765 results match your criteria Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society JPIDS [Journal]


Association Between Children's Hospital Visitor Restrictions and Healthcare-Associated Viral Respiratory Infections: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Departments of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

We investigated the effect of annual winter visitor restrictions on hospital respiratory virus transmission. The healthcare-associated (HA) viral respiratory infection (VRI) transmission index (number of HA VRIs per 100 inpatient community-associated VRIs) was 59% lower during the months in which visitor restrictions were implemented. These data prompt consideration for instituting year-round visitor restrictions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz023DOI Listing

Clinical Impact of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing at a US Children's Hospital.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Children who develop malaria after returning to a setting in which the disease is not endemic are at high risk for critical delays in diagnosis and initiation of antimalarial therapy. We assessed the clinical impact of the implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) on the management of children with malaria at an urban US children's hospital that serves a large immigrant population.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed malaria at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) between 2000 and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz022DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Outsourcing Microbiology Services in Medical Centers: Is It Worth It?

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

Background: Outsourcing of microbiology laboratory services is a growing trend in US medical centers. Data on the actual impact of outsourcing on patient care, safety, and medical education, including costs, are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the published literature on the potential benefits and harms when medical centers outsource common microbiology services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz019DOI Listing

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Dolutegravir in Treatment-Experienced Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Results of the IMPAACT P1093 Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.

Background: P1093 is an ongoing phase I/II multicenter open-label study of dolutegravir plus an optimized background regimen in age-defined pediatric cohorts; here we report the long-term safety and virologic efficacy outcomes for the oldest cohort.

Methods: The study enrolled human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected treatment-experienced adolescents aged 12 to <18 years, with an HIV-1 RNA level ≥1000 copies/mL . Cumulative safety and HIV-1 RNA outcomes were assessed once the last enrolled participant reached 144 weeks of follow-up. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy139DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Effect of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on the Progression of Vertically Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection During Childhood and Adolescence.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 31. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Departments of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Gregorio Marañón and Gregorio Marañón Research Institute (IiSGM), Madrid.

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz008DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection in Children in Southern Israel Before and After the Introduction of Varicella Vaccine.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 31. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.

The annual rates of group A Streptococcus bacteremia per 100 000 children in southern Israel declined after introduction of the varicella vaccine to the national immunization program, from 2.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz013DOI Listing

Subacute Aerococcus urinae Infective Endocarditis With Mycotic Aneurysms in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Literature Review.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Joseph M. Sanzari Children's Hospital at Hackensack Meridian Health, Hackensack, New Jersey.

Aerococcus urinae has been found to cause urinary tract infection in elderly patients and has been reported as a rare cause of infective endocarditis associated with significant morbidity and death in adults. However, information regarding its occurrence in children is lacking. We report here the case of a pediatric patient with subacute A urinae infective endocarditis with mycotic aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz016DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Acute Flaccid Myelitis: Lessons From Polio.

Authors:
Janet R Gilsdorf

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor.

With the eradication of poliomyelitis in the United States, the appearance of acute flaccid myelitis outbreaks has raised questions regarding their causation. Review of the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and laboratory findings of bygone cases of poliomyelitis have revealed shows important similarities with those of newer cases of acute flaccid myelitis. Many occurrences are preceded by an apparent viral illness, and a number of viruses, particularly enteroviruses A71 and D68, can be isolated from respiratory or stool specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz017DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Children Hospitalized With Scrub Typhus in an Area of Endemicity.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Medicine, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and Faculty of Medicine, University of Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a major cause of acute febrile illness in children in the rural tropics.

Methods: We recruited 60 febrile pediatric patients with a positive scrub typhus rapid diagnostic test result and 40 healthy controls from Chiang Rai Province in northern Thailand. Diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of (1) O. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz014DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

A Pilot Study to Reduce Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Children From Extremely Low-Income Settings With Intestinal Failure-Meeting the Challenge.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Background: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are major sources of morbidity, death, and healthcare costs in patients who receive home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The majority of HPN-dependent children in southern Israel reside in poor communities with substandard living conditions, which creates significant challenges for the safe provision of HPN. We developed a pilot intervention that aimed to reduce the rates of CLABSI and central venous catheter (CVC) replacements in this vulnerable population in our region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz006DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Outpatient Visits Among Children Younger Than 24 Months.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz011DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Chikungunya Virus: A Back-Breaking Problem.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Vaxconsult, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz012DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Pediatric Neuroschistosomiasis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of General Medicine, Victoria, Australia.

Neuroschistosomiasis is a rare but severe manifestation of Schistosoma infection. Diagnosis is challenging and surgical biopsy is often required to confirm diagnosis and exclude malignancy. We present a pediatric case of presumed pseudotumoral cerebral schistosomiasis secondary to Schistosoma mansoni with an excellent therapeutic response to empirical praziquantel and corticosteroid treatment. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz009DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Defining the Role of Novel β-Lactam Agents That Target Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Departments of Pharmacy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

With the current carbapenem-resistant organism crisis, conventional approaches to optimizing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters are frequently inadequate, and traditional salvage agents (eg, colistin, tigecycline, etc) confer high toxicity and/or have low efficacy. However, several β-lactam agents with activity against carbapenem-resistant organisms were approved recently by the US Food and Drug Administration, and more are anticipated to be approved in the near future. The primary goal of this review is to assist infectious disease practitioners with preferentially selecting 1 agent over another when treating patients infected with a carbapenem-resistant organism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz002DOI Listing
February 2019

The 112-Year Odyssey of Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccines-Mistakes Made and Implications for the Future.

Authors:
James D Cherry

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.

Effective diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccines became available in the 1930s, and they were put into routine use in the United States in the 1940s. Their use reduced the average rate of reported pertussis cases from 157 in 100 000 in the prevaccine era to <1 in 100 000 in the 1970s. Because of alleged reactions (encephalopathy and death), several countries discontinued (Sweden) or markedly decreased (United Kingdom, Germany, Japan) use of the vaccine. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz005DOI Listing
February 2019
23 Reads

Two-Tier Lyme Disease Serology Test Results Can Vary According to the Specific First-Tier Test Used.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Variability in 2-tier Lyme disease test results according to the specific first-tier enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in children has not been examined rigorously. In this study, we compared paired results of clinical 2-tier Lyme disease tests to those of the C6 peptide EIA followed by supplemental immunoblotting (C6 2-tier test).

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of children aged ≥1 to ≤21 years who were undergoing evaluation for Lyme disease in the emergency department at 1 of 6 centers located in regions in which Lyme disease is endemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy133DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of Previous-Season Influenza Vaccination on Serologic Response in Children During 3 Seasons, 2013-2014 Through 2015-2016.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Wisconsin.

Background: The effects of repeated influenza vaccination in children are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated previous vaccination effects on antibody response after vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among school-aged children (5-17 years) across 3 seasons.

Methods: Children were enrolled in the fall of 2013, 2014, and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz001DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Elevated Matrix Metalloproteinase Concentrations Offer Novel Insight Into Their Role in Pediatric Tuberculous Meningitis.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery.

We collected lumbar and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid and serum from 40 children treated for tuberculous meningitis and measured the concentrations of gelatinases and their inhibitors. The concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 were significantly elevated in the lumbar CSF samples, and we found interesting dynamics for MMP-9 that offer novel insight into its role in pediatric patients with tuberculous meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy141DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Breastfeeding by Women Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in a Resource-Rich Setting: A Case Series of Maternal and Infant Management and Outcomes.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through breastmilk with maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led many pregnant women living with HIV and healthcare providers to question exclusive formula feeding in resource-rich settings. Here, we describe cART prophylaxis in 3 breastfed infants whose mothers had sustained virologic suppression; all 3 of these infants remained uninfected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz003DOI Listing
February 2019

Evidence for Household Transmission of Rotavirus in the United States, 2011-2016.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children and is highly transmissible. In this study, we assessed the presence of AGE in household contacts (HHCs) of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus.

Methods: Between December 2011 and June 2016, children aged 14 days to 11 years with AGE were enrolled at 1 of 7 hospitals or emergency departments as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz004DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Using Changes in Weight-for-Age z Score to Predict Effectiveness of Childhood Tuberculosis Therapy.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Centre for International Child Health, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Background: International guidelines recommend monitoring weight as an indicator of therapeutic response in childhood tuberculosis (TB) disease. This recommendation is based on observations in adults. In the current study, we evaluated the association between weight change and treatment outcome, the accuracy of using weight change to predict regimen efficacy, and whether successfully treated children achieve catch-up weight gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy138DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Maternal Priming: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Scarring in Mothers Enhances the Survival of Their Child With a BCG Vaccine Scar.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.

Background And Hypothesis: Maternal priming might enhance the beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of live measles vaccination (MV). Children with a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine scar have a lower mortality rate than those without a scar that is not explained by protection against tuberculosis. We examined the hypothesis that BCG scarring would have a stronger effect on a child if the mother also had a BCG scar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy142DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Decision Tree Using Patient Characteristics to Predict Resistance to Commonly Used Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics in Children With Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: As rates of multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections rise, it is critical to recognize children at high risk of bloodstream infections with organisms resistant to commonly used empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. The objective of the current study was to develop a user-friendly clinical decision aid to predict the risk of resistance to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum empiric antibiotics for children with gram-negative bloodstream infections.

Methods: This was a longitudinal retrospective cohort study of children with gram-negative bacteria cared for at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from June 2009 to June 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy137DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Late Identification of Chikungunya Virus in the Central Nervous System of a 2-Month-Old Infant: Persistence of Maternal-Neonatal Infection?

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Laboratório de Doenças Febris Agudas, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

We report here a probable case of vertical transmission of chikungunya infection with confirmed maternal viremia close to labor that led to severe infection in the newborn. The newborn progressed with cutaneous lesions and irritability 2 months after vertical transmission, when chikungunya virus was detected in the infant's CSF by a molecular diagnostic test (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy135DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Respiratory Specimen Collection Trial (ReSpeCT): A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Quality and Timeliness of Respiratory Sample Collection in the Home by Parents and Healthcare Workers From Children Aged <2 Years.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Child Health Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Most acute respiratory infection (ARI) research focuses on severe disease and overlooks the burden of community-managed illness. For community-based studies, home-based specimen collection by parents could be a resource-saving alternative to collection by healthcare workers (HCWs). In this study, we compared parent and HCW groups for their likelihood to collect specimens and the timeliness and quality of such collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy136DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Bronchiolitis in US Emergency Departments, 2007-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

One-fourth of patients with bronchiolitis seen in US emergency departments between 2007 and 2015 received antibiotics; 70% of them had no documented bacterial coinfection. Macrolides were prescribed in 38% of the cases. Antibiotic use did not decrease after national recommendations against routine prescribing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy131DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Dengue Vaccine, A Double-Edged Sword.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Vaxconsult, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy140DOI Listing
January 2019

Retrospective Chart Analysis of Child and Adolescent Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Houston, Texas.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Section of Tropical Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection causes significant morbidity in the United States. Despite its high national disease burden, the epidemiologic characteristics of child and adolescent cases are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to describe the socioeconomic, transmission risk factors, clinical manifestations, and geospatial variables associated with cases of T vaginalis infection in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy134DOI Listing
January 2019

Modeling Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects in Nonhuman Primates.

Authors:
Emma L Mohr

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S60-S66

Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

In utero infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to the development of birth defects and postnatal deficits. A nonhuman primate (NHP) model of congenital ZIKV infection can help fill the gaps in knowledge where tissue studies are required to define viral pathogenesis and identify targets for therapeutic intervention. This model system has already identified critical features of ZIKV pathogenesis in congenital infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy120DOI Listing
December 2018

Cytomegalovirus in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case-Based Panel Discussion of Current Challenges.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S72-S74

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, Washington.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant contributor to morbidity and death after pediatric solid and stem cell transplantation. Decisions regarding prevention and treatment often lack pediatric-specific data to drive decision making. We present here a case-based discussion around some of these specific topics and focus on approaches to CMV prevention, post-CMV secondary prophylaxis options, and identification and treatment of resistant CMV infection, including emerging antiviral agents and the use of cytotoxic CMV-specific T-cells, in the setting of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy104DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Clinical Vignettes: Donor-Derived Infections.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S67-S71

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York.

Patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) may acquire infections from the transplanted organ. Routine screening for common infections are an established part of the pretransplant evaluation of donors and recipients. Likewise, strategies exist for prophylaxis and surveillance for common donorassociated infections including hepatitis B, CMV and EBV. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/article/7/suppl_2/S67/5261311
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy129DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Developing a Career in Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S57-S59

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

This article presents an overview of the Career Development session at the 17th Annual St. Jude/PIDS Pediatric Infectious Diseases Research Conference. This annual conference discusses key academic skills, such as grant writing and negotiating for protected time for research and academic endeavors, as well as highlighting the many career options available in infectious disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy123DOI Listing
December 2018

Human Herpesvirus 6B in the Transplant Recipient: When to Worry, When to Act.

Authors:
Danielle M Zerr

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S75-S78

Seattle Children's Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle.

Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects most individuals before the age of three years. HHV-6B reactivates in approximately 40% of transplant recipients where it has been associated with a number of important outcomes, especially in allogeneic transplant recipients. This article will review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of HHV-6B infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy111DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Current Understanding of Humoral Immunity to Enterovirus D68.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S49-S53

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a pathogen that causes outbreaks of respiratory illness across the world, mostly in children, and can be especially severe in those with asthma. Clusters of acute flaccid myelitis, a poliomyelitis-like neuromuscular weakness syndrome, often occur concurrent with EV-D68 respiratory outbreaks. Seroepidemiologic studies have found that the serum of nearly everyone older than 2 to 5 years contains anti-EV-D68 neutralizing antibodies, which suggests that EV-D68 is a ubiquitous pathogen of childhood. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/article/7/suppl_2/S49/5261307
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy124DOI Listing
December 2018
18 Reads

Targeting Antiviral Pathways for Treatment of Allergic Diseases.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S54-S56

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Dallas, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy110DOI Listing
December 2018

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Primary Immunodeficiencies Beyond Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S79-S82

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been the standard of care for infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) for several decades due to the dismal prognosis early in life without immune reconstitution. In recent years, as HSCT conditioning regimens and supportive care have greatly improved, HSCT is gaining in acceptance for more non-SCID primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and outside the early childhood period. In addition, potential donor options for non-SCID PIDs are expanding with increasing success for haploidentical donor transplants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306013PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Licensure, Approval, and Uptake of Vaccines in the United States.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec;7(suppl_2):S46-S48

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Immunization is one of the most effective public and private preventive health interventions, resulting in significant reductions in vaccine-preventable diseases and in substantial cost savings to the US healthcare system. Vaccine licensure, development of recommendations for use, and implementation of those recommendations leading to uptake, community protection, and effect on disease burden represent a complex system that requires collaboration in the areas of basic science, public health, vaccine delivery, outcome monitoring, and public perception. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) sets standards for immunization delivery for both public and private vaccine providers, and state immunization programs can use these ACIP recommendations to develop school immunization requirements. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/article/7/suppl_2/S46/5261304
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy122DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Neurologic Manifestations of Influenza A(H3N2) Infection in Children During the 2016-2017 Season.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora.

Among 182 children with influenza infection in 2016-2017, 18% had neurologic manifestations of influenza (NMI), including seizures and encephalopathy; 85% of these children were infected with the H3N2 strain. Children with NMI had 3.5-times-higher odds of having a neurologic comorbidity than those without NMI and a 10-fold increased odds of hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy130DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Fever and Headache in a Fully Vaccinated Adolescent.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy132DOI Listing
December 2018

Fucosyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms and Lewisb-Negative Status Are Frequent in Swedish Newborns, With Implications for Infectious Disease Susceptibility and Personalized Medicine.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fucosyltransferase genes FUT2 and FUT3 have been associated with susceptibility to various infectious and inflammatory disorders. FUT variations influence the expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) (H-type 1 and Lewis), which are highly expressed in the gut and play an important role in microbial attachment, metabolism, colonization, and shaping of the microbiome. In particular, FUT polymorphisms confer susceptibility to specific rotavirus and norovirus genotypes, which has important global health implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy085DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Reporting and Categorization of Blood Culture Contaminants in Infants and Young Children: A Scoping Review.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, California.

Background: Blood cultures are obtained routinely for infants and young children for the evaluation for serious bacterial infection. Isolation of organisms that represent possible contaminants poses a management challenge. The prevalence of bacteremia reported in this population is potentially biased by inconsistent contaminant categorization reported in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy125DOI Listing
December 2018
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Evaluation of Discharge Antibiotic Prescribing at a Freestanding Children's Hospital: Opportunities for Stewardship.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate suboptimal discharge antibiotic prescribing at a children's hospital and found that 27% of the prescriptions were suboptimal. Thirty-three percent of the patients who might have qualified for solid dosage forms received liquid dosages instead. Our findings suggest that opportunities exist for discharge antibiotic-stewardship and pill-swallowing programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy127DOI Listing
December 2018

Application of the Bacterial Meningitis Score for Infants Aged 0 to 60 Days.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts.

In 4292 infants aged ≤60 days with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, the bacterial meningitis score had excellent sensitivity (121 of 121 [100.0%] [95% confidence interval, 96.5%-100. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy126DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Burden of Children Hospitalized With Pertussis in Canada in the Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Era, 1999-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Recent increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality rates among young infants have led to a recommendation in some countries for vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. Having data on the burden of pediatric pertussis in a large population over time is important for establishing the true burden of disease in the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine era. Here, we describe age-specific epidemiology and morbidity and mortality rates in children hospitalized with pertussis over 17 years across Canada in the aP vaccine era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy128DOI Listing
December 2018
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Vancomycin Should Be Part of Empiric Therapy for Suspected Bacterial Meningitis.

Authors:
Liset Olarte

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

The use of empiric vancomycin plus a third-generation cephalosporin for suspected bacterial meningitis has been recommended since 1997. Although the prevalence of ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible pneumococcal meningitis has decreased, vancomycin should still be included as empiric therapy for bacterial meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy121DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

Implementation of a Pragmatic Biomarker-Driven Algorithm to Guide Antibiotic Use in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: the Optimizing Antibiotic Strategies in Sepsis (OASIS) II Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Biomarkers can facilitate safe antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients without bacterial infection.

Methods: We tested the ability of a biomarker-based algorithm to reduce excess antibiotic administration in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without bacterial infections (uninfected) in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The algorithm suggested that PICU clinicians stop antibiotics if (1) C-reactive protein <4 mg/dL and procalcitonin <1 ng/mL at SIRS onset and (2) no evidence of bacterial infection by exam/testing by 48 hours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy113DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Clinical Impact of Clostridium difficile PCR Cycle Threshold-Predicted Toxin Reporting in Pediatric Patients.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Background: Reliance on tests that detect only the presence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile can result in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of C difficile infection (CDI). The C difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (CT) can sensitively predict the presence of free C difficile toxins; however, the clinical application for this testing strategy remains unexplored. We evaluated the impact of dual PCR and toxin result reporting, as predicted by the CT, on CDI management and outcomes in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy117DOI Listing
November 2018
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Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Influenza in the Era of Rapid Diagnostics.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Influenza is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and death; it contributes to up to 16% of hospitalizations for respiratory illnesses worldwide. Novel rapid viral diagnostic tests, including molecular diagnostic tests, have the potential to significantly affect both time to diagnosis and selection of optimal anti-infective therapy. However, little is known about current treatment algorithms used in US hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy118DOI Listing
November 2018

Neonatal Conjunctivitis Caused by Neisseria cinerea: A Case of Mistaken Identity.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York.

We report a case of a 3-day-old boy with Neisseria cinerea conjunctivitis, originally misidentified as Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis. Neonates are at increased risk for disseminated gonococcal infection, and physicians should be cognizant of N cinerea and its potential to be mistaken for N gonorrhoeae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy116DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads