28,002 results match your criteria Lead Encephalopathy


[Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Dec;50(6):1102-1107

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

This case report concerns a 22-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She had intermittent fever, butterfly erythema, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, and multiple arthralgia in the past seven years, but she did not adhere to regular treatments. The edema of the lower extremities and face aggravated in the recent two weeks, so she was admitted to our Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanisms and Management of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy-Related Toxicities.

BioDrugs 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, FOB-3, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy has proven to be a very effective cancer immunotherapy. Axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel are the first-in-class anti-CD19 CAR-T currently available for relapsed/refractory adult large B-cell lymphoma. Tisagenlecleucel is also available for pediatric and young adult (up to age 25 years) patients with relapsed/refractory B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40259-018-0324-zDOI Listing
December 2018

The Antipruritic Effect of Phototherapy.

Authors:
Franz J Legat

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 30;5:333. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Phototherapy is widely used to treat inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Repeated suberythemogenic doses of UV-light reduce inflammation in these diseases and ultimately may lead to a complete disappearance of cutaneous symptoms for weeks or months. Chronic pruritus is an important and highly distressing symptom of many of these inflammatory skin diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287194PMC
November 2018

The influence of receptor activity-modifying protein-1 overexpression on angiogenesis in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Receptor activity-modifying protein-1 (RAMP1) is highly expressed in the heart and vasculature, indicating that it might be related to the vascular system. However, the effects of RAMP1 on angiogenesis and the intrinsic mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we verified that RAMP1 is a critical regulator of angiogenesis in a mouse brain capillary endothelial cell line (bEnd. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28292DOI Listing
December 2018

The Genetic Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Therapeutic Perspectives.

Brain Sci 2018 Dec 13;8(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Evidence-Based Therapeutics Group, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía 140013, Colombia.

Genetics has led to a new focus regarding approaches to the most prevalent diseases today. Ascertaining the molecular secrets of neurodegenerative diseases will lead to developing drugs that will change natural history, thereby affecting the quality of life and mortality of patients. The sequencing of candidate genes in patients suffering neurodegenerative pathologies is faster, more accurate, and has a lower cost, thereby enabling algorithms to be proposed regarding the risk of neurodegeneration onset in healthy persons including the year of onset and neurodegeneration severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8120222DOI Listing
December 2018

MRI phenotypes of the brain are related to future stroke and mortality in patients with manifest arterial disease: The SMART-MR study.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 14:271678X18818918. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases lead to heterogeneous brain abnormalities. A combined analysis of these abnormalities by phenotypes of the brain might give a more accurate representation of the underlying aetiology. We aimed to identify different MRI phenotypes of the brain and assessed the risk of future stroke and mortality within these subgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X18818918DOI Listing
December 2018

Peripheral Biomarker for Vascular Disorders.

Biomark Insights 2018 29;13:1177271918812467. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Life Sciences and Centre for Health Technologies, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, Australia.

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of most myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke episodes. An early sign of atherosclerosis is hypertrophy of the arterial wall. It is known that increased intima media thickness (IMT) is a non-invasive marker of arterial wall alteration, which can easily be assessed in the carotid arteries by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1177271918812467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287300PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

From Neuronal Differentiation of iPSCs to 3D Neuro-Organoids: Modelling and Therapy of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 10;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Genomic and Post-Genomic Center, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

In the last decade, the advances made into the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) led to great improvements towards their use as models of diseases. In particular, in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, iPSCs technology allowed to culture in vitro all types of patient-specific neural cells, facilitating not only the investigation of diseases' etiopathology, but also the testing of new drugs and cell therapies, leading to the innovative concept of personalized medicine. Moreover, iPSCs can be differentiated and organized into 3D organoids, providing a tool which mimics the complexity of the brain's architecture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123972DOI Listing
December 2018

Microbiome-The Missing Link in the Gut-Brain Axis: Focus on Its Role in Gastrointestinal and Mental Health.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 7;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland.

