748 results match your criteria Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society JPIDS [Journal]


Effect of Previous-Season Influenza Vaccination on Serologic Response in Children During 3 Seasons, 2013-2014 Through 2015-2016.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Wisconsin.

Background: The effects of repeated influenza vaccination in children are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated previous vaccination effects on antibody response after vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among school-aged children (5-17 years) across 3 seasons.

Methods: Children were enrolled in the fall of 2013, 2014, and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz001DOI Listing
February 2019

Elevated Matrix Metalloproteinase Concentrations Offer Novel Insight Into Their Role in Pediatric Tuberculous Meningitis.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery.

We collected lumbar and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid and serum from 40 children treated for tuberculous meningitis and measured the concentrations of gelatinases and their inhibitors. The concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 were significantly elevated in the lumbar CSF samples, and we found interesting dynamics for MMP-9 that offer novel insight into its role in pediatric patients with tuberculous meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy141DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Breastfeeding by Women Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in a Resource-Rich Setting: A Case Series of Maternal and Infant Management and Outcomes.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through breastmilk with maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led many pregnant women living with HIV and healthcare providers to question exclusive formula feeding in resource-rich settings. Here, we describe cART prophylaxis in 3 breastfed infants whose mothers had sustained virologic suppression; all 3 of these infants remained uninfected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz003DOI Listing
February 2019

Evidence for Household Transmission of Rotavirus in the United States, 2011-2016.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children and is highly transmissible. In this study, we assessed the presence of AGE in household contacts (HHCs) of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus.

Methods: Between December 2011 and June 2016, children aged 14 days to 11 years with AGE were enrolled at 1 of 7 hospitals or emergency departments as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Using Changes in Weight-for-Age z Score to Predict Effectiveness of Childhood Tuberculosis Therapy.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Centre for International Child Health, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Background: International guidelines recommend monitoring weight as an indicator of therapeutic response in childhood tuberculosis (TB) disease. This recommendation is based on observations in adults. In the current study, we evaluated the association between weight change and treatment outcome, the accuracy of using weight change to predict regimen efficacy, and whether successfully treated children achieve catch-up weight gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy138DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Maternal Priming: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Scarring in Mothers Enhances the Survival of Their Child With a BCG Vaccine Scar.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.

Background And Hypothesis: Maternal priming might enhance the beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of live measles vaccination (MV). Children with a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine scar have a lower mortality rate than those without a scar that is not explained by protection against tuberculosis. We examined the hypothesis that BCG scarring would have a stronger effect on a child if the mother also had a BCG scar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy142DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Decision Tree Using Patient Characteristics to Predict Resistance to Commonly Used Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics in Children With Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: As rates of multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections rise, it is critical to recognize children at high risk of bloodstream infections with organisms resistant to commonly used empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. The objective of the current study was to develop a user-friendly clinical decision aid to predict the risk of resistance to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum empiric antibiotics for children with gram-negative bloodstream infections.

Methods: This was a longitudinal retrospective cohort study of children with gram-negative bacteria cared for at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from June 2009 to June 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy137DOI Listing
January 2019

Late Identification of Chikungunya Virus in the Central Nervous System of a 2-Month-Old Infant: Persistence of Maternal-Neonatal Infection?

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Laboratório de Doenças Febris Agudas, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

We report here a probable case of vertical transmission of chikungunya infection with confirmed maternal viremia close to labor that led to severe infection in the newborn. The newborn progressed with cutaneous lesions and irritability 2 months after vertical transmission, when chikungunya virus was detected in the infant's CSF by a molecular diagnostic test (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy135DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Respiratory Specimen Collection Trial (ReSpeCT): A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Quality and Timeliness of Respiratory Sample Collection in the Home by Parents and Healthcare Workers From Children Aged <2 Years.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Child Health Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Most acute respiratory infection (ARI) research focuses on severe disease and overlooks the burden of community-managed illness. For community-based studies, home-based specimen collection by parents could be a resource-saving alternative to collection by healthcare workers (HCWs). In this study, we compared parent and HCW groups for their likelihood to collect specimens and the timeliness and quality of such collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy136DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Bronchiolitis in US Emergency Departments, 2007-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

