473,303 results match your criteria La Revue du Praticien [Journal]


[Recommendations from a panel of experts on the usefulness of fidaxomicin for the treatment of infections caused by Clostridium difficile].

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Benito Almirante, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129 - 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Clostridium difficile infections have a high recurrence rate, which can complicate the prognosis of affected patients. It is therefore important to establish an early detection and an appropriate therapeutic strategy. The objective of this manuscript was to gather the opinion of an expert group about the predictive factors of poor progression, as well as when to use fidaxomicin in different groups of high-risk patients. Read More

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December 2018

Visuospatial Integration and Hand-Tool Interaction in Cognitive Archaeology.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Sociograph Marketing Science Consulting, Valladolid, Spain.

Testing cognitive hypotheses in extinct species can be challenging, but it can be done through the integration of independent sources of information (e.g., anatomy, archaeology, neurobiology, psychology), and validated with quantitative and experimental approaches. Read More

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December 2018

Learning Differential Module Networks Across Multiple Experimental Conditions.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:303-321

Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland, UK.

Module network inference is a statistical method to reconstruct gene regulatory networks, which uses probabilistic graphical models to learn modules of coregulated genes and their upstream regulatory programs from genome-wide gene expression and other omics data. Here, we review the basic theory of module network inference, present protocols for common gene regulatory network reconstruction scenarios based on the Lemon-Tree software, and show, using human gene expression data, how the software can also be applied to learn differential module networks across multiple experimental conditions. Read More

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January 2019

Imaging of Bronchial Pathology in Antibody Deficiency: Data from the European Chest CT Group.

J Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Paediatric Immunology Unit, Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, Allergology and Neonatology, Hanover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Studies of chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (ADS) suggest a broad range of bronchial pathology. However, there are as yet no multicentre studies to assess the variety of bronchial pathology in this patient group. One of the underlying reasons is the lack of a consensus methodology, a prerequisite to jointly document chest CT findings. Read More

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December 2018
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The Interaction of Race and Gender as a Significant Driver of Racial Arrest Disparities for African American Men.

J Urban Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Diego School of Medicine, Center on Gender Equity and Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The mass incarceration of African Americans is both a driver of racial health inequalities in the USA. Systemic social biases which associate African American men with criminality, violence, and as a particular threat to white women may partially explain their over-representation in the criminal justice system. We combined data from the Washington, DC Metro Police Department (MPD) and the American Community Survey to test whether neighborhood-level gender, race, and economic makeup were associated with elevated drug-related arrest disproportions for African American men. Read More

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December 2018

Desalination and removal of pesticides from surface water in Mekong Delta by coupling electrodialysis and nanofiltration.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institut Européen des Membranes-IEM, UMR-5635, ENSCM, CNRS, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

The shortage of drinking water is a major problem in the rural areas of the Mekong Delta, especially, when surface water, a main local direct drinking water source is being threatened by pesticide pollution and salinity intrusion. A hybrid process coupling electrodialysis (ED) and nanofiltration (NF) is proposed as an effective process easy to setup in a small plant to treat complex matrix with high salinity and pesticide concentration as is the Mekong Delta surface water. Performance of the ED-NF integration was evaluated with synthetic solutions based on the comparison with a single NF step generally used for pesticide removal. Read More

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December 2018

Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy and Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Dendritic sodium spikes endow neurons with inverse firing rate response to correlated synaptic activity.

J Comput Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Unité de Neurosciences, Information et Complexité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Many neurons possess dendrites enriched with sodium channels and are capable of generating action potentials. However, the role of dendritic sodium spikes remain unclear. Here, we study computational models of neurons to investigate the functional effects of dendritic spikes. Read More

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December 2018

Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Fistulo-Jejunostomy, a Preferred Technique after Failure of Endoscopic and Radiologic Management of Fistula Post Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Obes Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Archet II Hospital, University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, 151 Route de Saint-Antoine, 06200, Nice, France.

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy represents the most performed bariatric procedure in France. Staple line leak is the major short-term complication of the procedure. Patients with persistent fistula after sleeve gastrectomy, after failure of endoscopic and radiological treatment, are candidates for salvage surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Lower follicular n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with a better response to ovarian stimulation.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress (FROS) Research Group of the Department of Physiology, Medicine and Nursing School, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

Objectives: To analyze in detail the fatty acid (FA) composition of follicular fluid (FF) from two-sized follicles at oocyte retrieval and to determine associations of the FAs from large follicles with the woman's age and the response to ovarian stimulation.

Design: Observational study.

