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    Long-term Inflammation Transforms Intestinal Epithelial Cells of Colonic Organoids.
    J Crohns Colitis 2017 May;11(5):621-630
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan.
    Background And Aims: Patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] are at an increased risk of developing colitis-associated cancer [CAC], suggesting that continuous inflammation in the colon promotes the transformation of colonic epithelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying cell transformation in UC remain unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of long-term inflammation on intestinal epithelial cells [IECs] using organoid culture. Read More

    Predictors for recurrent/persistent high-grade intraepithelial lesions and cervical stenosis after therapeutic conization: a retrospective analysis of 522 cases.
    Int J Clin Oncol 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
    Objective: The objective of the study is to identify the risk factors associated with recurrent/persistent disease and cervical stenosis after conization.

    Methods: Five hundred twenty-two (522) cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions treated by conization were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors associated with recurrent/persistent disease were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis using a Cox hazard regression model. Read More

    Dynamic changes of serum microRNA-122-5p through therapeutic courses indicates amelioration of acute liver injury accompanied by acute cardiac decompensation.
    ESC Heart Fail 2017 May 1;4(2):112-121. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of MedicineKyoto University54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-kuKyoto606-8507Japan.
    Aims: Recent studies have shown that serum microRNA (miR) abundance is informative for the diagnosis or prognosis of heart failure. However, the dynamics and kinetics of miRs in acute heart failure are largely unknown. Serial measurement and analysis of serum miRs changes in individuals along their therapeutic course could reduce inter-individual variation and should detect potentially important serum miRs related to disease mechanisms. Read More

    Possible involvement of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in the progression of inflammatory bowel diseases.
    Biomed Res 2017 ;38(2):111-121
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.
    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in anti-bacterial immunity. Recent studies have demonstrated that MAIT cells might be implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), but their precise function in IBD remains to be elucidated. We investigated the possible involvement of MAIT cells in the immunopathogenesis of IBDs. Read More

    Autophagy and kidney inflammation.
    Autophagy 2017 Apr 25:1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    b Department of Genetics , Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University , Suita , Japan.
    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. Macroautophagy/autophagy plays multiple roles in inflammatory responses, and the regulation of inflammation by autophagy has great potential as a treatment for damaged kidneys. A growing body of evidence suggests autophagy protects kidney from versatile kidney inflammatory insults, including those that are acute, chronic, metabolic, and aging-related. Read More

    Poly I:C induces collective migration of HaCaT keratinocytes via IL-8.
    BMC Immunol 2017 Apr 24;18(1):19. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi Kami-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.
    Background: Delayed wound healing reduces the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Thus, understanding the mechanism of wound healing is indispensable for better management. However, the role of innate immunity in wound healing is thus far unknown. Read More

    CCM2 and PAK4 act downstream of atrial natriuretic peptide signaling to promote cell spreading.
    Biochem J 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan
    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone released by the atrium in response to stretching forces. Via its receptor, guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A), ANP maintains cardiovascular homeostasis by exerting diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive effects mediated in part by endothelial cells. Both in vivo and in vitro , ANP enhances endothelial barrier function by reducing RhoA activity and reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. Read More

    Lumbar disc degeneration progression in young women in their 20's: A prospective ten-year follow up.
    J Orthop Sci 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
    Background: Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is known to be the main cause of low back pain, although it is unclear how or when LDD progresses. The purpose of this study was to clarify the process and features of LDD progression in young women.

    Methods: We enrolled 480 nursing students and carried out a prospective cohort study in 84 nursing students. Read More

    Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Patient With Polyarteritis Nodosa.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 May;103(5):e431-e433
    Department of Thoracic, Cardiovascular and General Surgery, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
    A 38-year-old man with polyarteritis nodosa presented with exertional chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed 3-vessel coronary artery disease. We performed 2-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting with the saphenous vein because the left internal thoracic artery was in poor condition. Read More

    Possible increase in insulin resistance and concealed glucose-coupled potassium-lowering mechanisms during acute coronary syndrome documented by covariance structure analysis.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(4):e0176435. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JAPAN.
    Objective: Although glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) therapy ought to be beneficial for ischemic heart disease in general, variable outcomes in many clinical trials of GIK in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) had a controversial impact. This study was designed to examine whether "insulin resistance" is involved in ACS and to clarify other potential intrinsic compensatory mechanisms for GIK tolerance through highly statistical procedure.

