1,119 results match your criteria Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS[Journal]


Teaching Surgical Model Development in Research by Using Situated Learning and Instructional Scaffolding.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Resources detailing the scope, details, and duration for teaching and learning surgical model development in research are poorly described. Situated learning and instructional scaffolding are useful skill-building tools. Herein, we discuss educational theory in the context of a training paradigm for surgical researchers, using our experience with a nonunion femoral fracture model as an example. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000090DOI Listing

Effect of Predator Stress on the Reproductive Performance of Female Mice after Nonsurgical Embryo Transfer.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Predator stress can exert detrimental effects on female mammals, leading to disrupted reproduction. Although many studies have addressed the effects of predator stress on reproductive output in rodents, few studies have focused on the effect of visual or auditory stress on pregnant females. In this study, we investigated the possible effect of predator stress,either visual only or combined visual and auditory (visual+auditory), on the reproductive performance of female mice after nonsurgical embryo transfer. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000085DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Effects of Sodium Lighting on Circadian Rhythms in Rats.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Rodent studies often must be conducted during an animal's active phase (that is, in darkness) yet also during a typicalday shift for staff. Low-pressure sodium lighting (LPSL), to which human retinas are more sensitive than rodents' at lowintensity, has been used to facilitate study conduct in dark phase. The assumption was that LPSL would be equivalent tototal darkness due to low rodent retinal sensitivity but provide enough lighting for safe technical manipulations due to higher human retinal sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000079DOI Listing

Clinical, Physiologic, and Behavioral Evaluation of Permanently Catheterized NMRI Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Vascular catheterization is becoming a popular technique in laboratory rodents, facilitating repetitive blood sampling andinfusion in individual animals. In mice, catheterization is complicated by their small body size, which may increase the riskof postoperative complications that may both threaten catheter longevity and animal welfare. Less obvious complications to apermanent catheter may include subclinical infection, visceral tissue damage from disseminating microthrombi released fromthe catheter, and distress from being isolated from conspecifics and other experimental stressors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000060DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Time-dependent Pathologic and Inflammatory Consequences of Various Blood Sampling Techniques in Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

We compared 6 frequently used mouse blood-sampling methods (lateral tail incision; tail-tip amputation; sublingual,submandibular, and saphenous vein puncture; and retrobulbar sinus puncture during isoflurane anesthesia) with regard to induction of local and systemic inflammation, stomach contents, weight changes, and corticosterone levels at 6 h to 12 d after sampling. Local inflammation was assessed through histopathology and assessment of the expression of inflammation and tissue damage-related genes (S1008/9A, Cxcl2, Il1b, Nlrp3, Il6, and Il33) in sampled tissue. Systemic inflammation was assessed through quantification of plasma haptoglobin levels, measurement of blood Il1b expression, and evaluation of histopathologic changes in lung, kidney, liver, and spleen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000064DOI Listing

Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine for the Immobilization of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Maximizing animal wellbeing by minimizing drug-related side effects is a key consideration when choosing pharmaceuticalagents for chemical restraint in nonhuman primates. One drug combination that may promote this ideology is butorphanol(27.3 mg/mL), azaperone (9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000088DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of MS222 on Hemostasis in Zebrafish.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

MS222 is a compound used in anesthetizing vertebrates, including fish and frogs. Several side effects of this anesthetichave been reported, but its effect on hemostasis has not been studied. In our laboratory, we have used zebrafish for morethan 2 decades as a model system to study hemostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000069DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Modified Dose Efficacy Trial of a Canine Distemper-Measles Vaccine for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Measles virus causes a highly infectious disease in NHP. Clinical signs range from asymptomatic to fatal, although measlesvirus is most well-known for its characteristic generalized maculopapular rash. Along with appropriate quarantine practices,restricted human access, and appropriate personal protective equipment, vaccines are used to combat the risk of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000091DOI Listing