Setting: University and fertility clinic. Read More

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December 2018

Enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma model.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Navarra, Pío XII 55, 31008, Pamplona, Spain.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently tested in different combinations in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 agent, has gained approval in the second-line setting in the USA. Epigenetic drugs have immune-mediated antitumor effects that may improve the activity of immunotherapy agents. Read More

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December 2018

Correction to: Morphological MRI-based features provide pretreatment survival prediction in glioblastoma.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Mathematical Oncology Laboratory (MôLAB), Department of Mathematics, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain.

The original version of this article, published on 15 October 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake. The following correction has therefore been made in the original: The name of Mariano Amo-Salas and the affiliation of Ismael Herruzo were presented incorrectly. Read More

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December 2018

A translational approach to assess the metabolomic impact of stabilized gold nanoparticles by NMR spectroscopy.

Analyst 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, Spain.

Gold nanoparticles have high potential in the biomedical area, especially in disease diagnosis and treatment. The application of these nanoparticles requires the presence of stabilizers to avoid their agglomeration. Nowadays, there is a lack of reliable methods for characterising the effect of stabilised nanoparticles on biological systems. Read More

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December 2018

Visible-light mediated carbamoyl radical addition to heteroarenes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Bordeaux, Institute of Molecular Sciences (ISM), UMR-CNRS 5255, 351, Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex, France.

The generation of carbamoyl radicals, followed by their addition to heteroarenes, was performed under mild conditions through a metal-free photocatalyzed decarboxylation of oxamic acids. The process has been applied to the carbamoylation of heteroaromatic bases using α-aminoacid-derived oxamic acids, leading to the corresponding amides without racemization. Read More

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December 2018

A novel all-retrograde approach for t-Branch implantation in ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2018 Dec 4;4(4):301-304. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Aortic Center, Hôpital Marie Lannelongue, Université Paris Sud, Le Plessis-Robinson, France.

The off-the-shelf t-Branch device (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) significantly advanced the endovascular treatment of ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Improved techniques for expeditious implantation of the t-Branch may improve clinical outcomes for this emergent procedure. Currently, implantation is described using axillary and femoral access. Read More

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December 2018

New neurons use Slit-Robo signaling to migrate through the glial meshwork and approach a lesion for functional regeneration.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaav0618. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan.

After brain injury, neural stem cell-derived neuronal precursors (neuroblasts) in the ventricular-subventricular zone migrate toward the lesion. However, the ability of the mammalian brain to regenerate neuronal circuits for functional recovery is quite limited. Here, using a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we show that neuroblast migration is restricted by reactive astrocytes in and around the lesion. Read More

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December 2018

Structure and dynamical behavior of non-normal networks.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau9403. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Mathematics and naXys, Namur Institute for Complex Systems, University of Namur, rempart de la Vierge 8, B 5000 Namur, Belgium.

We analyze a collection of empirical networks in a wide spectrum of disciplines and show that strong non-normality is ubiquitous in network science. Dynamical processes evolving on non-normal networks exhibit a peculiar behavior, as initial small disturbances may undergo a transient phase and be strongly amplified in linearly stable systems. In addition, eigenvalues may become extremely sensible to noise and have a diminished physical meaning. Read More

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December 2018

Sleepmore in Seattle: Later school start times are associated with more sleep and better performance in high school students.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau6200. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Most teenagers are chronically sleep deprived. One strategy proposed to lengthen adolescent sleep is to delay secondary school start times. This would allow students to wake up later without shifting their bedtime, which is biologically determined by the circadian clock, resulting in a net increase in sleep. Read More

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December 2018

Experimentally determined trace element partition coefficients between hibonite, melilite, spinel, and silicate melts.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 27;21:2447-2463. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Institute for Mineralogy, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 24, 48149 Münster, Germany.

This article provides new data on mineral/melt partitioning in systems relevant to the evolution of chondrites, Calcium Aluminum-Rich Inclusions (CAI) in chondrites and related meteorites. The data set includes experimentally determined mineral/melt partition coefficients between hibonite (CaAlO), melilite (Ca(Al,Mg)SiO), spinel (MgAlO) and silicate melts for a wide range of trace elements: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, r, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Pb, Th and U. The experiments were performed at high temperatures (1350 °C < < 1550 °C) and ambient pressure. Read More

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December 2018

Similarities and Differences Between Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndromes in Children: Results From a 30-Case Cohort.