    Methods And Results: We compared the degree of insulin resistance during ACS attack and remission phase after treatment in individual patients (n = 104). Read More

    Deficiency of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Protects Against Atherosclerosis in Rabbits.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    From the Center for Advanced Models for Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, Department of Internal Medicine (J.Z., D.Y., J.L., J.X., Y.G., Y.F., T.Z., J.S., Y.K., M.G.-B., Y.E.C.), Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology (A.V.M., S.P.), University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor; Department of Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Japan (M.N., T.K., J.F.); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biointerfaces Institute, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan (R.A., A.S.); and Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences (L.L.).
    Objective: CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism; however, whether inhibition of CETP activity can prevent cardiovascular disease remains controversial.

    Approach And Results: We generated CETP knockout (KO) rabbits by zinc finger nuclease gene editing and compared their susceptibility to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis to that of wild-type (WT) rabbits. On a chow diet, KO rabbits showed higher plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than WT controls, and HDL particles of KO rabbits were essentially rich in apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein E contents. Read More

    Dosimetric predictors of radiation-induced pericardial effusion in esophageal cancer.
    Strahlenther Onkol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Division of Cardiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.
    Purpose: To evaluate the dose-volume parameters of the pericardium and heart in order to reduce the risk of radiation-induced pericardial effusion (PE) and symptomatic PE (SPE) in esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    Methods: In 86 of 303 esophageal cancer patients, follow-up CT was obtained at least 24 months after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Correlations between clinical factors, including risk factors for cardiac disease, dosimetric factors, and the incidence of PE and SPE after radiotherapy were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Read More

    Pregnancy outcomes in women with different doses of corticosteroid supplementation during labor and delivery.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to report the pregnancy outcomes of women who received different doses of corticosteroid supplementation during labor and delivery.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 102 pregnant women who received oral corticosteroid therapy, delivered at Osaka University Hospital, and were administered intravenous corticosteroid supplementation during labor and delivery. From January 2008 to May 2012, 47 women were administered a high dose of corticosteroids (HD group). Read More

    (11)C-methionine PET/CT findings in benign brain disease.
    Jpn J Radiol 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8666, Japan.
    (11)C-methionine (MET) is one of the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for evaluation of malignant brain tumor, with MET-PET being a sensitive technique for visualization of primary and recurrent malignant brain tumors. However, previous reports have demonstrated MET uptake in lesions associated with benign brain diseases. These diseases usually show an increase in MET uptake similar to that of malignant tumors. Read More

    Insufficient activation of Akt upon reperfusion because of its novel modification by reduced PP2A-B55α contributes to enlargement of infarct size by chronic kidney disease.
    Basic Res Cardiol 2017 May 18;112(3):31. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, South-1 West-16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8543, Japan.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases myocardial infarct size by an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the hypothesis that impairment of protective PI3K-PDK1-Akt and/or mTORC-Akt signaling upon reperfusion contributes to CKD-induced enlargement of infarct size. CKD was induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNx group) 4 weeks before myocardial infarction experiments, and sham-operated rats served as controls (Sham group). Read More

    Semaphorin 4D inhibits neutrophil activation and is involved in the pathogenesis of neutrophil-mediated autoimmune vasculitis.
    Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Apr 17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita City, Osaka, Japan
    Objectives: Inappropriate activation of neutrophils plays a pathological role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) in regulation of neutrophil activation, and its involvement in AAV pathogenesis.

    Methods: Serum levels of soluble SEMA4D were evaluated by ELISA. Read More

    The new Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) registry: design, rationale, and characteristics of patients enrolled in the first 12 months.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2017 Apr 17;15(1):30. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Duke University, Durham, USA.
    Background: Herein we describe the history, design, and rationale of the new Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry and present the characteristics of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) enrolled in the first 12 months of operation.

    Methods: The CARRA Registry began prospectively collecting data in the United States and Canada in July 2015 to evaluate the safety of therapeutic agents in persons with childhood-onset rheumatic disease, initially restricted to JIA. Secondary objectives include the evaluation of disease outcomes and their associations with medication use and other factors. Read More

    [A Case of Arteriovenous Malformation of the Parotid Gland Associated with Cowden Disease].
    No Shinkei Geka 2017 Apr;45(4):333-338
    Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Iwakuni Clinical Center.
    We report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation(AVM)of the parotid gland associated with Cowden disease successfully treated with preoperative embolization followed by surgical removal. A 39-year-old man with a history of Cowden disease presented with a pulsating and growing mass on his left lower jaw. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography(CT)and angiography revealed a high-flow AVM in the deep lobe of the left parotid gland. Read More

    Significant association of RNF213 p.R4810K, a moyamoya susceptibility variant, with coronary artery disease.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(4):e0175649. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background: The genetic architecture of coronary artery disease has not been fully elucidated, especially in Asian countries. Moyamoya disease is a progressive cerebrovascular disease that is reported to be complicated by coronary artery disease. Because most Japanese patients with moyamoya disease carry the p. Read More

    Molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Apr 14;52:1-9. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 236-0004, Japan.
    In this study, we examined the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B (HRSV-B). First, we performed time-scale evolution analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Next, we performed genetic distance, linear B-cell epitope prediction, N-glycosylation, positive/negative selection site, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. Read More

    Patient gender as a factor associated with lymph node metastasis in T1 colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2017 Apr 22;6(4):517-524. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hospital Care Research Unit, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-8550, Japan.
    Approximately 10% of patients with T1 colorectal cancer have lymph node metastases (LNM), requiring node dissection along with surgical resection. Patient gender was recently reported to affect the occurrence of LNM. The aim of the present study was to assess whether patient gender was predictive of LNM in T1 colorectal cancer. Read More

    Adenosine A1 receptors measured with (11) C-MPDX PET in early Parkinson's disease.
    Synapse 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Research Team for Neuroimaging, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0015, Japan.
    Adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) interact negatively with dopamine D1 receptors (D1 Rs) in neurons of the basal ganglia's direct pathway, while adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) negatively interact with dopamine D2 receptors (D2 Rs) in indirect-pathway neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral density of A1 Rs in Parkinson's disease (PD) in its early stages, using PET scans with the radioligand 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-(11) C-methyl-3-propylxanthine ((11) C-MPDX). We studied 10 drug-naïve patients with early PD. Read More

    Pre-existing chronic interstitial pneumonia is a poor prognostic factor of Goodpasture's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Apr 13;11(1):102. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Division of Hematology, Respiratory Medicine and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501, Japan.
    Background: Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare disease that is characterized by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    Case Presentation: A 71-year-old Japanese man who had chronic interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed as having Goodpasture's syndrome. Both anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody and myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were increased. Read More

    Rationale and design of a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial to evaluate the effect of empagliflozin on endothelial function: the EMBLEM trial.
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 2017 Apr 12;16(1):48. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.
    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD). SGLT2 inhibitors are known to not only decrease plasma glucose levels, but also favorably modulate a wide range of metabolic and hemodynamic disorders related to CV pathways. Read More

    Gene expression profiling of acute type A aortic dissection combined with in vitroassessment†.
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying aortic dissection remain to be fully elucidated. We aimed to identify key molecules driving dissection through gene expression profiling achieved by microarray analysis and subsequent in vitro experiments using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs).

    Methods: Total RNA, including microRNA (miRNA), was isolated from the intima-media layer of dissected ascending aorta obtained intraoperatively from acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients without familial thoracic aortic disease ( n  = 8) and that of non-dissected ascending aorta obtained from transplant donors ( n  = 9). Read More

    Pilot study comparing the Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Consensus Treatment Plans.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2017 Apr 11;15(1):23. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Pediatric rheumatology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of studying the comparative effectiveness of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) using an observational registry.

    Methods: Untreated systemic JIA patients enrolled in the CARRA Registry were begun on one of 4 CTPs chosen by the treating physician and patient/family (glucocorticoid [GC] alone; methotrexate [MTX] ± GC; IL1 inhibitor [IL1i] ± GC; IL6 inhibitor [IL6i] ± GC). The primary outcome of clinical inactive disease (CID) without current GC use was assessed at 9 months. Read More

    Acute Limb Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease in a Case of Kimura's Disease.
    Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 Apr 5;50(2):114-118. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Pathology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine.
    Kimura disease (KD) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. KD has many complications associated with hypereosinophilia, including various forms of allergic reactions and eosinophilic lung disease. Additionally, hypereosinophilia is associated with hypercoagulability, which may lead to thromboembolic events. Read More

    Delayed pseudoprogression of lung adenocarcinoma accompanied with interstitial lung disease during chemotherapy after nivolumab treatment.
    Thorac Cancer 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Thoracic Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, Japan.
    A 62-year-old Japanese female with primary lung adenocarcinoma received seven cycles of nivolumab as an eighth line of chemotherapy until she presented with hemoptysis. After transcatheter arterial embolization therapy, she received subsequent chemotherapy with paclitaxel and S-1. Four weeks later, a chest computed tomography examination revealed infiltrative shadows mainly in the right lung field, in addition to enlargement of the lung metastasis in the right middle lung lobe. Read More

    Temporary resolution of insulin requirement in acquired partial lipodystrophy associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida.
    This is a case presentation describing a high insulin requirement that suddenly resolved in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with stem cell transplantation complicated by chronic graft-versus-host disease. The patient was diagnosed with acquired partial lipodystrophy that did not require alternative therapies such as leptin or insulin-like growth factor 1. Read More

    Young-onset Alzheimer dementia: a comparison of Brazilian and Norwegian carers' experiences and needs for assistance.
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.
    Objectives: Although dementia typically occurs in older people, it can also emerge in people aged younger than 65 years in the form of young-onset dementia, the most common type of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, few studies have examined the needs of persons with young-onset AD (YO-AD) and their families, and cross-cultural research on the topic is even scarcer. In response, we investigated the situations, experiences and needs for assistance of carers of persons with YO-AD in Brazil and Norway. Read More

    Gene expression analysis of hypersensitivity to mosquito bite, chronic active EBV infection and NK/T-lymphoma/leukemia.
    Leuk Lymphoma 2017 Apr 3:1-12. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Okayama , Japan.
    The human herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a known oncogenic virus and plays important roles in life-threatening T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T/NK-cell LPD) such as hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. During the clinical courses of HMB and CAEBV, patients frequently develop malignant lymphomas and the diseases passively progress sequentially. In the present study, gene expression of CD16((-))CD56((+))-, EBV((+)) HMB, CAEBV, NK-lymphoma, and NK-leukemia cell lines, which were established from patients, was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays and compared to that of CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) NK cells from healthy donors. Read More

    Vonoprazan-Based Regimen Is More Useful than PPI-Based One as a First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 28;2017:4385161. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Aizawa Hospital, Matsumoto, Japan.
    Background. A new agent, potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan (VPZ) has potent acid-inhibitory effects and may offer advantages over conventional H. pylori eradication therapies. Read More

    Role of thrombin-PAR1-PKCθ/δ axis in brain pericytes in thrombin-induced MMP-9 production and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in vitro.
    Neuroscience 2017 May 24;350:146-157. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; BBB Laboratory, PharmaCo-Cell Co., Ltd., Nagasaki, Japan. Electronic address:
    Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, participates in the pathogenesis of brain diseases, such as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease through blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. It is thought that the thrombin-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 axis is an important process in the pathogenesis of neurovascular disease, such as BBB dysfunction. We recently reported that brain pericytes are the most MMP-9-releasing cells in response to thrombin stimulation among the BBB-constituting cells. Read More

    Branched-chain amino acids enhance cyst development in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
    Kidney Int 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Division of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Read More

    Nationwide multicentre kidney biopsy study of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017 Mar 2. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Nephrology and Laboratory Medicine, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan.
    Background.: The clinical and pathologic manifestations of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes are diverse, but large-scale pathologic studies with long-term observations are limited.

    Methods. Read More

    Allele-specific Ablation Rescues Electrophysiological Abnormalities in a Human iPS Cell Model of Long-QT Syndrome with a CALM2 Mutation.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.
    Background: Calmodulin is a ubiquitous Ca 2+ sensor molecule encoded by three distinct calmodulin genes, CALM1-3 . Recently, mutations in CALM1-3 have been reported to be associated with severe early-onset long-QT syndrome (LQTS). However, the underlying mechanism through which heterozygous calmodulin mutations lead to severe LQTS remains unknown, particularly in human cardiomyocytes. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of sequential use of everolimus in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of first-line treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: a multicenter phase II clinical trial.
    Jpn J Clin Oncol 2017 Mar 1:1-9. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.
    Objective: Many studies have shown the efficacy of everolimus after pretreatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated the efficacy and safety of everolimus as a second-line treatment after the failure of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, phase II trial conducted in Japan through the central registration system. Read More

    Identification of novel variants in HLA class II region related to HLA DPB1 expression and disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
    J Med Virol 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
    Background: Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that HLA class II gene may play an important role in viral hepatitis. We studied genetic polymorphism and RNA expression of HLA class II genes in HCV-related liver diseases.

    Methods: The study was performed in groups consisting of 24 patients with HCV-related liver disease (12 of persistent normal ALT: PNALT group and 12 of advanced liver disease: ALD group) and 26 patients without HCV infection (control group). Read More

    The aggressive clinical courses of Hodgkin lymphoma primarily diagnosed as methotrexate-induced non-specific lymphoproliferative disorder in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    J Clin Exp Hematop 2017 ;56(3):165-169
    Department of Hematology, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University.
    Recently, attention has been focused on methotrexate-induced lymphoproliferative disease (MTX-LPD), and atypical phenotypes are occasionally documented. We encountered two patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were diagnosed with non-specific LPD (LPD-nos). Biopsy samples were not obtained during the initial examination when the LPD development was discovered, and the patients achieved a complete response after MTX cessation (case 1) or steroid pulse therapy (case 2). Read More

    Academic Responses to Fukushima Disaster.
    Asia Pac J Public Health 2017 Mar;29(2_suppl):99S-109S
    1 Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Fukushima, Japan.
    Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Read More

    Early and mid-term outcomes of endovascular and open surgical repair of non-dissected aortic arch aneurysm†.
    Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan.
    Objectives: With the introduction of endovascular stent graft technology, a variety of surgical options are available for patients with aortic aneurysms. We sought to evaluate early-term and mid-term outcomes of patients undergoing endovascular and open surgical repair for non-dissected aortic arch aneurysm.

    Methods: Overall, 200 patients underwent treatment for isolated non-dissected aortic arch aneurysm between January 2008 and February 2016: 133 patients had open surgery and 67, endovascular repair. Read More

    Global histone modification fingerprinting in human cells using epigenetic reverse phase protein array.
    Cell Death Discov 2017 6;3:16077. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Synthetic Epigenetics Laboratory, MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, UK.
    The balance between acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of genomic functions. Aberrations in global levels of histone modifications are linked to carcinogenesis and are currently the focus of intense scrutiny and translational research investments to develop new therapies, which can modify complex disease pathophysiology through epigenetic control. However, despite significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic machinery in various genomic contexts and cell types, the links between epigenetic modifications and cellular phenotypes are far from being clear. Read More

    Roles of centromedian parafascicular nuclei of thalamus and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum in associative learning of environmental events.
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Brain Science Institute, Tamagawa University, Machida, Tokyo, Japan.
    The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. Read More

    Short-chain fatty acids, GPR41 and GPR43 ligands, inhibit TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression by modulating p38 and JNK signaling pathways in human renal cortical epithelial cells.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Apr 18;486(2):499-505. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
    Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced predominantly by gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFAs are newly identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, which have the potential to modulate inflammation. Therefore, GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the link between the gut microbiome status and various disease conditions including renal inflammation. Read More

    Distribution of Kawasaki Disease Coronary Artery Aneurysms and the Relationship to Coronary Artery Diameter.
    Pediatr Cardiol 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    We investigated how the diameter of coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) relates to the distribution immediately after Kawasaki disease (KD). Two hundred and four pts (155 males and 49 females) who had undergone selective coronary angiography (CAGs) less than 100 days after the onset of KD were studied. We measured the maximum diameter of each artery segment in the initial CAGs. Read More

    Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the mediastinum: A case report.
    SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2017 23;5:2050313X17695473. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.
    We report a 53-year-old man with metastases of alveolar soft-part sarcoma originated from the mediastinum. He was hospitalized due to lower extremities' paralysis. Computed tomography scan findings revealed multiple nodules of bilateral lungs, swollen mediastinal lymph nodes, and osteolysis of thoracic vertebrae. Read More

    Primary Malignant Lymphoma Originating from the Chest Wall without Preceding Pleural Disease.
    Intern Med 2017 17;56(6):681-686. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Suita Hospital, Japan.
    An 84-year-old woman presented to our hospital with dyspnea on exertion and left back pain. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an irregular pleural mass invading her left chest wall with rib destruction and pleural effusion. CT-guided needle biopsy revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Read More

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