5,774 results match your criteria Lacunar Syndromes

Blood-brain barrier leakage at baseline and cognitive decline in cerebral small vessel disease: a 2-year follow-up study.

Geroscience 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Oxfordlaan 10, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is one of the pathophysiological mechanisms in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Previously, it was shown that BBB leakage volume is larger in patients with SVD compared with controls. In this study, we investigated the link between BBB leakage and cognitive decline over 2 years in patients with cSVD. Read More

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Acupuncture for patients recovering from lacunar infarction: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26413

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Second Hospital of Shandong University.

Background: Lacunar infarction (LI) is the mild type in the classification of ischemic stroke, mostly occurs in the middle-aged and elderly, with mild hemiplegia and partial sensory disorder as the main manifestations. In the treatment of LI, acupuncture is often regarded as dominant therapy in the convalescence period. However, acupuncture for treatment of LI in the recovery period lacks high-quality reports and evidence-based medical evidence. Read More

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Aberrant activation of Rho/ROCK signaling in impaired polarity switching of colorectal micropapillary carcinoma.

J Pathol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Bio-resource Research and Development, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) is a morphologically distinctive form of carcinoma, composed of small nests of cancer cells surrounded by lacunar spaces. Invasive MPC is associated with poor prognosis. The nests of tumor cells in MPC reportedly exhibit reverse polarity, although the molecular mechanisms underlying MPC patterns are poorly understood. Read More

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The association of markers of cerebral small vessel disease and brain atrophy with incidence and course of depressive symptoms - the maastricht study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 9;292:439-447. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology; Department of Internal Medicine; School for Mental Health and Neuroscience; School for Cardiovascular Diseases (CARIM). Electronic address:

Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and neurodegeneration may be involved in the development and persistence of late-life depressive symptoms, but longitudinal evidence is scarce. We investigated the longitudinal associations of markers of CSVD and brain atrophy with incident depressive symptoms and the course of depressive symptoms, above and below 60 years of age.

Methods: White matter hyperintensity volumes (WMH), presence of lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds, and white matter, grey matter, and cerebral spinal fluid volumes were assessed at baseline by 3T MRI in The Maastricht Study (mean age 59. Read More

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Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease in Individuals with a Family History of Coronary Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Jun 17:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: The degree to which a family history of coronary heart disease (FHCHD) is associated with silent cerebral small-vessel disease (cSVD) among healthy adults, independent of prevalent CHD and traditional risk factors, is unknown.

Methods: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is a community-based cohort study with self-reported family history data and brain magnetic resonance imaging (ages 68-88). The association between markers of cSVD (lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds), or log-transformed white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, and FHCHD, or the number of affected relatives was examined using separate adjusted logistic or linear regression models, respectively. Read More

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A case of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) presenting as post-infectious manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

BJR Case Rep 2021 May 9;7(3):20210020. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Consultant Radiologist, Department of Radiology, Royal Oldham hospital. Pennine Acute NHS Foundation Trust, Oldham, United Kingdom.

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds are well-established features associated with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Increasing case reports and series recounts a wide array of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease, encephalopathy, encephalitis and demyelination. Recently association between COVID-19 and CADASIL has been identified. Read More

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Altered canalicular remodeling associated with femur fracture in mice.

J Orthop Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Davis Health, Sacramento, California, USA.

We previously showed that femur fracture in mice caused a reduction in bone volume at distant skeletal sites within 2 weeks post-fracture. Osteocytes also have the ability to remodel their surrounding bone matrix through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR). If PLR is altered systemically following fracture, this could affect bone mechanical properties and increase fracture risk at all skeletal sites. Read More

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Hypertension-induced cognitive impairment: from pathophysiology to public health.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Hypertension affects two-thirds of people aged >60 years and significantly increases the risk of both vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Hypertension compromises the structural and functional integrity of the cerebral microcirculation, promoting microvascular rarefaction, cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling, which impair cerebral blood supply. In addition, hypertension disrupts the blood-brain barrier, promoting neuroinflammation and exacerbation of amyloid pathologies. Read More

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Mood symptoms Associated with CADASIL Syndrome: A Case Report.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):144


Objective: To discuss the psychiatric symptoms that are associated with CADASIL syndrome Abstract Cerebral:Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare type of hereditary disease involving the small cerebral vessels. The clinical symptoms are various and include recurrent ischemic strokes, migraine with aura, seizures with epilepsy, psychiatric problems such as mood disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline leading to dementia. This disease needs awareness amongst the psychiatrists even though it is discussed much more in neurology literature. Read More

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Potential Role of Perilacunar Remodeling in the Progression of Osteoporosis and Implications on Age-Related Decline in Fracture Resistance of Bone.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building, 3640 Rue University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: We took an interdisciplinary view to examine the potential contribution of perilacunar/canalicular remodeling to declines in bone fracture resistance related to age or progression of osteoporosis.