Front Pediatr 2018 28;6:360. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Centre de Biologie et de Pathologie Nord, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Toxic shock syndromes (TSS) are severe shocks due to staphylococcal or streptococcal infection that require specific treatments. The early recognition of these shocks is crucial to improve their outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to compare characteristics and outcomes of staphylococcal and streptococcal TSS in children, in order to identify putative early clinical diagnostic criteria. Read More

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November 2018

HER2 signaling regulates the tumor immune microenvironment and trastuzumab efficacy.

Oncoimmunology 2019 21;8(1):e1512942. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Molecular Targeting Unit, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Through whole-transcriptome profiling of HER2+ breast carcinomas (BCs), we previously showed that those sensitive to trastuzumab are addicted to this oncoprotein and are enriched in immune pathways, raising the hypothesis that HER2 itself regulates immune cell recruitment. In the present study we investigated the relationship between HER2 activity and the pro-trastuzumab tumor immune milieu. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry analysis of 53 HER2+ BCs showed that trastuzumab-sensitive tumors expressed significantly higher levels of chemokines involved in immune cell recruitment, with higher infiltration of T cells and monocytes, and higher levels of PD-1 ligands than tumors that do not benefit from trastuzumab. Read More

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September 2018

Preclinical evaluation of a MAGE-A3 vaccination utilizing the oncolytic Maraba virus currently in first-in-human trials.

Oncoimmunology 2019 19;8(1):e1512329. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Multiple immunotherapeutics have been approved for cancer patients, however advanced solid tumors are frequently refractory to treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccination approach with multimodal oncolytic potential in non-human primates (NHP) (). Primates received a replication-deficient adenoviral prime, boosted by the oncolytic Maraba MG1 rhabdovirus. Read More

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September 2018

Toll like receptor 7 expressed by malignant cells promotes tumor progression and metastasis through the recruitment of myeloid derived suppressor cells.

Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1505174. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMRS1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), stimulation of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), a receptor for single stranded RNA, is linked to tumor progression and resistance to anticancer chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of this effect has been elusive. Here, using a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, we demonstrate a key role for TLR7 expressed by malignant (rather than by stromal and immune) cells, in the recruitment of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), induced after TLR7 stimulation, resulting in accelerated tumor growth and metastasis. Read More

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October 2018

Systemic autophagy in the therapeutic response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Oncoimmunology 2019 1;8(1):e1498285. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.

The success of chemotherapy largely depends on the anticancer immune response triggered by tumor cells that succumb to immunogenic cell death (ICD). One of the hallmarks of ICD is premortem autophagy that facilitates the release of adenosine triphosphate from dying cancer cells and acts as a chemoattractant for dendritic cell precursors. Here, we show that the immune response induced by inoculation of cancer cells undergoing ICD in response to the anthracycline mitoxantrone (MTX) can be improved by a short-term fasting regimen (48 hours of starvation) and that this effect is reversed by systemic administration of the autophagy inhibitor dimethyl α-ketoglutarate. Read More

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October 2018

Identification and editing of stem-like cells in methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas.

Oncoimmunology 2019 31;8(1):e1404212. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm posits that specific cells within a tumor, so-called CSC-like cells, have differing levels of tumorigenicity and chemoresistance. Original studies of CSCs identified them in human cancers and utilized mouse xenograft models to define the cancer initiating properties of these cells, thereby hampering the understanding of how immunity could affect CSCs. Indeed, few studies have characterized CSCs in the context of cancer immunoediting, and it is currently not clear how immunity could impact on the levels or stem-like behavior of CSCs. Read More

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October 2018

Mechanistic Insights From Global Metabolomics Studies into Synergistic Bactericidal Effect of a Polymyxin B Combination With Tamoxifen Against Cystic Fibrosis MDR .

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2018 10;16:587-599. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, VIC, Australia.

Polymyxins are amongst the most important antibiotics in modern medicine, in recent times their clinical utility has been overshadowed by nosocomial outbreaks of polymyxin resistant MDR Gram-negative 'superbugs'. An effective strategy to surmount polymyxin resistance is combination therapy with FDA-approved non-antibiotic drugs. Herein we used untargeted metabolomics to investigate the mechanism(s) of synergy between polymyxin B and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen against a polymyxin-resistant MDR cystic fibrosis (CF) FADDI-PA006 isolate (polymyxin B MIC=8 mg/L , it is an MDR polymyxin resistant isolated from the lungs of a CF patient). Read More

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November 2018

Human liver stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles enhance cancer stem cell sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors through Akt/mTOR/PTEN combined modulation.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36151-36165. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Torino, Italy.

It is well recognized that Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) sustain the initiation, the maintenance and the recurrence of tumors. We previously reported that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human liver stem cells (HLSCs) were able to limit tumor development. In this study, we evaluated whether EV derived from HLSCs could act in synergy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on apoptosis of CSCs isolated from renal carcinomas. Read More

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November 2018

Fragranced consumer products: effects on autistic adults in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom.

Authors:
Anne Steinemann

Air Qual Atmos Health 2018 25;11(10):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

1Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 Australia.

Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can have adverse effects on both air quality and health. This study investigates the effects of fragranced products on autistic individuals ages 18-65 in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. Nationally representative population surveys ( = 1137; 1098; 1100) found that, across the three countries, 4. Read More

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September 2018
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Framing natural assets for advancing sustainability research: translating different perspectives into actions.

Sustain Sci 2018 17;13(6):1519-1531. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

10Basque Centre for Climate Change, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Sede Building 1, 1st Floor, Scientific Campus, Leioa, 48940 Bilbao, Spain.

Sustainability is a key challenge for humanity in the context of complex and unprecedented global changes. Future Earth, an international research initiative aiming to advance global sustainability science, has recently launched knowledge-action networks (KANs) as mechanisms for delivering its research strategy. The research initiative is currently developing a KAN on "natural assets" to facilitate and enable action-oriented research and synthesis towards natural assets sustainability. Read More

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Stereodivergent approach in the protected glycal synthesis of L-vancosamine, L-saccharosamine, L-daunosamine and L-ristosamine involving a ring-closing metathesis step.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2018 29;14:2949-2955. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Univ Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes), UMR 6226, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35000 Rennes, France.

In this paper, a new access to several chiral 3-aminoglycals as potential precursors for glycosylated natural products is reported from a common starting material, (-)-methyl-L-lactate. The stereodivergent strategy is based on the implementation of a ring-closing metathesis of vinyl ethers as key step of reaction sequences developed. Read More

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November 2018

Corrigendum: UV-B Pre-treatment Alters Phenolics Response to Infection in a Structure-Dependent Way in Peach Skin.

Front Plant Sci 2018 29;9:1747. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018. Read More

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November 2018

Intransitivity increases plant functional diversity by limiting dominance in drylands worldwide.

J Ecol 2019 Jan 14;107(1):240-252. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Spain.

1. Biotic interactions are key determinants of plant community structure. Indirect interactions such as intransitivity ( in the absence of competitive hierarchies among species) have been hypothesized to benefit diversity within plant communities. Read More

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January 2019

Development of insulin resistance in Nischarin mutant female mice.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, LSUHSC School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Background/objectives: NISCH-STAB1 is a newly identified locus correlated to human waist-hip ratio (WHR), which is a risk indicator of developing obesity-associated diabetes. Our previous studies have shown that Nisch mutant male mice increased glucose tolerance in chow-fed conditions. Thus we hypothesized that Nisch mutant mice will have changes in insulin resistance, adipocytes, hepatic steatosis when mice are fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

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December 2018

Tracking virus outbreaks in the twenty-first century.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):10-19. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Emerging viruses have the potential to impose substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burdens on human populations. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to assist in their control has traditionally relied on the analysis of case data gathered as the outbreak proceeds. Here, we describe how many of the key questions in infectious disease epidemiology, from the initial detection and characterization of outbreak viruses, to transmission chain tracking and outbreak mapping, can now be much more accurately addressed using recent advances in virus sequencing and phylogenetics. Read More

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January 2019
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Apolipoprotein E genotypes among diverse middle-aged and older Latinos: Study of Latinos-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging results (HCHS/SOL).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17578. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The apoE4 isoform is associated with increased cholesterol, cardiovascular risk, and Alzheimer's Disease risk, however, its distribution is not well-understood among US Latinos. Latinos living in the US are highly Amerindian, European and African admixed, which varies by region and country of origin. However, Latino genetic diversity is understudied and consequently poorly understood, which has significant implications for understanding disease risk in nearly one-fifth of the US population. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint system and its prognostic impact in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17812. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Services of Endocrinology, Immunology and Molecular Biology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto Princesa, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

The immune checkpoint based therapy targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its PD-L1 ligand has recently been approved for the therapy of different malignant conditions, but not yet for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). In this context, we evaluated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in GEP-NETs and its potential correlations with clinical outcomes. Expression of PD-1/PD-L1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 116 GEP-NETs and 48 samples of peritumoral tissue. Read More

