Non-Mammalian Vertebrates: Distinct Models to Assess the Role of Ion Gradients in Energy Expenditure.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 1;8:224. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States.
Animals store metabolic energy as electrochemical gradients. At least 50% of mammalian energy is expended to maintain electrochemical gradients across the inner mitochondrial membrane (H(+)), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca(++)), and the plasma membrane (Na(+)/K(+)). The potential energy of these gradients can be used to perform work (e. Read More