Assessment of Pain Associated with the Injection of Sodium Pentobarbital in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals considers injection of barbiturates to be an acceptable method ofeuthanasia in rodents but states there is a potential for pain when administered intraperitoneally. This study examined thepotential for pain in mice by assessing visceral pain after intraperitoneal administration and acute pain by using a paw-licktest. Male and female mice (n = 160) intraperitoneally received a euthanizing dose of sodium pentobarbital at a concentrationof 5, 50, or 390 mg/mL and were observed for writhing, peritoneum-directed behaviors (PDB), loss of righting reflex, and time to death. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000094DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Preliminary Evaluation of Sustained-release Compared with Conventional Formulations of Meloxicam in Sheep (Ovis aries).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Sustained-release (SR) drugs refine current analgesic regimens by alleviating the need for multiple sessions of handlingand restraint and by reducing the local tissue irritation that can occur due to repeated injections. Although a variety of SRdrugs are already used in lab animal medicine, no studies exist that evaluate the suitability of an SR NSAID in sheep. Thisstudy used HPLC-MS to measure the plasma concentrations of 2 formulations of meloxicam-conventional and SRM-after subcutaneous administration in 6 adult ewes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000076DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Intramuscular Administration of Alfaxalone Alone and in Combination for Sedation and Anesthesia of Rabbits ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 28;58(2):216-222. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

This study compared alfaxalone, alone and in combination with other medications, for sedative and anesthetic properties after intramuscular administration in New Zealand white rabbits. In the main portion of the study, 6 female rabbits were assigned to 5 treatment regimens in a blinded crossover design. Alfaxalone (6 mg/kg IM) was administered alone and in combination with each of the following: 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433347PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Enrofloxacin Pharmacokinetics and Sampling Techniques in California Sea Hares ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 28;58(2):231-234. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kansas, Manhattan, Kansas;, Email:

This pharmacokinetic study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg when given to sea hares in their hemolymph. Enrofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial in veterinary medicine and potentially could be used to treat sea hares exposed to susceptible bacterial species. We individually identified 8 juvenile and group housed them in an open seawater flow system at 14 to 18 °C; 2 served as untreated controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433349PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Welfare and Scientific Considerations of Tattooing and Ear Tagging for Mouse Identification.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 27;58(2):142-153. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom.

Ear tagging is perceived as less painful or stressful than tattooing and therefore is generally considered less harmful or costly to welfare. However, ear tags are more difficult to read than tattoos and can fall out, and mice usually require restraint for the tag numbers to be read accurately. We assessed the welfare and scientific implications of tattooing by using a commercial device compared with restraint in a device versus ear tagging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433351PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of the Sterility of Press'n Seal Cling Film for Use in Rodent Surgery.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 27;58(2):235-239. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

University Laboratory Animal Resources, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

level and improve surgical outcomes. Recently, some institutions have approved the use of Press'n Seal cling film (CF; Glad Products, Oakland, CA) as a practical, cost-effective alternative to sterile drapes for rodent surgeries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sterility of CF by using ATP and replicate organism detection and counting (RODAC) plates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433354PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of a Synthetic Bedding Substrate for Mice ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 25;58(2):154-159. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Biochemistry and Physiology Branch, Medical Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

This study compared a synthetic bedding substrate (SBS), which has the potential to be a particulate-free animal bedding system, with the standard woodchip bedding. The objective was to demonstrate that the SBS is habitable for mice and reduces particulates to levels that would not contaminate the eye or potentially induce ocular (corneal) injury. Newly weaned mice were placed in either standard woodchip bedding or SBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433361PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

PCR Prevalence of Murine Opportunistic Microbes and their Mitigation by Using Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 22;58(2):208-215. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Comparative Medicine, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Exposing immunodeficient mice to opportunistic microbes introduces risks of data variability, morbidity, mortality, and the invalidation of studies involving unique human reagents, including the loss of primary human hematopoietic cells, patient-derived xenografts, and experimental therapeutics. The prevalence of 15 opportunistic microbes in a murine research facility was determined by yearlong PCR-based murine and IVC equipment surveillance comprising 1738 specimens. Of the 8 microbes detected, 3 organisms- , , and biotype Heyl-were most prevalent in both murine and IVC exhaust plenum specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433363PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Seroconversion of 1-year-old Mice to Murine Norovirus.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 22;58(2):197-200. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine.