The central nervous system (CNS) and the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate through the gut-brain axis (GBA). Such communication is bi-directional and involves neuronal, endocrine, and immunological mechanisms. There is mounting data that gut microbiota is the source of a number of neuroactive and immunocompetent substances, which shape the structure and function of brain regions involved in the control of emotions, cognition, and physical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120521DOI Listing
December 2018
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The evaluation of the sense of hearing in patients with carotid artery stenosis within the extracranial segments.

Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Uniwersytet Medyczny im Piastow Slaskich we Wroclawiu, Wrocław, Dolnośląskie, Poland.

Stenosis of arteries that supplies blood to the brain is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke which is the third most common cause of deaths in Europe. Atherosclerosis of carotid and vertebral arteries is responsible for 20% of the ischemic stroke cases. Stenosis may be either asymptomatic or manifested with typical neurological symptoms including motor and sensory disturbances as well as disturbances in vision and speech. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-01058-3DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2018 13;12:830. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The epidemiological connection between diabetes, obesity, and dementia represents an important public health challenge but also an opportunity to further understand these conditions. The key intersection among the three diseases is insulin resistance, which has been classically described to occur in peripheral tissues in diabetes and obesity and has recently been shown to develop in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Here we review encouraging preclinical and clinical data indicating the potential of targeting impaired insulin signaling with antidiabetic drugs to treat dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277874PMC
November 2018

Type B lactic acidosis from fluorouracil in fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and leucovorin treatment for carcinoma of the colon in a hemodialysis patient.

Clin Kidney J 2018 Dec 12;11(6):786-787. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Type B lactic acidosis complicating malignancies is rare. Increased lactate production from abnormal metabolism of tumor tissue and extensive liver metastases impairing clearance are usual causes. Fluorouracil, commonly used as adjuvant cancer chemotherapy, is not well recognized among drugs that can lead to lactic acidosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfy012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275439PMC
December 2018

Essential oils and functional herbs for healthy aging.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):441-445

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.245467DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Role of viruses, prions and miRNA in neurodegenerative disorders and dementia.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 29;29(4):419-433. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Drug Design & Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National, Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.

Dementia is known as loss of cellular communications in the brain at a region caused by multi-factorial diseases and pathogenic infections. Approximately eighty percent reported cases of Alzheimer's disease are followed by vascular dementia. The common symptoms of dementia include memory loss, concentration problems, thinking, and language solving situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-018-0492-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261888PMC
December 2018

Regression in children with epilepsy.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 8;96:210-218. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University and the IWK Health Centre, Canada.

Regression in children with epilepsy may involve loss of cognitive abilities, failure to progress or a slowing of developmental trajectory. A few seizures do not lead to regression. Large numbers of seizures may be associated with regression but the cause is an important cofounder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.12.008DOI Listing
December 2018

The array of clinical phenotypes of males with mutations in Methyl-CpG binding protein 2.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2 are associated with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, Rett syndrome (RTT), primarily in girls. It had been suspected that mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) led to embryonic lethality in males, however such males have been reported. To enhance understanding of the phenotypic spectrum present in these individuals, we identified 30 males with MECP2 mutations in the RTT Natural History Study databases. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajmg.b.32707
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32707DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Dopamine, oxidative stress and protein-quinone modifications in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Chimica, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, ITALY.

Dopamine (DA) is the most important catecholamine in the brain, as it is the most abundant and the precursor of other neurotransmitters. Degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease represents the best-studied link between DA neurotransmission and neuropathology. Catecholamines are reactive molecules that are handled through complex control and transport systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201811122DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Therapeutic abortion and ectopic pregnancy: alternative sources for fetal stem cell research and therapy in Iran as an Islamic country.

Cell Tissue Bank 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Regenerative medicine as a background of stem cell research and therapy has a long history. A wide variety of diseases including Parkinson's disease, heart diseases, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, diabetes mellitus and etc. are candidate to be treated using different types of stem cells. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10561-018-9741-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-018-9741-yDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Delineating syndrome: From congenital microcephaly to hyperkinetic encephalopathy.

Neurol Genet 2018 Dec 7;4(6):e281. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Objective: To provide new insights into the related clinical and imaging phenotypes and refine the phenotype-genotype correlation in syndrome.