Recent Findings: Perilacunar remodeling is most prominent as a result of lactation; recent advances further elucidate the molecular players involved and their effect on bone material properties. Of these, vitamin D and calcitonin could be active during aging or osteoporosis. Read More

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Role of Blood Lipid Levels and Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Stroke Patients with Different Levels of Cerebral Artery Diseases: Reconsidering Recent Stroke Guidelines.

Jong S Kim

J Stroke 2021 May 31;23(2):149-161. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke; the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level and Treat Stroke to Target studies have shown that statins are beneficial for patients with stroke and that a low target for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration may maximize this benefit. Based on these results, recent guidelines have emphasized the application of "high-intensity statins" and "low LDL-C target" strategies in patients with stroke. However, it should be kept in mind that the role of blood lipids as a risk factor and benefit of lipid-lowering therapy are different among patients with different levels of cerebral arterial diseases. Read More

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Lactation alters fluid flow and solute transport in maternal skeleton: A multiscale modeling study on the effects of microstructural changes and loading frequency.

Bone 2021 Jun 5;151:116033. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, United States. Electronic address:

The female skeleton undergoes significant material and ultrastructural changes to meet high calcium demands during reproduction and lactation. Through the peri-lacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR), osteocytes actively resorb surrounding matrix and enlarge their lacunae and canaliculi during lactation, which are quickly reversed after weaning. How these changes alter the physicochemical environment of osteocytes, the most abundant and primary mechanosensing cells in bone, are not well understood. Read More

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Maternal bone adaptation to mechanical loading during pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery.

Bone 2021 Jun 5;151:116031. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

The maternal skeleton undergoes dramatic bone loss during pregnancy and lactation, and substantial bone recovery post-weaning. The structural adaptations of maternal bone during reproduction and lactation exert a better protection of the mechanical integrity at the critical load-bearing sites, suggesting the importance of physiological load-bearing in regulating reproduction-induced skeletal alterations. Although it is suggested that physical exercise during pregnancy and breastfeeding improves women's physical and psychological well-being, its effects on maternal bone health remain unclear. Read More

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MRI of healthy brain aging: A review.

NMR Biomed 2021 Jun 6:e4564. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Departments of Radiology and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

We present a review of the characterization of healthy brain aging using MRI with an emphasis on morphology, lesions, and quantitative MR parameters. A scope review found 6612 articles encompassing the keywords "Brain Aging" and "Magnetic Resonance"; papers involving functional MRI or not involving imaging of healthy human brain aging were discarded, leaving 2246 articles. We first consider some of the biogerontological mechanisms of aging, and the consequences of aging in terms of cognition and onset of disease. Read More

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Haemiballism/haemichorea: an atypical presentation of ischaemic stroke.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 4;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Duke University Health System, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

A 76-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with acute onset of involuntary movements of the left side of his body. His neurological examination revealed he was oriented only to himself, and aforementioned movements of his left arm and leg. CT head demonstrated old infarcts in his right aspect of his pons and basal ganglia. Read More

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Feasibility of sit training for patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia during deep sedation: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26240

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Wakayama Medical University.

Rationale: There have been a few reports on the early rehabilitation of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and none on the effectiveness and adverse events of early mobilization for mechanical ventilation patients (other than COVID-19) during deep sedation. This report indicates that sitting without adverse events is possible in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia during deep sedation with muscle relaxation.

Patient Concerns: A 65-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, lacunar infarction, and Parkinson's disease was admitted to a local hospital for pneumonia due to COVID-19. Read More

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The Contribution of Small Vessel Disease to Neurodegeneration: Focus on Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 7;22(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Section of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy.

Brain small vessel disease (SVD) refers to a variety of structural and functional changes affecting small arteries and micro vessels, and manifesting as white matter changes, microbleeds and lacunar infarcts. Growing evidence indicates that SVD might play a significant role in the neurobiology of central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorders, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), and neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). These disorders share different pathophysiological pathways and molecular mechanisms (i. Read More

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Syncytial Variant of Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Under-emphasized Variant.

Hum Pathol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hematopathology, The University of MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA;. Electronic address:

Syncytial variant nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a variant that was described over 40 years ago, but has received relatively little attention in the literature. Earlier studies emphasized the predominance of Hodgkin (also known as lacunar) and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in this variant. Here we emphasize that the HRS cells in syncytial variant nodular sclerosis HL have a cohesive appearance, form confluent sheets, and have an immunophenotype typical of classic HL. Read More

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PRESERVE: Randomized Trial of Intensive Versus Standard Blood Pressure Control in Small Vessel Disease.

Stroke 2021 May 28:STROKEAHA120032054. Epub 2021 May 28.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University of Oxford (G.A.F.).

Background And Purpose: In cerebral small vessel disease, cerebral blood flow and autoregulation are impaired and therefore excessive blood pressure reduction could possibly accelerate white matter damage and worsen outcome. The trial determined, in severe symptomatic cerebral small vessel disease, whether intensive blood pressure lowering resulted in progression of white matter damage assessed using diffusion tensor imaging.