One-fourth of patients with bronchiolitis seen in US emergency departments between 2007 and 2015 received antibiotics; 70% of them had no documented bacterial coinfection. Macrolides were prescribed in 38% of the cases. Antibiotic use did not decrease after national recommendations against routine prescribing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy131DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Dengue Vaccine, A Double-Edged Sword.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Vaxconsult, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy140DOI Listing
January 2019

Retrospective Chart Analysis of Child and Adolescent Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Houston, Texas.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Section of Tropical Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection causes significant morbidity in the United States. Despite its high national disease burden, the epidemiologic characteristics of child and adolescent cases are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to describe the socioeconomic, transmission risk factors, clinical manifestations, and geospatial variables associated with cases of T vaginalis infection in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy134DOI Listing
January 2019

Modeling Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects in Nonhuman Primates.

Authors:
Emma L Mohr

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S60-S66

Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

In utero infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to the development of birth defects and postnatal deficits. A nonhuman primate (NHP) model of congenital ZIKV infection can help fill the gaps in knowledge where tissue studies are required to define viral pathogenesis and identify targets for therapeutic intervention. This model system has already identified critical features of ZIKV pathogenesis in congenital infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy120DOI Listing
December 2018

Cytomegalovirus in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case-Based Panel Discussion of Current Challenges.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S72-S74

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, Washington.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant contributor to morbidity and death after pediatric solid and stem cell transplantation. Decisions regarding prevention and treatment often lack pediatric-specific data to drive decision making. We present here a case-based discussion around some of these specific topics and focus on approaches to CMV prevention, post-CMV secondary prophylaxis options, and identification and treatment of resistant CMV infection, including emerging antiviral agents and the use of cytotoxic CMV-specific T-cells, in the setting of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy104DOI Listing
December 2018

Clinical Vignettes: Donor-Derived Infections.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S67-S71

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York.

Patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) may acquire infections from the transplanted organ. Routine screening for common infections are an established part of the pretransplant evaluation of donors and recipients. Likewise, strategies exist for prophylaxis and surveillance for common donorassociated infections including hepatitis B, CMV and EBV. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/article/7/suppl_2/S67/5261311
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy129DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Developing a Career in Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S57-S59

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

This article presents an overview of the Career Development session at the 17th Annual St. Jude/PIDS Pediatric Infectious Diseases Research Conference. This annual conference discusses key academic skills, such as grant writing and negotiating for protected time for research and academic endeavors, as well as highlighting the many career options available in infectious disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy123DOI Listing
December 2018

Human Herpesvirus 6B in the Transplant Recipient: When to Worry, When to Act.

Authors:
Danielle M Zerr

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S75-S78

Seattle Children's Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle.

Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects most individuals before the age of three years. HHV-6B reactivates in approximately 40% of transplant recipients where it has been associated with a number of important outcomes, especially in allogeneic transplant recipients. This article will review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of HHV-6B infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy111DOI Listing
December 2018

Current Understanding of Humoral Immunity to Enterovirus D68.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S49-S53

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a pathogen that causes outbreaks of respiratory illness across the world, mostly in children, and can be especially severe in those with asthma. Clusters of acute flaccid myelitis, a poliomyelitis-like neuromuscular weakness syndrome, often occur concurrent with EV-D68 respiratory outbreaks. Seroepidemiologic studies have found that the serum of nearly everyone older than 2 to 5 years contains anti-EV-D68 neutralizing antibodies, which suggests that EV-D68 is a ubiquitous pathogen of childhood. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/article/7/suppl_2/S49/5261307
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy124DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Targeting Antiviral Pathways for Treatment of Allergic Diseases.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S54-S56

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy110DOI Listing
December 2018

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Primary Immunodeficiencies Beyond Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S79-S82

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been the standard of care for infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) for several decades due to the dismal prognosis early in life without immune reconstitution. In recent years, as HSCT conditioning regimens and supportive care have greatly improved, HSCT is gaining in acceptance for more non-SCID primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and outside the early childhood period. In addition, potential donor options for non-SCID PIDs are expanding with increasing success for haploidentical donor transplants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306013PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Licensure, Approval, and Uptake of Vaccines in the United States.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S46-S48

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Immunization is one of the most effective public and private preventive health interventions, resulting in significant reductions in vaccine-preventable diseases and in substantial cost savings to the US healthcare system. Vaccine licensure, development of recommendations for use, and implementation of those recommendations leading to uptake, community protection, and effect on disease burden represent a complex system that requires collaboration in the areas of basic science, public health, vaccine delivery, outcome monitoring, and public perception. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) sets standards for immunization delivery for both public and private vaccine providers, and state immunization programs can use these ACIP recommendations to develop school immunization requirements. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/article/7/suppl_2/S46/5261304
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy122DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Neurologic Manifestations of Influenza A(H3N2) Infection in Children During the 2016-2017 Season.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora.

Among 182 children with influenza infection in 2016-2017, 18% had neurologic manifestations of influenza (NMI), including seizures and encephalopathy; 85% of these children were infected with the H3N2 strain. Children with NMI had 3.5-times-higher odds of having a neurologic comorbidity than those without NMI and a 10-fold increased odds of hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy130DOI Listing
December 2018

Fever and Headache in a Fully Vaccinated Adolescent.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy132DOI Listing
December 2018

Fucosyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms and Lewisb-Negative Status Are Frequent in Swedish Newborns, With Implications for Infectious Disease Susceptibility and Personalized Medicine.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fucosyltransferase genes FUT2 and FUT3 have been associated with susceptibility to various infectious and inflammatory disorders. FUT variations influence the expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) (H-type 1 and Lewis), which are highly expressed in the gut and play an important role in microbial attachment, metabolism, colonization, and shaping of the microbiome. In particular, FUT polymorphisms confer susceptibility to specific rotavirus and norovirus genotypes, which has important global health implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy085DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Reporting and Categorization of Blood Culture Contaminants in Infants and Young Children: A Scoping Review.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, California.

Background: Blood cultures are obtained routinely for infants and young children for the evaluation for serious bacterial infection. Isolation of organisms that represent possible contaminants poses a management challenge. The prevalence of bacteremia reported in this population is potentially biased by inconsistent contaminant categorization reported in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy125DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluation of Discharge Antibiotic Prescribing at a Freestanding Children's Hospital: Opportunities for Stewardship.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate suboptimal discharge antibiotic prescribing at a children's hospital and found that 27% of the prescriptions were suboptimal. Thirty-three percent of the patients who might have qualified for solid dosage forms received liquid dosages instead. Our findings suggest that opportunities exist for discharge antibiotic-stewardship and pill-swallowing programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy127DOI Listing
December 2018

Application of the Bacterial Meningitis Score for Infants Aged 0 to 60 Days.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts.

In 4292 infants aged ≤60 days with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, the bacterial meningitis score had excellent sensitivity (121 of 121 [100.0%] [95% confidence interval, 96.5%-100. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy126DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Burden of Children Hospitalized With Pertussis in Canada in the Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Era, 1999-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Recent increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality rates among young infants have led to a recommendation in some countries for vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. Having data on the burden of pediatric pertussis in a large population over time is important for establishing the true burden of disease in the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine era. Here, we describe age-specific epidemiology and morbidity and mortality rates in children hospitalized with pertussis over 17 years across Canada in the aP vaccine era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy128DOI Listing
December 2018

Vancomycin Should Be Part of Empiric Therapy for Suspected Bacterial Meningitis.

Authors:
Liset Olarte

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

The use of empiric vancomycin plus a third-generation cephalosporin for suspected bacterial meningitis has been recommended since 1997. Although the prevalence of ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible pneumococcal meningitis has decreased, vancomycin should still be included as empiric therapy for bacterial meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy121DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Implementation of a Pragmatic Biomarker-Driven Algorithm to Guide Antibiotic Use in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: the Optimizing Antibiotic Strategies in Sepsis (OASIS) II Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Biomarkers can facilitate safe antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients without bacterial infection.

Methods: We tested the ability of a biomarker-based algorithm to reduce excess antibiotic administration in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without bacterial infections (uninfected) in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The algorithm suggested that PICU clinicians stop antibiotics if (1) C-reactive protein <4 mg/dL and procalcitonin <1 ng/mL at SIRS onset and (2) no evidence of bacterial infection by exam/testing by 48 hours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy113DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Clinical Impact of Clostridium difficile PCR Cycle Threshold-Predicted Toxin Reporting in Pediatric Patients.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Background: Reliance on tests that detect only the presence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile can result in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of C difficile infection (CDI). The C difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (CT) can sensitively predict the presence of free C difficile toxins; however, the clinical application for this testing strategy remains unexplored. We evaluated the impact of dual PCR and toxin result reporting, as predicted by the CT, on CDI management and outcomes in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy117DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Influenza in the Era of Rapid Diagnostics.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Influenza is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and death; it contributes to up to 16% of hospitalizations for respiratory illnesses worldwide. Novel rapid viral diagnostic tests, including molecular diagnostic tests, have the potential to significantly affect both time to diagnosis and selection of optimal anti-infective therapy. However, little is known about current treatment algorithms used in US hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy118DOI Listing
November 2018

Neonatal Conjunctivitis Caused by Neisseria cinerea: A Case of Mistaken Identity.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York.

We report a case of a 3-day-old boy with Neisseria cinerea conjunctivitis, originally misidentified as Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis. Neonates are at increased risk for disseminated gonococcal infection, and physicians should be cognizant of N cinerea and its potential to be mistaken for N gonorrhoeae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy116DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Characteristics of Intracranial Group A Streptococcal Infections in US Children, 1997-2014.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Few data on intracranial group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in children are available. Here, we describe the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic characteristics of 91 children with intracranial GAS infection.

Methods: Cases of intracranial GAS infection in persons ≤18 years of age reported between 1997 and 2014 were identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's population- and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy108DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Midturbinate Swabs Are Comparable to Nasopharyngeal Swabs for Quantitative Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infants.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California.

Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are generally used to detect respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants. However, midturbinate (MT) swabs may provide comparable results. In this study, we enrolled hospitalized infants aged <24 months with RSV and collected NP and MT swabs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy115DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Posaconazole Administration in Hospitalized Children in the United States.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

In this study, we evaluated posaconazole use among hospitalized children between October 2006 and September 2015 using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. A total of 878 children (in 1949 admissions) received posaconazole, and administration increased 22% per year overall and 27% per year in children aged <13 years for whom the drug was not approved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy119DOI Listing
November 2018

Primary and Repeated Respiratory Viral Infections Among Infants in Rural Nepal.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle.

Background: Respiratory viruses cause significant morbidity and death in infants; 99% of such deaths occur in resource-limited settings. Risk factors for initial and repeated respiratory viral infections in young infants in resource-limited settings have not been well described.

Methods: From 2011 to 2014, a birth cohort of infants in rural Nepal was enrolled and followed with weekly household-based active surveillance for respiratory symptoms until 6 months of age. Read More

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy107DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Severe Progressive Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection Associated With Brentuximab Vedotin Therapy.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Global Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy109DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Change in Bacterial Causes of Community-Acquired Parapneumonic Effusion and Pleural Empyema in Children 6 Years After 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Implementation.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Université Paris Est, IMRB-GRC GEMINI, Créteil, France.

We describe here changes in the bacterial causes of pleural empyema before and after implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) program in France (2009-2017). For 220 (39.3%) of 560 children, a bacterial cause was found. Read More

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy103DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Drugs Among Children With Tuberculosis in Rural Tanzania.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Background: Dosing recommendations for treating childhood tuberculosis (TB) were revised by the World Health Organization, yet so far, pharmacokinetic studies that have evaluated these changes are relatively limited. We evaluated plasma drug concentrations of rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB) among children undergoing TB treatment in Tanzania when these dosing recommendations were being implemented.

Methods: At the end of intensive-phase TB therapy, blood was obtained 2 hours after witnessed medication administration to estimate the peak drug concentration (C2h), measured using high-performance liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy106DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

The Time Has Come to Stop Using Vancomycin as Part of Empiric Therapy for Meningitis.

Authors:
Ravi Jhaveri

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy105DOI Listing
October 2018

Compromise of Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy Due to High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance in Mozambican Treatment-Experienced Children With Virologic Failure.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Division of Global HIV and TB, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Virologic failure (VF) is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (DR). Most children still lack access to routine viral load (VL) monitoring for early identification of treatment failure, with implications for the efficacy of second-line ART.

Methods: Children aged 1 to 14 years on ART for ≥12 months at 6 public facilities in Maputo, Mozambique were consecutively enrolled after informed consent. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy102DOI Listing
October 2018
21 Reads

Clinical Features and Outcomes of Immunocompromised Children Hospitalized With Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza in the United States, 2011-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Existing data on the clinical features and outcomes of immunocompromised children with influenza are limited.

Methods: Data from the 2011-2012 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons were collected as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET). We compared clinical features and outcomes between immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised children (<18 years old) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed community-acquired influenza. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy101DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Association of Previous Measles Infection With Markers of Acute Infectious Disease Among 9- to 59-Month-Old Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles.

Background: Transient immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections after measles infection is well known, but recent studies have suggested the occurrence of an "immune amnesia" that could have long-term immunosuppressive effects.

Methods: We examined the association between past measles infection and acute episodes of fever, cough, and diarrhea among 2350 children aged 9 to 59 months whose mothers were selected for interview in the 2013-2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Classification of children who had had measles was completed using maternal recall and measles immunoglobulin G serostatus obtained via dried-blood-spot analysis with a multiplex immunoassay. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy099DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Unusual Presentation of Severe Endobronchial Obstruction Caused by Cryptococcus gattii in a Child: Case Report and Literature Review Severe Endobronchial Cryptococcosis in a Child.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Children's Hospital Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

Disease caused by Cryptococcus gattii typically manifests as meningoencephalitis or pulmonary nodules. Endobronchial lesions are rare, and most cases are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. We describe here a case of endobronchial disease in a child caused by C gattii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy100DOI Listing
October 2018

Impact of Pharmacy-Initiated Interventions on Influenza Vaccination Rates in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: In solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, influenza infection can lead to subsequent graft dysfunction and death. Vaccination is the most effective approach to preventing influenza infection; however, vaccination rates are low, and interventions to optimize vaccine coverage are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if pharmacy-initiated screening and recommendations for influenza immunization improve the rate of vaccination in pediatric SOT recipients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy095DOI Listing
October 2018

A 4-Year-Old Boy With an Unusual Bacterial Meningitis Infection.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Divisions of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy096DOI Listing
October 2018

Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Among Infants, Toddlers, and Children in Western Burkina Faso: Results From a Clinical Trial of Alternative Immunization Schedules.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Agence de Médecine Préventive, Paris, France.

Background: Many African countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into their routine immunization program to reduce the burden of morbidity and death that results from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, yet immunogenicity and reactogenicity data from the region are limited for the 2 available PCV products.

Methods: We conducted a randomized trial of 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Infants received 3 doses of PCV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age or at 6 weeks, 14 weeks, and 9 months of age; toddlers received 2 doses 2 months apart or 1 dose beginning at 12 to 15 months of age; and children received 1 dose between 2 and 4 years of age. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy075DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Evaluation of Intravenous Posaconazole Dosing and Pharmacokinetic Target Attainment in Pediatric Patients.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmacy, Seattle Children's Hospital, Washington.

Limited data exist on intravenous (IV) posaconazole dosing and the risk for hepatotoxicity it confers to children. In this study, we evaluated dosing and resulting trough levels in 10 pediatric patients on IV posaconazole. A therapeutic level in these patients was achieved 95% of the time. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy094DOI Listing
October 2018
28 Reads

A 15-Month-Old Boy With a Rash on His Hands and Feet.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy097DOI Listing
October 2018