12,168 results match your criteria Kaposi Sarcoma


Kaposi sarcoma of the adrenal gland: A report of two cases with a review of the literature.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):606-608

Department of Pathology, Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital, Rabat, Morocco.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular neoplasm commonly involving mucocutaneous sites, while adrenal gland involvement is exceptional. The anaplastic variant is a rare entity characterized by marked cellular pleomorphism, increased mitosis, worse prognosis, and an increased metastatic potential. The diagnosis remains on histology and immunohistochemistry. Read More

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The role of radiation therapy in the management of cutaneous malignancies. Part II: When is radiation therapy indicated?

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Departments of Dermatology and Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas, USA.

Radiation therapy may be performed for a variety of cutaneous malignancies depending on patient health status, tumor clinical and histologic features, patient preference, and resource availability. Dermatologists should be able to recognize the clinical scenarios in which radiation therapy is appropriate as this may reduce morbidity, decrease risk of disease recurrence, and improve quality of life. The second article in this 2-part continuing medical education series focuses on the most common indications for radiation therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Merkel cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, angiosarcoma, cutaneous lymphoma, melanoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, and sebaceous carcinoma. Read More

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TNF-alpha inhibition in the setting of undiagnosed HIV infection: a call for enhanced screening guidelines.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Hospital Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Gastroenterology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of Experimental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Despite the risks of immunosuppression, recommendations regarding screening for HIV infection prior to initiation of biologic therapies targeting common rheumatologic disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammatory arthritides, are limited. Few cases of patients started on biologics while living with undiagnosed HIV infection have been reported.

Methods: We report 3 cases of patients initiated on biologics in the absence of recent or concurrent HIV screening who developed refractory disease or unanticipated complications and were later found to have undiagnosed chronic HIV infection. Read More

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors in treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 6;152:165-182. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; Cancer Research Institute Ghent, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare malignancies, accounting for approximately 1% of adult cancer. Metastatic disease carries a poor prognosis, and various efforts have been made to improve the prognosis of advanced STS, to date with little success. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have substantially improved prognosis for many cancer types. Read More

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The KSHV ORF20 Protein Interacts with the Viral Processivity Factor ORF59 and Promotes Viral Reactivation.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jun 9:e0014521. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Microbiology Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Upon Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic reactivation, rapid and widespread amplification of viral DNA (vDNA) triggers significant nuclear reorganization. As part of this striking shift in nuclear architecture, viral replication compartments are formed as sites of lytic vDNA production along with remarkable spatial remodeling and the relocalization of cellular and viral proteins. These viral replication compartments house several lytic gene products that coordinate viral gene expression, vDNA replication, and nucleocapsid assembly. Read More

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Transplant-associated penile Kaposi sarcoma managed with single agent paclitaxel chemotherapy: a case report.

BMC Urol 2021 Jun 7;21(1):87. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Renal Medicine and Renal Transplant, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Kaposi's sarcoma is an uncommon complication in renal transplant patients, and typically presents with cutaneous lesions on the lower extremities. Penile involvement has been reported only rarely. Management of cutaneous-limited disease is primarily reduction of immunosuppression and conversion to an mTOR-inhibitor, whereas the treatment of disseminated disease in transplant patients is more variable. Read More

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Oral lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma: a Brazilian case report in a scenario of a still high number of HIV infections.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Oral Diagnosis Department, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, Areão, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

We present a challenging case of HIV-related lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma (LLKS) affecting the oral cavity. A 54-year-old Brazilian male patient was referred to our center complaining of bleeding lesions affecting the oral cavity for 2 months. Interestingly, these oral lesions were the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection. Read More

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Photodynamic therapy of classic Kaposi's sarcoma with video-fluorescence control.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 1;35:102378. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Laser Micro-, Nano-, and Biotechnology, Institute of Engineering Physics for Biomedicine, National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI", Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow 115409, Russian Federation; Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation.

Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (multiple idiopathic hemorrhagic sarcoma, Kaposi's angiosarcoma) is an angioproliferative neoplasm of endothelial origin associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV - 8) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The incidence of the classical form of Kaposi's sarcoma (КS) varies significantly in different geographical areas from 0.14/1 million people (both men and women) to 10. Read More

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RNA-guided gene editing of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 genome reduces infectious virus production.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252313. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) are cancer-causing viruses that establish lifelong infections in humans. Gene editing using the Cas9-guideRNA (gRNA) CRISPR system has been applied to decrease the latent load of EBV in human Burkitt lymphoma cells. Validating the efficacy of Cas9-gRNA system in eradicating infection in vivo without off-target effects to the host genome will require animal model systems. Read More

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Cyclosporine-Induced Kaposi Sarcoma in a Patient With Ulcerative Colitis.

ACG Case Rep J 2021 May 26;8(5):e00600. Epub 2021 May 26.

Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, The George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8. Gastrointestinal KS has been well documented in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant patients, with only 26 iatrogenic cases published in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a 24-year-old patient with ulcerative colitis, maintained on cyclosporine for 2 years, who presented with watery, nonbloody diarrhea and weight loss. Read More

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Systematic Review of Cancer Research Output From Africa, With Zambia as an Example.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 May;7:802-810

Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: Cancer occurrence is increasing in Africa, although research has lagged. The objective of this review was to analyze cancer research outputs from Africa, with a particular focus on Zambia.

Methods: We searched PubMed for published cancer-related articles from African countries. Read More

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TOPICAL BETA-BLOCKERS IN DERMATOLOGIC THERAPY.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Jun 2:e15016. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Section of Dermatology, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

An increasing use of beta-blockers in dermatology has been described over the last 10 years, despite the fact that their use in diseases other than infantile hemangiomas is off-label. This review discusses the emerging role of topical beta-blockers in the treatment of infantile hemangioma, but also pyogenic granuloma, Kaposi sarcoma, wounds and nail paronychia. Data in literature demonstrate that topical beta-blockers are a safe and valid therapeutic option in numerous cutaneous diseases. Read More

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Virus-Driven Carcinogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 27;13(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.

Cancer arises from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Even in the era of precision oncology, carcinogens contributing to neoplastic process are still an important focus of research. Comprehensive genomic analyses have revealed various combinations of base substitutions, referred to as the mutational signatures, in cancer. Read More

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Roles of Lytic Viral Replication and Co-Infections in the Oncogenesis and Immune Control of the Epstein-Barr Virus.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 10;13(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the prototypic human tumor virus whose continuous lifelong immune control is required to prevent lymphomagenesis in the more than 90% of the human adult population that are healthy carriers of the virus. Here, we review recent evidence that this immune control has not only to target latent oncogenes, but also lytic replication of EBV. Furthermore, genetic variations identify the molecular machinery of cytotoxic lymphocytes as essential for this immune control and recent studies in mice with reconstituted human immune system components (humanized mice) have begun to provide insights into the mechanistic role of these molecules during EBV infection. Read More

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Regulation of the Macroautophagic Machinery, Cellular Differentiation, and Immune Responses by Human Oncogenic γ-Herpesviruses.

Authors:
Christian Münz

Viruses 2021 05 8;13(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Laboratory of Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

The human γ-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encode oncogenes for B cell transformation but are carried by most infected individuals without symptoms. For this purpose, they manipulate the anti-apoptotic pathway macroautophagy, cellular proliferation and apoptosis, as well as immune recognition. The mechanisms and functional relevance of these manipulations are discussed in this review. Read More

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Systemic Treatment Initiation in Classical and Endemic Kaposi's Sarcoma: Risk Factors and Global Multi-State Modelling in a Monocentric Cohort Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 21;13(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Université de Paris, AP-HP, Dermatology Department, INSERM U976, Saint Louis Hospital, 75010 Paris, France.

Background: Although several studies described the clinical course of epidemic and post-transplant Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), the lack of large cohorts of classic/endemic KS, precluded such characterization.

Methods: We used multi-state modelling in a retrospective monocentric study to evaluate global disease evolution and identify risk factors for systemic treatment (ST) initiation. 160 classic/endemic KS patients consecutively diagnosed between 1990 and 2013 were included. Read More

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Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as first line treatment in aids-related Kaposi's sarcoma: a real-life study.

J Chemother 2021 Jun 1:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Oncology, Luigi Sacco Hospital, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Milano, Italy.

Despite the introduction of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains the most common malignancy in HIV positive patients. In advanced stage or progressive forms, chemotherapy (CT) in combination with cART is the treatment of choice. The aim of the study is to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD) as first line CT in AIDS-KS. Read More

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A simple and rapid approach for human herpesvirus type 8 subtype characterization using single base extension.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Sequence analysis of the ORFK1 of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) allows the identification of six major subtypes (A-F), which are related to human migrations and the clinical progression of Kaposi's sarcoma. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of ORFK1 is considered to be the most reliable method for HHV-8 genotyping. However, it exhibits challenges and limitations. Read More

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KSHV-specific antivirals targeting the protein-DNA interaction of the latency-associated nuclear antigen.

Future Med Chem 2021 Jul 26;13(13):1141-1151. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Drug Design & Optimization (DDOP), Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Campus E8.1, Saarbrücken, 66123, Germany.

The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic human herpesviruses that is responsible for cancer, especially in immunosuppressed people, such as patients with AIDS. So far, there are no KSHV-specifc antiviral agents available. In this review, we provide an overview on one particular target-centered approach toward novel anti-KSHV drugs focusing on interfering with the molecular functions of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). Read More

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Aberrant cytoplasmic connexin43 expression as a helpful marker in vascular neoplasms.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Gap junctions consisting of connexins (Cx) are fundamental in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Cx43 is the most broadly expressed Cx in humans and is attributed an important role in skin tumor development. Its role in cutaneous vascular neoplasms is yet unknown. Read More

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Sex differences in cancer risk and outcomes after kidney transplantation.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2021 May 1;35(3):100625. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Nephrology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) experience a two- to four-fold increased risk of developing and dying from cancer compared with the general population. High cancer risk results from the interaction of both modifiable and non-modifiable factors. This mapping review explores the impact of sex disparity on cancer's increased incidence and mortality after kidney transplantation (KT). Read More

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Disseminated classic Kaposi sarcoma in a seven-year-old girl.

Eur J Dermatol 2021 Apr;31(2):269-270

Skin Cancer Center, Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

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The Importance of Early Recognition of KSHV-mediated Syndromes: A Case Report.

Am J Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Medicine, Section of Health Services Research, Center for Innovations in Quality, Safety, and Effectiveness (IQuESt), Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

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Kaposi sarcoma in ART-treated people living with HIV: A wake-up call for research on HHV-8.

AIDS 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program, Research Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada Chronic Viral Illness Service, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Division of Hematology, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

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Malignancies diagnosed before and after anal squamous cell carcinomas: A SEER registry analysis.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 7;10(11):3575-3583. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Background: Increased risk of a second primary malignancy (SPM) before or after diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) has been reported in a previous single-institution study. We hypothesize that patients diagnosed with ASCC are at increased risk for developing SPMs before or after the diagnosis of ASCC. The primary objective of this study was to identify the diagnoses of cancer most likely to occur as SPMs before or after ASCC. Read More

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KSHV infection drives poorly cytotoxic CD56-negative natural killer cell differentiation in vivo upon KSHV/EBV dual infection.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109056

Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Herpesvirus infections shape the human natural killer (NK) cell compartment. While Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expands immature NKG2A NK cells, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) drives accumulation of adaptive NKG2C NK cells. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a close relative of EBV, and both are associated with lymphomas, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which nearly always harbors both viruses. Read More

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Trends in childhood cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: Results from 25 years of cancer registration in Harare (Zimbabwe) and Kyadondo (Uganda).

Int J Cancer 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometrics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

We examined trends in childhood cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa using data from two population-based cancer registries in Harare (Zimbabwe) and Kyadondo (Uganda) with cases classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer and explored reasons for observed variations and changes. Over the whole 25-year period (1991-2015) studied, there were only small, and nonsignificant overall trends in incidence. Nevertheless, within the period, peaks in incidence occurred from 1996 to 2001 in Harare (Zimbabwe) and from 2003 to 2006 in Kyadondo (Uganda). Read More

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Reversible switching of primary cells between normal and malignant state by oncogenic virus KSHV and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of a major viral latent protein.

J Med Virol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Cancer Virology Program, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Viral infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a plethora of human diseases. Although antiviral therapies effectively confront the viral spread and infection, how to completely eradicate the viral genome from infected cells remains a challenge. In this study, we demonstrated the reversible switching of primary cells between normal and malignant states by an oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of a major viral latent protein. Read More

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