Methods: Randomized, parallel, multicenter controlled, blinded-outcomes clinical trial. Read More

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Lacunar stroke: mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Neurology, University of Utah Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Lacunar stroke is a marker of cerebral small vessel disease and accounts for up to 25% of ischaemic stroke. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of potential lacunar stroke mechanisms and discuss therapeutic implications based on the underlying mechanism. For this paper, we reviewed the literature from important studies (randomised trials, exploratory comparative studies and case series) on lacunar stroke patients with a focus on more recent studies highlighting mechanisms and stroke prevention strategies in patients with lacunar stroke. Read More

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Silent Myocardial Infarction and Subsequent Ischemic Stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

Neurology 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Departments of Neurology and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that silent MI is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, we evaluated the association between silent MI and subsequent ischemic stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study prospectively enrolled community-dwelling individuals ≥65 years of age. We included participants without prevalent stroke or baseline evidence of MI. Read More

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Cooperative Cluster Jahn-Teller Effect as a Possible Route to Antiferroelectricity.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(18):187601

Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg, Germany.

We report the observation of an antipolar phase in cubic GaNb_{4}S_{8} driven by an unconventional microscopic mechanism, the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect of Nb_{4}S_{4} molecular clusters. The assignment of the antipolar nature is based on sudden changes in the crystal structure and a strong drop of the dielectric constant at T_{JT}=31  K, also indicating the first-order nature of the transition. In addition, we found that local symmetry lowering precedes long-range orbital ordering, implying the presence of a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect in the cubic phase above T_{JT}. Read More

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Early manifestation of Moyamoya syndrome in a 2-year-old child with Down syndrome.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jul 1;16(7):1740-1744. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiology, Kabul University of Medical Sciences, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Moyamoya is a rare occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and the circle of Willis. Over time, collateral arteries are usually formed at the basal ganglia, the so-called Moyamoya vessels. The exact cause of Moyamoya disease is unknown, while Moyamoya syndrome refers to Moyamoya-like vasculopathy due to autoimmune diseases, neurofibromatosis type I, sickle cell disease, radiation, or rarely Down syndrome. Read More

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Microglial activation and blood-brain barrier permeability in cerebral small vessel disease.

Brain 2021 Jun;144(5):1361-1371

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major cause of stroke and dementia. The underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, but both neuroinflammation and increased blood-brain barrier permeability have been hypothesized to play a role, and preclinical studies suggest the two processes may be linked. We used PET magnetic resonance to simultaneously measure microglial activation using the translocator protein radioligand 11C-PK11195, and blood-brain barrier permeability using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Read More

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Case Report: An Adult Patient With Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 Resembled Unilateral Frosted Branch Angiitis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 29;8:642454. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Eye Center, College of Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a rare autosomal recessive systemic autoinflammatory disorder. We describe a rare case of an adult patient with DADA2 who presented with unilateral frosted branch angiitis (FBA) combined with branch retinal vein occlusion and panuveitis. This paper is a clinical case report. Read More

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Editor's Choice - Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Jun 6;61(6):888-899. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Leicester Vascular Institute, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK.

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) of any severity and cognitive impairment and to determine whether there is evidence supporting an aetiological role for ACS in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment.

Data Sources: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane library.

Review Methods: This was a systematic review (35 cross sectional or longitudinal studies) RESULTS: Study heterogeneity confounded data interpretation, largely because of no standardisation regarding cognitive testing. Read More

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BPV associated with imaging features of SSI on MRI.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 7;11(6):e02155. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurology, Weihai Central Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Weihai, China.

Objectives: A retrospective study was performed to investigate the relationship between blood pressure variability (BPV) and imaging features of single small infarction (SSI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: Two hundreds and five patients with SSI and 120 healthy subjects matched with age and sex as the control group were enrolled into this study. All subjects came from the Affiliated Hospital to Qingdao University and Qingdao Municipal Hospital from October 2011 to June 2016. Read More

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Acute lacunar infarct in an obese adolescent with obstructive sleep apnea.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Sleep Disorders Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic.

Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of acute ischemic cerebrovascular accidents in adults. However, this association has not been well established in the pediatric population. We report a case of acute right internal capsule lacunar infarct manifesting as left-sided hemiplegia in an adolescent with severe obesity. Read More

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Variations of risk factors for ischemic stroke and its subtypes in Chinese patients in Taiwan.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9700. Epub 2021 May 6.

Stroke Center and Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan.

Chinese have a higher stroke incidence and a different distribution of ischemic stroke (IS) subtypes as compared with Caucasians. Herein we aimed to investigate the prevalence and associations of major risk factors in IS and its subtypes in Chinese patients. From 2006 to 2011, we included 4953 acute IS patients consecutively recruited in National Taiwan University Hospital Stroke Registry (mean age 68 years; male 59%). Read More

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