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December 2018

Convergent evolution of an extreme dietary specialisation, the olfactory system of worm-eating rodents.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17806. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution (ISEM, UMR 5554 CNRS-IRD-UM), Université de Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon - CC 064 - 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Turbinal bones are key components of the mammalian rostrum that contribute to three critical functions: (1) homeothermy, (2) water conservation and (3) olfaction. With over 700 extant species, murine rodents (Murinae) are the most species-rich mammalian subfamily, with most of that diversity residing in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Their evolutionary history includes several cases of putative, but untested ecomorphological convergence, especially with traits related to diet. Read More

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December 2018
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Pathophysiology of the right ventricle and of the pulmonary circulation in pulmonary hypertension: an update.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dept of Cardiology, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

The function of the right ventricle determines the fate of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Since right heart failure is the consequence of increased afterload, a full physiological description of the cardiopulmonary unit consisting of both the right ventricle and pulmonary vascular system is required to interpret clinical data correctly. Here, we provide such a description of the unit and its components, including the functional interactions between the right ventricle and its load. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical trial design and new therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Diego School of Medicine, University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Until 20 years ago the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was based on case reports and small series, and was largely ineffectual. As a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of PAH evolved over the subsequent two decades, coupled with epidemiological studies defining the clinical and demographic characteristics of the condition, a renewed interest in treatment development emerged through collaborations between international experts, industry and regulatory agencies. These efforts led to the performance of robust, high-quality clinical trials of novel therapies that targeted putative pathogenic pathways, leading to the approval of more than 10 novel therapies that have beneficially impacted both the quality and duration of life. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dept of Pulmonary Circulation and Cardidology, Medical Center for Postgraduate Education, ECZ-Otwock, Otwock, Poland.

A revised diagnostic algorithm provides guidelines for the diagnosis of patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension, both prior to and following referral to expert centres, and includes recommendations for expedited referral of high-risk or complicated patients and patients with confounding comorbidities. New recommendations for screening high-risk groups are given, and current diagnostic tools and emerging diagnostic technologies are reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Risk stratification and medical therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Cardiovascular Medicine, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a severe clinical condition despite the availability over the past 15 years of multiple drugs interfering with the endothelin, nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways. The recent progress observed in medical therapy of PAH is not, therefore, related to the discovery of new pathways, but to the development of new strategies for combination therapy and on escalation of treatments based on systematic assessment of clinical response. The current treatment strategy is based on the severity of the newly diagnosed PAH patient as assessed by a multiparametric risk stratification approach. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a complication of pulmonary embolism and a major cause of chronic PH leading to right heart failure and death. Lung ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy is the screening test of choice; a normal scan rules out CTEPH. In the case of an abnormal perfusion scan, a high-quality pulmonary angiogram is necessary to confirm and define the pulmonary vascular involvement and prior to making a treatment decision. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Targeting interleukin-13 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: from promising path to dead end.

Eur Respir J 2018 Dec 13;52(6). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

National Reference Center for Rare Pulmonary Disease, Louis Pradel Hospital; UMR754, Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France.

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December 2018

HflXr, a homolog of a ribosome-splitting factor, mediates antibiotic resistance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Infection, Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris, France;

To overcome the action of antibiotics, bacteria have evolved a variety of different strategies, such as drug modification, target mutation, and efflux pumps. Recently, we performed a genome-wide analysis of gene expression after growth in the presence of antibiotics, identifying genes that are up-regulated upon antibiotic treatment. One of them, , is a homolog of , which encodes a heat shock protein that rescues stalled ribosomes by separating their two subunits. Read More

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December 2018

Regulating behavior with the flip of a translational switch.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064;

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December 2018

Alzheimer's disease: The right drug, the right time.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420):1250-1251

Department of Neurosciences and Shiley-Marcos Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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December 2018
2 Reads

Transcriptome-wide isoform-level dysregulation in ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420)

Department of Psychiatry, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 695 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Most genetic risk for psychiatric disease lies in regulatory regions, implicating pathogenic dysregulation of gene expression and splicing. However, comprehensive assessments of transcriptomic organization in diseased brains are limited. In this work, we integrated genotypes and RNA sequencing in brain samples from 1695 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, as well as controls. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Issues in Building a Nursing Home Syndromic Surveillance System with Textmining: Longitudinal Observational Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018 Dec 13;4(4):e69. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Equipe de recherche (HANDIReSP), UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines et Université Paris-Saclay, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Background: New nursing homes (NH) data warehouses fed from residents' medical records allow monitoring the health of elderly population on a daily basis. Elsewhere, syndromic surveillance has already shown that professional data can be used for public health (PH) surveillance but not during a long-term follow-up of the same cohort.

Objective: This study aimed to build and assess a national ecological NH PH surveillance system (SS). Read More

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December 2018