Front Neurol 2022 13;13:883786. Epub 2022 May 13.
NEUROFARBA Department, Neuroscience Section, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Anticoagulants reduce embolic risk in atrial fibrillation (AF), despite increasing hemorrhagic risk. In this context, validity of congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes, stroke, vascular disease, age 65-74 years and sex category (CHADS-VASc) and hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly (HAS-BLED) scales, used to respectively evaluate thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks, is incomplete. In patients with AF, brain MRI has led to the increased detection of "asymptomatic" brain changes, particularly those related to small vessel disease, which also represent the pathologic substrate of intracranial hemorrhage, and silent brain infarcts, which are considered risk factors for ischemic stroke. Read More