Methods: We analyzed the clinical and imaging phenotypes of a cohort of 45 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant and performed phenotype-genotype correlations.

Results: A total of 37 different heterozygous mutations were identified, of which 18 are novel. Read More

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http://ng.neurology.org/lookup/doi/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244024PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Integration of Proteomics and Metabolomics Revealed Metabolite-Protein Networks in ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 23;9:678. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

An effective treatment for the management of adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas (ACTH-PA) is currently lacking, although surgery is a treatment option. We have integrated information obtained at the metabolomic and proteomic levels to identify critical networks and signaling pathways that may play important roles in the metabolic regulation of ACTH-PA and therefore hopefully represent potential therapeutic targets. Six ACTH-PAs and seven normal pituitary glands were investigated via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for metabolomics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266547PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Polycyclic maleimide-based derivatives as first dual modulators of neuronal calcium channels and GSK-3β for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 3;163:394-402. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Current healthcare has significantly increased the average life expectancy, leading to a consequently greater incidence of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Following a multitarget approach, in this paper a series of polycyclic maleimide-based derivatives were designed and synthesized aimed at simultaneously modulate neuronal calcium channels and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3β), validated targets to combat Alzheimer' disease. Different structural modifications were performed on the polycyclic scaffold in order to investigate the structure-activity relationships and compound 10 emerged as a promising non-toxic lead compound, endowed with calcium modulating brain-addressed properties and significant GSK-3β inhibitory activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Progression in migraine: Role of mast cells and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6;844:87-94. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UOS Clinica dei Pazienti del Territorio, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Migraine is a common painful neurovascular disorder usually associated with several symptoms, such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and inflammation, and involves immune cells. Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells derived from hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells which migrate and mature close to epithelial, blood vessels, and nerves. In almost all vascularized tissues there are MCs that produce, contain and release biologically active products including cytokines, arachidonic acid compounds, and proteases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018
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Tryptophan 32 mediates SOD1 toxicity in a in vivo motor neuron model of ALS and is a promising target for small molecule therapeutics.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 4;124:297-310. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada; Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M8, Canada; Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2H7, Canada. Electronic address:

SOD1 misfolding, toxic gain of function, and spread are proposed as a pathological basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the nature of SOD1 toxicity has been difficult to elucidate. Uniquely in SOD1 proteins from humans and other primates, and rarely in other species, a tryptophan residue at position 32 (W32) is predicted to be solvent exposed and to participate in SOD1 misfolding. We hypothesized that W32 is influential in SOD1 acquiring toxicity, as it is known to be important in template-directed misfolding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2018.11.025DOI Listing
December 2018

Enzyme enhancement therapeutics for lysosomal storage diseases: Current status and perspective.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Dr., Burnaby B.C. V5A 1S6, Canada. Electronic address:

Small-molecule- enzyme enhancement therapeutics (EETs) have emerged as attractive agents for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), a broad group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding lysosomal enzymes, or proteins required for lysosomal function. The underlying enzyme deficiencies characterizing LSDs cause a block in the stepwise degradation of complex macromolecules (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.11.011DOI Listing
November 2018

Using Kinect to classify Parkinson's disease stages related to severity of gait impairment.

BMC Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 10;19(1):471. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neurodegenerative Disorders Area, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, Begiristain Doktorea Pasealekua, Donostia-San Sebastian, 20014, Spain.

Background: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with motor problems such as gait impairment. Different systems based on 3D cameras, accelerometers or gyroscopes have been used in related works in order to study gait disturbances in PD. Kinect has also been used to build these kinds of systems, but contradictory results have been reported: some works conclude that Kinect does not provide an accurate method of measuring gait kinematics variables, but others, on the contrary, report good accuracy results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-018-2488-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288944PMC
December 2018

Risk Assessment of Etanercept in Mice Chronically Infected With .

Front Microbiol 2018 21;9:2822. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

() is a zoonotic parasite that severely harms the health of the host. The cysts of can reactivate from bradyzoites to tachyzoites, if the individual develops low or defective immunity, causing lethal toxoplasmosis. The host resists infection by mediating Th1-type cellular immunity to generate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258779PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Human pharmacology of positive GABA-A subtype-selective receptor modulators for the treatment of anxiety.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, 2333 CL, The Netherlands.

Anxiety disorders arise from disruptions among the highly interconnected circuits that normally serve to process the streams of potentially threatening stimuli. The resulting imbalance among these circuits can cause a fundamental misinterpretation of neural sensory information as threatening and can lead to the inappropriate emotional and behavioral responses observed in anxiety disorders. There is considerable preclinical evidence that the GABAergic system, in general, and its α2- and/or α5-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor subtypes, in particular, are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0185-5DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Tau Abnormalities and the Potential Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

The Institute of Brain Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases that is characterized by progressive memory loss and two main pathological hallmarks, including the extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. The microtubule-related protein tau is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases commonly known as tauopathies and is found to be abnormally hyperphosphorylated in AD and accumulated in neurons. Besides hyperphosphorylation, tau also undergoes abnormal glycosylation, ubiquitination, glycation, and other posttranslational modifications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180868DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Unsupervised excitation: GABAergic dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Res 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Neuroimmunology and Imaging Group, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 27, 53127 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the classical hallmarks of Aβ-deposition and tau-pathology that are thought to ultimately lead to synapse and neuron loss. Although long known, neuroinflammation has recently attracted a substantial amount of attention by researchers due to genome wide association studies (GWAS) that identified microglia associated genes to be correlated with sporadic AD. Besides that, cholinergic degeneration and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) abnormalities have been identified in the brains of AD patients already decades ago, but have not received much attention over the last ten years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.11.042DOI Listing
November 2018

An Efficient Classifier for Alzheimer's Disease Genes Identification.

Molecules 2018 Nov 29;23(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Medical Informatics, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered to one of 10 key diseases leading to death in humans. AD is considered the main cause of brain degeneration, and will lead to dementia. It is beneficial for affected patients to be diagnosed with the disease at an early stage so that efforts to manage the patient can begin as soon as possible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123140DOI Listing
November 2018

Pathogenesis and Treatment of Neurologic Diseases Associated With Infection.

Front Microbiol 2018 20;9:2751. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

is mainly recognized as a respiratory pathogen, although it is associated with the development of several extra-respiratory conditions in up to 25% of the cases. Diseases affecting the nervous system, both the peripheral (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS), are the most severe. In some cases, particularly those that involve the CNS, -related neuropathies can lead to death or to persistent neurologic problems with a significant impact on health and a non-marginal reduction in the quality of life of the patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255859PMC
November 2018

Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in an immuncompetent child.

Turk J Pediatr 2018 ;60(3):340-343

Division of Infectious Diseases, İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Sütçü M, Aktürk H, Gülümser-Şişko S, Acar M, Erol OB, Somer A, Bilgiç B, Salman N. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in an immuncompetent child. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 340-343. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2018.03.019DOI Listing
January 2018
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Evaluation of blood-brain barrier penetration and examination of binding to human serum albumin of 7-O-arylpiperazinylcoumarins as potential antipsychotic agents.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Nov 22;84:211-225. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

The delivery of drugs to the brain is complicated by the multiple factors including low blood-brain barrier (BBB) passive permeability, active BBB efflux systems, and plasma protein binding. Thus, a detailed understanding of the transport of the new potent substances through the membranes is vitally important and their physico-chemical characteristics should be analyzed at first. This work presents an evaluation of drug likeness of eight 7-O-arylpiperazinylcoumarin derivatives with high affinity towards serotoninergic receptors 5-HT and 5-HT with particular analysis of the requirements for the CNS chemotherapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.11.034DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Carbon nanotubes and central nervous system: Environmental risks, toxicological aspects and future perspectives.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Nov 22;65:23-30. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

Due to their morphological and physicochemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhance the structural properties of several materials and are produced in great volumes. The production and the manufacturing of CNTs-incorporated products can lead to the potential environmental release of CNTs. For these reasons, CNTs can represent a serious concern for human health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Different tau species lead to heterogeneous tau pathology propagation and misfolding.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2018 Nov 29;6(1):132. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU-Lille, UMR-S 1172, Alzheimer & Tauopathies, School of Medicine, 1 rue Polonovski, 59045, Lille, France.

Tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by tau aggregation inside neurons. Most of them are sporadic but certain tauopathies rely on tau gene (MAPT) mutations. They particularly differ from one to another by their different neuropathological signatures e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-018-0637-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6263555PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Circular RNA Transcriptomic Analysis of Primary Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Infected with Meningitic Escherichia coli.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2018 Dec 26;13:651-664. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China; State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. Electronic address:

With their essential regulatory roles in gene expression and high abundance in the brain, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently attracted considerable attention. Many studies have shown that circRNAs play important roles in the pathology of CNS diseases, but whether circRNAs participate in E. coli-induced bacterial meningitis is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2018.10.013DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Neurotoxicological effects induced by up-regulation of miR-137 following triclosan exposure to zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Jan 22;206:176-185. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, China, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, China. Electronic address:

Triclosan (TCS) is a prevalent anthropogenic contaminant in aquatic environments and its chronic exposure can lead to a series of neurotoxic effects in zebrafish. Both qRT-PCR and W-ISH identified that TCS exposure resulted in significant up-regulation of miR-137, but downregulation of its regulatory genes (bcl11aa, MAPK6 and Runx1). These target genes are mainly associated with neurodevelopment and the MAPK signaling pathway, and showed especially high expression in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.11.017DOI Listing
January 2019
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Frontotemporal dementia causative CHMP2B impairs neuronal endolysosomal traffic-rescue by TMEM106B knockdown.

Brain 2018 Dec;141(12):3428-3442

Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.

Mutations in the endosome-associated protein CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia and lead to lysosomal storage pathology in neurons. We here report that physiological levels of mutant CHMP2B causes reduced numbers and significantly impaired trafficking of endolysosomes within neuronal dendrites, accompanied by increased dendritic branching. Mechanistically, this is due to the stable incorporation of mutant CHMP2B onto neuronal endolysosomes, which we show renders them unable to traffic within dendrites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262218PMC
December 2018

A Novel GABA Receptor Ligand MIDD0301 with Limited Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle Ex Vivo and In Vivo.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University.

Airway smooth muscle cells express GABA receptors, and previous reports have demonstrated that GABA receptor activators relax airway smooth muscle. However, given the activity of GABA receptors in central nervous system inhibitory neurotransmission, concern exists that these activators may lead to undesirable sedation. MIDD0301 is a novel imidazobenzodiazepine and positive allosteric modulator of the GABA receptor with limited brain distribution, thus eliminating the potential for sedation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00356.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
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Traumatic Brain Injury in Aged Mice Induces Chronic Microglia Activation, Synapse Loss, and Complement-Dependent Memory Deficits.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 26;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is of particular concern for the aging community since there is both increased incidence of TBI and decreased functional recovery in this population. In addition, TBI is the strongest environmental risk factor for development of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia-related neurodegenerative disorders. Critical changes that affect cognition take place over time following the initial insult. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/12/3753
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123753DOI Listing
November 2018
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Reduced thiamine binding is a novel mechanism for TPK deficiency disorder.

Mol Genet Genomics 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Department of Paediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK) converts thiamine (vitamin B) into thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), an essential cofactor for many important enzymes. TPK1 mutations lead to a rare disorder: episodic encephalopathy type thiamine metabolism dysfunction. Yet, the molecular mechanism of the disease is not entirely clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-018-1517-3DOI Listing
November 2018
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Investigating the Role of SNARE Proteins in Trafficking of Postsynaptic Receptors using Conditional Knockouts.

Neuroscience 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Division of Fundamental Neurobiology, Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada; Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

Trafficking or delivery of neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic membranes is critical for basal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Importantly, dysfunction of such postsynaptic receptor trafficking can lead to severe brain diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability, yet underlying mechanisms remain elusive. One attractive hypothesis is that postsynaptic SNARE proteins play key roles in the delivery of receptors by mediating membrane fusion at postsynaptic neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.11.027DOI Listing
November 2018
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Current drugs and potential future neuroprotective compounds for Parkinson's disease.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, Institute for CNS Disorders and Genomic Medicine, 15166 - Corunna. Spain.

The research progress of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has yet lead to the development of some clinical approaches intended to treat cognitive and behavioral symptoms, such as memory and perception disorders. Despite the major advances in different genetic causes and risk factors for PD, which share common pathways to cell dysfunction and death, there is not yet a complete model of PD that can be used to accurately predict the effect of drugs on disease progression. Clinical trials are also important to test any novel neuro-protective agent, and recently there have been great advances in the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and plant flavonoid antioxidants to protect against specific neuronal degeneration and its interference with lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X17666181127125704DOI Listing
November 2018
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Mitochondrial Metabolism in Major Neurological Diseases.

Cells 2018 Nov 23;7(12). Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

Mitochondria are bilayer sub-cellular organelles that are an integral part of normal cellular physiology. They are responsible for producing the majority of a cell's ATP, thus supplying energy for a variety of key cellular processes, especially in the brain. Although energy production is a key aspect of mitochondrial metabolism, its role extends far beyond energy production to cell signaling and epigenetic regulation⁻functions that contribute to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and autophagy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells7120229DOI Listing
November 2018

Emerging Pharmacologic Targets in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Potential Strategies to Alter the Natural History of a Difficult Disease: A Review.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey at University Hospital, Newark.

Importance: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions of the brain that may lead to hemorrhage, seizures, and neurologic deficits. Most are linked to loss-of-function mutations in 1 of 3 genes, namely CCM1 (originally called KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), or CCM3 (PDCD10), that can either occur as sporadic events or are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance. Familial forms originate from germline mutations, often have multiple intracranial lesions that grow in size and number over time, and cause an earlier and more severe presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.3634DOI Listing
November 2018
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Genome Editing and the Problem of Tetraploidy in Cell Modeling of the Genetic Form of Parkinsonism.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018 Sep;83(9):1040-1045

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, 125367, Russia.

The prevalent form of familial parkinsonism is caused by mutations in the LRRK2 gene encoding for the mitochondrial protein kinase. In the review, we discuss possible causes of appearance of tetraploid cells in neuronal precursors obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with the LRRK2-associated form of parkinsonism after genome editing procedure. As LRRK2 protein participates in cell proliferation and maintenance of the nuclear envelope, spindle fibers, and cytoskeleton, mutations in the LRRK2 gene can affect protein functions and lead, via various mechanisms, to the mitotic machinery disintegration and chromosomal aberration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918090055DOI Listing
September 2018

Geniposide protects PC-12 cells against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury by up-regulation of long-noncoding RNA H19.

Life Sci 2019 Jan 22;216:176-182. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Children Rehabilitation, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining 272011, China; Jining No.1 People's Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining Medical University, Jining 272000, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common brain injury disease in neonates, which can lead to neonatal disability and death. Geniposide (GEN) is a main ingredient of Gardenia jasminoides, whose anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects have been reported in various diseases. However, the effect of GEN on HIE remains uninvestigated. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205183076
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.11.047DOI Listing
January 2019
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Deciphering microbiome and neuroactive immune gene interactions in schizophrenia.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Stanley Division of Developmental Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The body's microbiome represents an actively regulated network of novel mechanisms that potentially underlie the etiology and pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases. For complex brain disorders such as schizophrenia, understanding the cellular and molecular pathways that intersect the bidirectional gut-brain axis is anticipated to lead to new methods of treatment. The means by which the microbiome might differ across neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders are not known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2018.11.016DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Rehabilitation Assessment and Management of Neurosensory Deficits After Traumatic Brain Injury in the Polytrauma Veteran.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2019 02;30(1):155-170

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Neurosensory deficits after traumatic brain injury can frequently lead to disability; therefore, diagnosis and treatment are important. Posttraumatic headaches typically resemble migraines and are managed similarly, but adjuvant physical therapy may be beneficial. Sleep-related issues are treated pharmacologically based on the specific sleep-related complaint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2018.08.014DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads