22,834 results match your criteria Kidney Trauma


Life-Threatening Bleeding in Children: A Prospective Observational Study.

Crit Care Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH. Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA. Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA. Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, The Children's Hospital at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK. Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, ARCO Rome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy. Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Section, Medical College of Wisconsin, Children's Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT. Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. Orange Park Medical Center, Orange Park, Florida. Division of Pediatric Surgery, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH. Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH. Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco Pritzker School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco Medical Center Parnassus, San Francisco, CA. Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ. Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN. Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI. Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Children's Hospital at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH. Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, MN. Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University College of Medicine, Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital Nashville, TN. Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Department of Pediatric Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX. Department of Surgery, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, McLane Children's Hospital, Temple TX. Division of Pediatric Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Hasbro Children's Hospital, Providence, RI. Southlake Pediatrics, Birmingham, AL. Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Children's of Alabama, Birmingham, AL. Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO.

Objectives: The purpose of our study was to describe children with life-threatening bleeding.

Design: We conducted a prospective observational study of children with life-threatening bleeding events.

Setting: Twenty-four childrens hospitals in the United States, Canada, and Italy participated. Read More

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Xuebijing injection in septic rats mitigates kidney injury, reduces cortical microcirculatory disorders, and suppresses activation of local inflammation.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 11:114199. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Xuebijing injections originate from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription XuefuZhuyu Decoction. It is composed of five Chinese herbal extracts; Carthami flos, Paeoniae radix rubra, Chuanxiong rhizoma, Salviae miltiorrhizae, and Angelicae Sinensis radix. The China Food and Drug Administration approved Xuebijing injections as a TCM preparation for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis. Read More

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Radiation Increases Bioavailability of Lisinopril, a Mitigator of Radiation-Induced Toxicities.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:646076. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Health and Equity, Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of WI, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

There are no FDA-approved drugs to mitigate the delayed effects of radiation exposure that may occur after a radiological attack or nuclear accident. To date, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are one of the most successful candidates for mitigation of hematopoietic, lung, kidney, and brain injuries in rodent models and may mitigate delayed radiation injuries after radiotherapy. Rat models of partial body irradiation sparing part of one hind leg (leg-out PBI) have been developed to simultaneously expose multiple organs to high doses of ionizing radiation and avoid lethal hematological toxicity to study the late effects of radiation. Read More

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Changes of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney and Liver Injuries in Rats Based on Metabolomics Analysis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 6;14:1807-1825. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, People's Republic of China.

Background: The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was the classic inducer to establish many inflammatory disease models, especially multiple organ injury. Evidences indicated that the mechanism that causes inflammation response is not just related to cytokine release. The main aim of this study was to better elucidate the possible links between metabolic changes and the pathogenesis of LPS-induced acute liver and kidney in order to understand the mechanisms and screening therapeutic targets for developing early diagnostic strategies and treatments. Read More

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Phytochemicals as Potential Therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2-Induced Cardiovascular Complications: Thrombosis and Platelet Perspective.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:658273. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India.

After gaining entry through ACE2 aided by TMPRSS2, the SARS-CoV-2 causes serious complications of the cardiovascular system leading to myocarditis and other myocardial injuries apart from causing lung, kidney and brain dysfunctions. Here in this review, we are going to divulge the cellular and immunological mechanisms behind the cardiovascular, thrombotic and platelet impairments that are caused in COVID-19. In addition, we also propose the significance of various anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic phytochemicals in the treatment of COVID-19. Read More

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Urinary NGAL as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker for Acute Kidney Injury in Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 May 11;12(5):e00359. Epub 2021 May 11.

Liver Center and Gastrointestinal Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has shown promise in differentiating acute tubular necrosis (ATN) from other types of acute kidney injuries (AKIs) in cirrhosis, particularly hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). However, NGAL is not currently available in clinical practice in North America.

Methods: Urinary NGAL was measured in a prospective cohort of 213 US hospitalized patients with decompensated cirrhosis (161 with AKI and 52 reference patients without AKI). Read More

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenals in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Pediatric applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are growing. Evaluation of the kidneys and adrenal glands in children using intravenous administration of US contrast agents, however, is still an off-label indication. Pediatric CEUS applications for kidneys are similar to those in adults, including ischemic disorders, pseudo- versus real tumors, indeterminate lesions, complex cystic lesions, complicated pyelonephritis, and abscesses. Read More

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of blunt abdominal trauma in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and rapid identification of organ injury is essential for successful treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an appealing alternative to contrast-enhanced CT in the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma, mainly with respect to the potential reduction of population-level exposure to ionizing radiation. This is particularly important in children, who are more vulnerable to the hazards of ionizing radiation than adults. Read More

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[Treatment of patients with metastatic lesions of the long bones].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2021 (5):89-94

Herzen Moscow Research Cancer Institute, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To optimize orthopedic care in patients with complicated course of metastatic lesions of the long bones.

Material And Methods: There were 201 patients (72 men and 129 women) who underwent orthopedic care for metastatic lesions of the long bones for the period from 2006 to 2019. Breast cancer metastases were diagnosed in 71 (35%) cases, kidney cancer - 56 (28%) patients, prostate cancer - 19 (9%) cases, metastases without a primary identified focus - 15 (8%) patients. Read More

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Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor roxadustat (FG-4592) protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting inflammation.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):803-810

Department of Nephrology, Taizhou People's Hospital, Fifth Affiliated Hospital to Nantong University, Taizhou, Jiangsu, China.

Hypoxia-induced inflammation is the critical pathological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling is considered as a central mechanism of body adapting to hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4592 (Roxadustat) is a first-in-class HIF stabilizer for the treatment of patients with renal anemia. Read More

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December 2021

Impact of bioprosthetic valve type on peri-procedural myocardial injury and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Heart Vessels 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

DICATOV-Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department, San Martino Hospital, IRCCS for Oncology and Neurosciences, Genoa, Italy.

Peri-procedural myocardial injury (PPMI) is a common complication after transcatheter valve replacement (TAVR), often remaining clinically silent. The role of valve type on PPMI and the association between PPMI and mortality are still unclear. We sought to evaluate predictors and outcome of PPMI after TAVR, and the impact of self-expandable valve (SEV) vs. Read More

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Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Web-Based Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Intervention for Survivors of Physical Inactivity-Related Cancers.

Int J Behav Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Population Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: This pilot study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of a web-based intervention for survivors of physical inactivity-related cancers through a two-arm, 12-week randomized controlled trial. Secondarily, this study tested the change in physical activity (PA) and sedentary time with intervention exposure.

Methods: Prior to randomization to the intervention (n = 45) or behavior "as usual" wait-listed control (n = 40) groups, participants completed baseline surveys and an accelerometer protocol. Read More

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Increased mortality with REBOA only mitigated by strong unmeasured confounding: an expanded analysis using the National Trauma Data Bank.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine Applied Mathematics Program, Department of Mathematics, Yale University Department of Statistics and Data Science, Yale University.

REBOA is being increasingly adopted to manage non-compressible torso hemorrhage, but a recent analysis of the 2015-2016 Trauma Quality Improvement Project (TQIP) dataset showed that placement of REBOA was associated with higher rates of death, lower extremity amputation, and acute kidney injury (AKI). We expand this analysis by including the 2017 dataset, quantifying the potential role of residual confounding, and distinguishing between traumatic and ischemic lower extremity amputation.

Methods: This retrospective study used the 2015-2017 TQIP database and included patients older than 18 years old, with signs of life on arrival, no aortic injury, and were not transferred. Read More

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Various fatal complications of urolithiasis.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, 17. listopadu 1790/5, Ostrava, 70852, Czech Republic.

This article describes two cases of fatal complications of urolithiasis. The first case discusses the development of fatal urosepsis in a patient with a known mental health issue. The patient had self-introduced a thermometer into her bladder, which led to stone formation around the thermometer and consequently to fatal urosepsis. Read More

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Prehospital blood pressure and lactate are early predictors of acute kidney injury after trauma.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 30;265:180-186. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, Wakayama, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after trauma in our center, describe the risk factors associated with AKI, and determine whether these risk factors help avoid AKI.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data which were prospectively collected from a single center trauma registry from January 2017 to December 2018. Patients who were <16 years of age, patients with burns, and patients with chronic kidney disease were excluded from the present study. Read More

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Renal Toxicity Associated With Resection and Spacer Insertion for Chronic Hip PJI.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Two-stage exchange arthroplasty with high-dose antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacer and intravenous (IV) antibiotics is the most common method of managing infected total hip arthroplasties. However, the contemporary incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injuries (AKIs) in this cohort are unknown.

Methods: We identified 227 patients treated with 256 antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers after resection of an infected primary total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2017. Read More

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Permissive effect of GSK3β on profibrogenic plasticity of renal tubular cells in progressive chronic kidney disease.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 30;12(5):432. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI, 02903, USA.

Renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) play a key role in renal fibrogenesis. After persistent injuries that are beyond self-healing capacity, TECs will dedifferentiate, undergo growth arrest, convert to profibrogenic phenotypes, and resort to maladaptive plasticity that ultimately results in renal fibrosis. Evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β is centrally implicated in kidney injury. Read More

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A Decade of Organs-on-a-Chip Emulating Human Physiology at the Microscale: A Critical Status Report on Progress in Toxicology and Pharmacology.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Technical Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry and Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163-164, 1060 Vienna, Austria.

Organ-on-a-chip technology has the potential to accelerate pharmaceutical drug development, improve the clinical translation of basic research, and provide personalized intervention strategies. In the last decade, big pharma has engaged in many academic research cooperations to develop organ-on-a-chip systems for future drug discoveries. Although most organ-on-a-chip systems present proof-of-concept studies, miniaturized organ systems still need to demonstrate translational relevance and predictive power in clinical and pharmaceutical settings. Read More

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S100A4 in the Physiology and Pathology of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System.

Cells 2021 Apr 2;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

S100A4 is a member of the large family of S100 proteins, exerting a broad range of intracellular and extracellular functions that vary upon different cellular contexts. While S100A4 has long been implicated mainly in tumorigenesis and metastatization, mounting evidence shows that S100A4 is a key player in promoting pro-inflammatory phenotypes and organ pro-fibrotic pathways in the liver, kidney, lung, heart, tendons, and synovial tissues. Regarding the nervous system, there is still limited information concerning S100A4 presence and function. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Renal Impairment in Critical Care: An Observational Study of 42 Cases (Kidney COVID).

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 8;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 75012 Paris, France.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to 5% to 16% hospitalization in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with 23% to 75% of kidney impairments, including acute kidney injury (AKI). The current work aims to precisely characterize the renal impairment associated to SARS-CoV-2 in ICU patients. Forty-two patients consecutively admitted to the ICU of a French university hospital who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 25 March 2020, and 29 April 2020, were included and classified in categories according to their renal function. Read More

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Differential Expression of Sphingolipid Metabolizing Enzymes in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Possible Substrate for Susceptibility to Brain and Kidney Damage.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli 86077, Italy.

Alterations in the metabolism of sphingolipids, a class of biologically active molecules in cell membranes with direct effect on vascular homeostasis, are increasingly recognized as important determinant in different vascular disorders. However, it is not clear whether sphingolipids are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension-related cerebrovascular and renal damage. In this study, we evaluated the existence of possible abnormalities related to the sphingolipid metabolism in the brain and kidneys of two well validated spontaneously hypertensive rat strains, the stroke-prone (SHRSP) and the stroke-resistant (SHRSR) models, as compared to the normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain. Read More

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Kidney Injury Caused by Preeclamptic Pregnancy Recovers Postpartum in a Transgenic Rat Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 5;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), A Joint Cooperation of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany.

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by the onset of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) and presence of proteinuria (>300 mg/L/24 h urine) or other maternal organ dysfunctions. During human PE, renal injuries have been observed. Some studies suggest that women with PE diagnosis have an increased risk to develop renal diseases later in life. Read More

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Methodological Issue of Mitochondrial Isolation in Acute-Injury Rat Model: Asphyxia Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 12;8:666735. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research at Northwell, Manhasset, NY, United States.

Identification of the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction is key to understanding the pathophysiology of acute injuries such as cardiac arrest (CA); however, effective methods for measurement of mitochondrial function associated with mitochondrial isolation have been debated for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the dysregulation of mitochondrial respiratory function after CA while testing the sampling bias that might be induced by the mitochondrial isolation method. Adult rats were subjected to 10-min asphyxia-induced CA. Read More

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Urinary microRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers for toxic acute kidney injury in humans.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9165. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Group, Biomedical Informatics and Digital Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

MicroRNAs in biofluids are potential biomarkers for detecting kidney and other organ injuries. We profiled microRNAs in urine samples from patients with Russell's viper envenoming or acute self-poisoning following paraquat, glyphosate, or oxalic acid [with and without acute kidney injury (AKI)] and on healthy controls. Discovery analysis profiled for 754 microRNAs using TaqMan OpenArray qPCR with three patients per group (12 samples in each toxic agent). Read More

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Demographic, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Ghana.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Apr 28;22(1):156. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Renal Research Initiative , Cape Coast, Ghana.

Background: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the commonest of the hereditary kidney diseases and mostly ensues in utero with signs delayed until after several decades. This study assessed the demographic, diagnostic (clinical and biochemical features) and therapeutic patterns among ADPKD patients who attended the nephrology unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) from 2007 to 2018.

Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective analysis of ADPKD patient records was conducted at the nephrology unit of KATH in October 2020. Read More

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Morbidity and mortality of parathyroid surgery - a retrospective analysis.

Rozhl Chir 2021 ;100(3):126-132

Introduction: The incidence of parathyroid - glandula parathyreoideae (PTG) diseases has been increasing worldwide. Unlike benign tumours, the incidence of malignant PTG tumours is rather a rare diagnosis. The morbidity of parathyroid surgery is associated with surgical removal of one or more pathologically altered parathyroid glands, particularly parathyroid adenoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPPT), but also hyperplasia associated with secondary or tertiary HPPT, and last but not least, HPPT due to parathyroid cancer. Read More

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[Treatment report of three cases of multiple wasp stings].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(4):310-312

Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.

From September to November 2019, three patients with Hornet stings were admitted to hospital with acute anaphylaxis and various degrees of organ dysfunction. After hemoperfusion combined with continuous hemodialysis and hormone pulse therapy, 1 patient was successfully treated and 2 patients were not cured. Bee Stings can cause systemic allergic reactions and toxic reactions. Read More

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A bizarre case of fatal main renal artery partial laceration without primary kidney injury due to a single stab wound in the chest.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Apr 20;51:101892. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Dipartimento di Area Medica, Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Udine, p.le S. Maria della Misericordia 15, 33100 Udine, Italy. Electronic address:

Reno-vascular injuries are a rare type of renal injury, and their second most frequent cause is penetrating wounds. The majority of the reports and of the studies are present in the urological and radiological literature and they focus on the clinical approach to such injuries. In the case here presented, an 18-year-old male died after being stabbed in the left hemithorax. Read More

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What every dentist needs to know about electronic cigarettes.

Gen Dent 2021 May-Jun;69(3):31-35

Electronic cigarette (EC) use is on a steady rise, leading to increased concerns about its efficacy with regard to tobacco cessation goals and safety with regard to systemic and oral health. Recent studies have shown that EC flavoring agents can have adverse effects similar to those of combustible tobacco products. Evidence is mounting that EC use should not be considered a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking. Read More

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Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Children: Implementation and Key Diagnostic Applications.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) utilization is expanding rapidly, particularly in children, in whom the modality offers important advantages of dynamic evaluation of the vasculature, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and lack of need for sedation. Accumulating data establish an excellent safety profile of ultrasound contrast agents in children. Although only FDA-approved for IV use in children for characterizing focal liver lesions and for use during echocardiography, growing off-label applications are expanding the diagnostic potential of ultrasound. Read More

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