

Swiss Med Wkly 2018 Nov 2;148:w14688. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Health Ethics and Policy Lab, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Dual use research of concern (DURC) is defined by the World Health Organization as "life sciences research that is intended for benefit, but which might easily be misapplied to do harm." Ethical and policy discussions on DURC span the past three decades. Today, however, new and emerging technologies and associated sociocultural transformations within the scientific community are reshaping the current risk scenario. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Anatomy of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS).

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;171:93-105

Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomic Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

This Chapter provides an introduction and overview of the U.S. FDA REMS program and applicable regulatory aspects. Read More

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January 2019

Key Elements in Adverse Drug Reactions Safety Signals: Application of Legal Strategies.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;171:47-59

University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Adverse drug reactions, or unintended and harmful outcomes related to the administration of a pharmaceutical product, are a major public health concern, particularly for cancer patients. If counted as a separate cause of death, adverse drug reactions would represent the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. Several legal strategies are available to help mitigate their occurrences and to compensate victims for the harm that results from adverse events. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Tongue position and its relation to the cause of death and sequential stages of body decomposition observed during 608 forensic post-mortems.

Int J Legal Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Statistics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

The purpose of this study was to document tongue position and its relation to the cause of death and sequential stages of body decomposition, as observed during the routine forensic pathological examination of bodies. The sample of 608 included all bodies examined by the first and third authors during the period April 2016 to September 2016. Tongue position was recorded in all cases where position of the tongue could be visually determined. Read More

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December 2018

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of humanoid robot-based distraction for venipuncture pain in children.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023366. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Intravenous insertion (IVI) is a very common procedure in the emergency department (ED). IVI is often painful and stressful for both children and their families. Currently, distraction therapy is not used as a standard of care for IVI in North America. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Inflammation and oxidative stress are key mediators in AKB48-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Beyazıt, 34116 Istanbul, Turkey.

Synthetic cannabinoids were introduced into market in early 2000s; since these "legal highs" are dramatically popular among youth, it becomes a deadly problem. Synthetic cannabinoids have high affinity to cannabinoid receptors; leading to various clinical symptoms. AKB48 (Apinaca) has been classified as a third-generation synthetic cannabinoid for the first time in 2014. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Counterfactual Thinking, Causation, and Covariation in Mock Juror Assessments of Negligence: Twenty-Five Years Later.

Authors:
Jason A Cantone

Psychol Rep 2018 Dec 14:33294118816945. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

In the past three decades, researchers have examined counterfactual thinking and causation in decision making. However, little work has applied these findings to trial settings. The present research examined two conflicting theories regarding counterfactual thinking and causation to elaborate on earlier work examining counterfactual thinking in negligence law cases. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents on visual impairment/blindness prevention in patients with diabetic macular edema and on associated patient and caregiver burden in Japan.

J Med Econ 2018 Dec 14:1-28. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

e Market Access, Health Economics and Outcomes Research , Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd , Tokyo , Japan.

Aims: To estimate the impact of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents on visual impairment and blindness avoided in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and on associated patient and caregiver productivity loss in Japan.

Methods: We compared the impact of current care (estimated at 53.8% utilization of anti-VEGF agents using current data) with that of hypothetical care (characterized by a higher utilization of anti-VEGF agents [80. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Transgender inmates: A systems-based model for assessment and treatment planning.

Psychol Serv 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Correct Care Solutions.

Concepts of gender, gender roles, and gender norms have continuously adapted with the increased acceptance of diversity throughout the United States in recent decades. Although guidelines exist regarding competent assessment and treatment of transgender individuals, correctional environments place substantial restrictions and complications on this process. Recent legal cases have increased public awareness of such cases, including challenges to the status quo of which responsibilities fall under the purview of correctional systems. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

[CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDICAL AND ITS CASE LAW EVOLUTION. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PROFILES].

Authors:
Antonio Capasso

G Ital Nefrol 2018 Dec;35(6)

Dottore in giurisprudenza, Cultore della materia Università Federico II Napoli.

The article deals with the regulatory and jurisprudential evolution of medical criminal responsibility from the 70s to the Gelli-Bianco law of 2017. Subsequently it winds through the contribution of the last important judgments of the subject up to the decisions of the Supreme Court with United Sections of 2018, finally to conclude with an economic analysis on the increasement of the legal disputes registered in recent years. Read More

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December 2018

Survey on the status of teledermatology in Austria.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Dermatology, Graz Medical University, Graz, Austria.

Background: The use of digital communication media is becoming increasingly important, with the primary aim of improving both treatment quality and patients' quality of life. In an effort to optimize telemedicine in the field of dermatology, we conducted a survey among dermatologists in Austria.

Methods: Statistical analysis of a questionnaire that was developed by a working group and sent to 769 Austrian dermatologists. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

From democratic participation to civic resistance: the loss of institutional trust as an outcome of activism in the refugee solidarity movement.

Authors:
Jonas Toubøl

Br J Sociol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Adding to the literature on non-institutional political action and trust, this article argues that the loss of institutional trust is not only a cause but also an outcome of political activism. Studying the Danish refugee solidarity movement in a mixed-methods research design including survey and qualitative interview data, the article shows that three kinds of activism - political activism, humanitarian activity, and civil disobedience - relate differently to the loss of trust in the institutions of the Parliament, the legal system, and the police. Political activism primarily affects a loss of trust in the Parliament due to low external efficacy and a closed political opportunity structure. Read More

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December 2018

Tramadol dispensing patterns and trends in Canada, 2007-2016.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.

Purpose: Opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity have substantially increased in Canada, which recent interventions have aimed to reduce. Tramadol is an atypical prescription-only (but unscheduled under Canada's narcotics law) opioid analgesic and not subject to controls for other (eg, strong) opioids. Given experiences in different jurisdictions, tramadol may have been increasingly dispensed as a "substitute" drug during a period with increasingly restrictive controls for other (scheduled) opioids. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of Victimization and Fear of Crime on the Legal Socialization of Young Adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2018 Dec 14:306624X18818810. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

2 University of São Paulo, Brazil.

It is important to understand how young adolescents come to view authorities during formative years. Experiencing, witnessing, and fearing victimization have been linked to the process of legal socialization and subsequent attitudes and behavior. In addition, procedural justice may influence adolescent perceptions of fairness of the authorities. Read More

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December 2018

Cannabis Oil in an Irish Children’s Critical Care Unit

Ir Med J 2018 09 10;111(8):807. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Pain Medicine, Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 12.

Aims We present a case of a five-year-old female admitted postoperatively to the Paediatric Critical Care Unit with a history of refractory seizures for which her parents were administering cannabis oil. Methods We discuss the issues surrounding cannabis prescription in Ireland and the role of parental autonomy in medication selection and administration. Results An administration regime was agreed upon following discussion with the child’s parents. Read More

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September 2018

More interdisciplinary research is needed in forensic medicine.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Berlin, Germany.

Forensic routine consists of more than just the classical legal medicine described in textbooks. It is often crucial to answer forensic questions that involve numerous interfaces with other medical disciplines. These interdisciplinary questions that arise in routine autopsy proceedures can also be addressed scientifically, despite decreasing autopsy numbers. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiac Involvement by Yellow Fever(from the PROVAR+ Study).

Am J Cardiol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Serviço de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular e Centro de Telessaúde do Hospital das Clínicas da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Incidence of Yellow Fever (YF) has increased in Brazil, and cardiac findings such as bradyarrhythmias and conduction abnormalities have been described. We aimed to perform a comprehensive cardiac evaluation of patients with YF, and to assess the association between cardiac involvement and disease severity. Patients hospitalized with YF from February to March 2018 underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation, focused bedside echocardiography (GE Vivid IQ), electrocardiogram and, in case of alterations, 24-hours Holter. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Increased Use of Medical Marijuana: Skepticism vs. Evidence.

Authors:
Jeannette Y Wick

Consult Pharm 2018 Dec;33(12):680-689

The use of medical marijuana-both the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and its nonpsychoactive relative cannabidiol-is a growing practice in facilities served by senior care pharmacists. Currently, 30 states have approved its use under a variety of different regulations and for a number of conditions. Its use is bolstered by a growing number of Americans who support legalization of cannabis. Read More

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December 2018

The patient-psychologist relationship and informed consent in neuropsychological evaluations.

Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 14:1-28. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Independent Practice , Beaverton , OR , USA.

Objective: To discuss specific issues regarding consent for neuropsychological evaluation and the patient-psychologist relationship within the context of the Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association and relevant literature.

Method: The author makes recommendations based on the Ethics Code and published sources. This article is advisory and does not prescribe ethical practice. Read More

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December 2018

High-Frequency Heating Extraction Method for Sensitive Drug Analysis in Human Nails.

Molecules 2018 Dec 7;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Legal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan.

A simple, sensitive, and rapid extraction method based on high-frequency (H-F) heating was developed for drug analysis in human nails. A human nail was placed in a glass tube with an extraction solvent (methanol and 0.1% formic acid; 7:3, /), and a ferromagnetic alloy (pyrofoil) was wrapped in a spiral around the glass tube. Read More

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December 2018

Transition of a Mallory-Weiss syndrome to a Boerhaave syndrome confirmed by anamnestic, necroscopic, and autopsy data: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13191

Department of Legal and Forensic Medicine, University of Genova, Genova.

Rationale: Spontaneous esophageal rupture (Boerhaave syndrome) is a rare, though frequently fatal, event. It is generally caused by a sudden increase in pressure inside the esophagus. In some cases, full-thickness perforations of the esophagus may develop from previous lesions that initially involve only the esophageal mucosa (Mallory-Weiss syndrome) and which, following further triggering events, give rise to a transmural lesion. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Barriers and opportunities to improve the foundations for high-quality healthcare in the Mexican Health System.

Health Policy Plan 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Social Research, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

This study aimed to describe the foundations for quality of care (QoC) in the Mexican public health sector and identify barriers to quality evaluation and improvement from the perspective of the QoC leaders of the main public health sector institutions: Ministry of Health (MoH), the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and the Institute of Social Security of State Workers (ISSSTE). We administered a semi-structured online questionnaire that gathered information on foundations (governance, health workforce, platforms, tools and population), evaluation and improvement activities for QoC; 320 leaders from MoH, IMSS and ISSSTE participated. We used thematic content and descriptive analyses to analyse the data. Read More

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December 2018

Protecting the Rights of Children with Intersex Conditions from Nonconsensual Gender-Conforming Medical Interventions: The View from Europe.

Med Law Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Law, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Nonconsensual gender-conforming interventions on children with intersex conditions have recently come under sharp criticism from human rights authorities within the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the European Union, which have identified these interventions as violating children's rights to bodily integrity, privacy, and protection from violence, torture, and degrading treatment. Responding largely to requests for intervention from nongovernmental organizations, these authorities have called upon nations to reform their legal frameworks, both to prevent these rights violations and to redress them. To date, however, few nations have endeavored to prohibit nonconsensual gender-conforming procedures on children with intersex conditions, and none have enacted significant reforms of their frameworks to redress rights violations. Read More

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December 2018

Use of the Randox Evidence Investigator immunoassay system for near-body drug screening during post-mortem examination in 261 forensic cases.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 26;294:211-215. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Archaeology, Anthropology & Forensic Science, Bournemouth University, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK. Electronic address:

Background: This paper describes the performance of four Randox drug arrays, designed for whole blood, for the near-body analysis of drugs in a range of post-mortem body specimens.

Methods: Liver, psoas muscle, femoral blood, vitreous humor and urine from 261 post-mortem cases were screened in the mortuary and results were obtained within the time taken to complete a post-mortem. Specimens were screened for the presence of amfetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, cannabinoids, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, ketamine, lysergide, methadone, metamfetamine, methaqualone, 3,4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine, opioids, paracetamol, phencyclidine, salicylate, salicylic acid, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem using the DOA I, DOA I+, DOA II and Custom arrays. Read More

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November 2018

Regulatory and Evidence Requirements and the Changing Landscape in Regulation for Marketing Authorisation.

Recent Results Cancer Res 2019 ;213:169-187

European Medicines Agency, 30 Churchill Place, Canary Wharf, London, UK.

In this chapter, we describe the changing landscape of the EU pharmaceutical legislation concerning regulation and evidence requirements for marketing authorisation. First, we describe the legal requirements for marketing authorisation and the development of EU pharmaceutical legislation and the concept of risk-benefit balance. Second, we describe special types of authorisation, such as conditional approval and approval under exceptional circumstances, and special provisions such as incentives for orphan medicinal products and paediatric investigational plans. Read More

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January 2019

Cannabinoids: Potential Role in Inflammatory and Neoplastic Skin Diseases.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

The endocannabinoid system is a complex and nearly ubiquitous network of endogenous ligands, enzymes, and receptors that can also be stimulated by exogenous compounds such as those derived from the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa. Recent data have shown that the endocannabinoid system is fully functional in the skin and is responsible for maintaining many aspects of skin homeostasis, such as proliferation, differentiation, and release of inflammatory mediators. Because of its role in regulating these key processes, the endocannabinoid system has been studied for its modulating effects on both inflammatory disorders of the skin and skin cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Corrigendum: Is There a Conjunction Fallacy in Legal Probabilistic Decision Making?

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2281. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, City, University of London, London, United Kingdom.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018. Read More

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November 2018

Disgust, stigma, and the politics of abortion.

Authors:
Anuradha Kumar

Fem Psychol 2018 Nov 19;28(4):530-538. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Ipas, USA.

Despite the growing body of research on the emotion of disgust - including its relationship to political ideology, moral judgment, matters of sex and sexuality, and death - the global reproductive rights movement has paid relatively little attention to the role disgust plays in the debate over abortion. By focusing on the right of a woman to make her own decision about an unwanted pregnancy, the pro-choice community has allowed anti-choice groups to define and frame the abortion procedure, abortion providers, and women who have abortions in terms associated with disgust. This commentary encourages further examination of what triggers disgust, its measurement, and ways of mitigating it, which could be useful for reducing abortion stigma, in future legal cases and in abortion research, advocacy, and communications. Read More

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November 2018

[Medical team's struggle with financial abuse in the corresponding -Limitation of the adult guardianship system: A case report].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2018 ;55(4):663-667

Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya City Kousei-in.

Upon diagnosis of dementia, a 93-year-old woman was unable to manage her finances. Her nephew illegally spent her money, which was considered as financial abuse.The public office forcibly admitted her to our hospital as a legal measure. Read More

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January 2018

Big data and black-box medical algorithms.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(471)

University of Michigan Law School, 921 Legal Research, 801 Monroe St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

New machine-learning techniques entering medicine present challenges in validation, regulation, and integration into practice. Read More

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December 2018

[Regulatory requirements; What steps must be taken before starting a biomedical research study?]

Semergen 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Centro de Concepción Arenal, Gerencia de Gestión Integrada de Santiago de Compostela, Servicio Galego de Saúde, Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña), España. Electronic address:

Studies of research with human beings, their biological specimens, or their personal data in the field of biomedicine have been subject to regulation since the middle of the last century. Initially a regulation based on recommendations such as the Nuremberg Code, the Belmont Report or the first versions of the Declaration of Helsinki. All of them documents in which the principles (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice) were conceptualized, and that all researchers had to follow in the development of their research. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of country policies affecting reproductive health for adolescents in the Philippines.

Reprod Health 2018 Dec 12;15(1):205. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Reproductive Health and Research/ Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Adolescents in the Philippines face many legal, social and political barriers to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, putting them at higher risk of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and other health and development problems.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate whether current normative documents on SRH in the Philippines are in concurrence with adolescents' human rights principles using the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidance and Recommendations on ensuring human rights in the provision of contraceptive information and services.

Methods: The review focused on policies and normative guidance documents which included the national reproductive health law, its implementing rules and regulations, and the Supreme Court decisions on the law, and documents cited in the government's Adolescent and Youth Health Programme. Read More

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December 2018

Ethical issues in susceptibility genetic testing for late-onset neurodegenerative diseases.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Genetics & Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Genome-wide association studies have revolutionized our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases over the last decade. This knowledge is enabling clinicians, researchers, and direct-to-consumer genetics companies to conduct disease susceptibility testing based on powerful methods such as polygenic risk scoring. However, these technologies raise a set of complex ethical, legal, social, and policy considerations. Read More

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December 2018