Rodent sentinel screening for adventitious pathogens is an integral part of many biomedical research institutes and universities that use rodents in research. Typical screening programs involving live sentinel animals typically purchase young SPF sentinel animals that are sampled and replaced quarterly. Previous reports suggest that mice as old as 6 mo are effective sentinels for various agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433360PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Retrospective Analysis of the Effects of Identification Procedures and Cage Changing by Using Data from Automated, Continuous Monitoring.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 14;58(2):126-141. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Vium, San Mateo, California;, Email:

Many variables can influence animal behavior and physiology, potentially affecting scientific study outcomes. Laboratory and husbandry procedures-including handling, cage cleaning, injections, blood collection, and animal identification-may produce a multitude of effects. Previous studies have examined the effects of such procedures by making behavioral and physiologic measurements at specific time points; this approach can be disruptive and limits the frequency or duration of observations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433355PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Survey of Behavioral Indices of Welfare in Research Chimpanzees () in the United States.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 14;58(2):160-177. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.

Chimpanzees demand specialized housing and care and the highest degree of attention to animal welfare. The current project used a survey method to collate information on chimpanzee housing and behavioral indices of welfare across all 6 of the chimpanzee research facilities in the United States. Data were compiled on 701 chimpanzees ranging from 2 to 62 y old (mean age, 26. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433362PMC
March 2019
7 Reads

Head Tilt in Immunodeficient Mice Due to Contamination of Drinking Water by .

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 14;58(2):246-250. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;, Email:

Immunodeficient mice in multiple holding rooms presented with head tilt, circling, spinning when picked up by the tail, dehydration, and lethargy. , a plant pathogen, was identified as the causative agent. Environmental testing revealed the presence of within the automatic watering system, water bottles, and sipper tubes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433346PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Influence of Rater Training on Inter- and Intrarater Reliability When Using the Rat Grimace Scale.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 12;58(2):178-183. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada;, Email:

Rodent grimace scales facilitate assessment of ongoing pain. Reported rater training using these scales varies considerably and may contribute to the observed variability in interrater reliability. This study evaluated the effect of training on interrater reliability with the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433356PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Ammonia Measurement in the IVC Microenvironment.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 31;58(2):184-189. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Transgenic Technology Department, Genentech, South San Francisco, California;, Email:

In this review, we describe the methods and technology used to measure intracage ammonia levels; the data were derived from 38 articles published since 1970. Ammonia concentration is commonly used as a surrogate for assessing environmental quality inside rodent cages. Data generated from this group of publications have been used to support new husbandry practices, determine the effect of ammonia on health, and establish the effectiveness of caging systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433352PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Effects of Various Commercially Available Enrichment Options on Handling and Chronic Stress Markers in Female ICR Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 29;58(2):119-125. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana;, Email:

Although social housing of mice generally is preferred, mice must be individually housed in some situations. In these cases, enhanced attention to environmental enrichment is encouraged, but few studies assess the wellbeing of mice provided various enrichments. In this study, we used female ICR mice to evaluate enrichment strategies that encouraged natural behaviors including foraging, exercise, sheltering, and socialization. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-17-000103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433358PMC
March 2019
18 Reads

Abstracts of Scientific Papers 2018 Association of Primate Veterinarians Workshop.

Authors:

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan;58(1):92-103

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351043PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

The Likelihood of Misidentifying Rodent Pasteurellaceae by Using Results from a Single PCR Assay.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 16;58(2):201-207. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Veterinary Resources, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

The precise identification of rodent Pasteurellaceae is known to be highly challenging. An unknown strain of Pasteurellaceae appeared and rapidly spread throughout our animal facilities. Standard microbiology, combined with biochemical analysis, suggested that the bacteria strain was or . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433359PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Chemical Contaminants from Plastics in the Animal Environment.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 15;58(2):190-196. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

School of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington;, Email:

Accidental exposure of our mice to bisphenol A (BPA) from damaged polycarbonate cages 20 y ago provided some of the first evidence of the harmful effects of exposure to this common chemical. Recently we found that housing mice in damaged polysulfone cages resulted in similar harmful effects due to exposure to bisphenol S (BPS). This problem was unexpected for 2 reasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433350PMC
March 2019
2 Reads
1.118 Impact Factor

Regional Anesthesia for Dentistry and Orofacial Surgery in Rhesus Macaques ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 10;58(2):223-230. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Division of Comparative Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Regional anesthesia is a commonly used adjunct to orofacial dental and surgical procedures in companion animals and humans. However, appropriate techniques for anesthetizing branches of the mandibular and maxillary nerves have not been described for rhesus monkeys. Skulls of 3 adult rhesus monkeys were examined to identify relevant foramina, establish appropriate landmarks for injection, and estimate injection angles and depth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433348PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Capnography-guided Endotracheal Intubation as an Alternative to Existing Intubation Methods in Rabbits.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Mar 9;58(2):240-245. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California;, Email:

Rabbits provide a unique challenge for routine endotracheal intubation in clinical practice because of various distinctive anatomic and physiologic features. Many previously proposed methods for endotracheal intubation in rabbits are limited by several factors, including the needs for expensive equipment and high levels of technical expertise. We evaluated capnography for its effectiveness in assisting endotracheal intubation in rabbits. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-17-000150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433357PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Evaluation of 4 Presurgical Skin Preparation Methods in Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 4;58(1):71-77. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Division of Animal Resources, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Mice routinely undergo surgical procedures for use in research; however, studies of skin preparation methods to achieve antisepsis are rare. The present study evaluated 4 skin preparation treatments: depilatory agent followed by povidone-iodine and alcohol scrub; depilatory agent followed by povidone-iodine and saline scrub; electric clippers followed by povidone-iodine and alcohol scrub; and electric clippers followed by povidone-iodine and saline scrub. Swabs for bacterial culture were obtained immediately after hair removal and after scrubbing to measure the reduction in bacterial load. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351048PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Ratio of the Bronchial Lumen to Pulmonary Artery Diameter in Rhesus Macaques () without Clinical Pulmonary Disease.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 27;58(1):83-86. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Surgery and Radiology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

In human medicine, CT is widely used to detect changes in bronchial luminal diameter. The diameter of the artery that runs adjacent to the bronchus does not change dramatically along the airway path, such that this artery can be used as a reference to detect changes in the bronchial luminal diameter. The bronchoarterial ratio is increasingly used in veterinary medicine for the detection of lower airway diseases in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351050PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Alfaxalone-Xylazine Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 20;58(1):30-39. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

University Laboratory Animal Resources, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;, Email:

Since its recent reformulation, alfaxalone has gained popularity as an injectable veterinary anesthetic, including promising studies demonstrating the use of alfaxalone-xylazine for anesthesia in mice. Here we sought to expand these studies by testing additional dose ranges, elaborating on physiologic monitoring, testing sex- and strain-associated differences, and evaluating efficacy during actual surgical conditions. C57BL/6J mice showed significant sex-associated differences in anesthetic sensitivity, with males requiring higher doses of alfaxalone (80-120 mg/kg IP alfaxalone with 10 mg/kg IP xylazine) than females (40-80 mg/kg IP alfaxalone with 10 mg/kg IP xylazine) to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351053PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Comparison of Isoflurane, Ketamine-Dexmedetomidine, and Ketamine-Xylazine for General Anesthesia during Oral Procedures in Rice Rats ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 20;58(1):40-49. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida;, Email:

Rice rats () are an unconventional laboratory species that has been used to study photoperiodicity, periodontitis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Interventional procedures that require anesthesia, including oral procedures, are sometimes necessary in preclinical settings. The use of anesthetics including isoflurane and ketamine combined with α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, such as dexmedetomidine and xylazine, is well-established for laboratory rodents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351055PMC
January 2019
5 Reads
1.118 Impact Factor

Effects of General Anesthesia on 2 Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Injury-Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 and Lipocalin 2-in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 11;58(1):21-29. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Penn State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Urinary biomarkers are used increasingly for sensitive prediction of kidney injury in preclinical and clinical studies. Given the frequent requirement of anesthesia in various animal models of disease, it is important to define the effects of anesthesia on kidney injury biomarkers to guide the appropriate selection of anesthetic agents and to avoid potential confounders in the interpretation of data. Therefore, we performed a prospective study using male C57BL/6J mice ( = 45) exposed to a single anesthetic episode to determine the effects several common anesthesia regimens on the urinary excretion of 2 commonly used kidney injury biomarkers: hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, also known as KIM1) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2, also known as NGAL). Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351046PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Daily Water Intake by Common Marmosets () and Recommendations Regarding Fluid Regulation.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 11;58(1):16-20. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Comparative Medicine;, Email:

The typical daily water intake of common marmosets () in a research setting has not been well characterized. Because these New World primates are in demand as animal models for neurobehavioral experiments, which can include the potential use of fluid regulation for training, veterinary and research staff need to understand how marmosets keep hydrated under normal circumstances. In the current study, we measured the water consumption of older (age, 5 to 12 y; = 11) and younger (age, 1 to 2 y; = 11) marmosets every 3 h during the 12-h light phase in 2 different months (January and July). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351047PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Wellbeing of Alcohol-preferring Rats Euthanized with Carbon Dioxide at Very Low and Low Volume Displacement Rates.

Authors:
Debra L Hickman

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 7;58(1):78-82. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory Animal Resource Center, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Illinois;, Email:

The 2013 recommend the use of very-low or low flow rates of 100% carbon dioxide to euthanize small rodents. Although inhalation of high concentrations of carbon dioxide are generally recognized as painful in humans, whether the use of these low-flow methods of euthanasia increase potential distress for rats is unclear. This study compared physiologic and behavioral markers of animal wellbeing for rats euthanized by using 10% volume displacement per minute (VD/min), 30% VD/min, and 70% VD/min of 100% carbon dioxide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351044PMC
January 2019
1 Read

3D-printed Wash Station with Integrated Anesthesia Delivery Manifold for High-throughput Depilation of Laboratory Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 7;58(1):65-70. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, Harper Cancer Research Center, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana;, Email:

Depilation (that is, hair removal) is a necessary prerequisite for many small animal surgeries and optical imaging experiments. Over-the-counter depilatory creams are widely used, owing to their efficacy, safety, and low rates of skin irritation and infection. However, the use of these creams is generally messy and time-consuming and generates considerable waste. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351045PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Anesthesia and Euthanasia of Brine Shrimp ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 29;58(1):58-64. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Translational Pathology Shared Resource, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Invertebrates are often overlooked as laboratory animals, yet they are commonly used in toxicology, developmental, cellular and molecular biology, and radiation studies with euthanasia as an endpoint. Little is known regarding appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrate species, particularly for . Here, we evaluated the AVMA-recommended 2-step method of euthanasia in brine shrimp (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351054PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Effects of Intrauterine Air Bubbles on Embryonic Development in Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 29;58(1):7-15. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei, China;, Email:

During murine embryo transfer, air bubbles frequently are loaded with embryos into the transfer catheter, but the role of air bubbles on embryonic development is unclear. This study shows that intrauterine air disrupted embryo spacing, induced deciduoma, and impaired postimplantation development. RNA sequencing showed that the gene expression profile of air-induced deciduoma differed significantly from that of embryo-induced decidua but is similar to tetraploid-induced deciduoma. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351051PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Validation of an Autoclave Procedure for Sterilization of Mouse () Carcasses.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 6;58(1):87-91. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Central Animal Facility, University Medical Center Goettingen, Georg-August University, Goettingen, Germany.

The sterilization of potentially infectious animal carcasses is an important biologic safety issue in animal facilities operating as infection or quarantine barriers. However, the literature lacks a validated protocol. Here we describe the validation of an autoclave program suitable for daily use in a small rodent biocontainment unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351042PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Comparison of Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine-Midazolam and Isoflurane for Anesthesia of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 Jan 5;58(1):50-57. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Few studies evaluate anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (). Isoflurane inhalant anesthesia is used in this species most commonly, but injectable protocols are poorly described. Here we compared the physiologic effects, including anesthetic depth, vital signs, and hematologic changes, of anesthetic protocols using isoflurane or a combination of dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and midazolam in black-tailed prairie dogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351049PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Acrylamide Production in Autoclaved Rodent Feed.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Sterilization of rodent feed by steam autoclaving is a common practice in many research institutions. Often we only considerthe beneficial effects of this process-the reduction of microbial contamination-and forget that the high temperatures andpressures can have negative effects on diet quality. The purpose of our study was to assess both the physical and chemicalchanges to a standard rodent feed autoclaved at multiple sterilization temperatures and the effects of the treated diets on mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241378PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Effects of Music Enrichment on Individually Housed Male New Zealand White Rabbits.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

The beneficial effect of music has been demonstrated in many species. Although commercially available music CDs intended for use with rabbits are available, these enrichments have not been critically evaluated to determine whether they reduce distress. In this study, we used an aging colony of male rabbits to evaluate how the provision of music enrichment affected the wellbeing of the colony. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-17-000153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241384PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Body Condition Scoring for Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a simple, rapid, noninvasive tool used to assess body condition in animals. In this study, wedeveloped and validated a diagram-based BCS for adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), a popular research model. After receiving 20min of hands-on training regarding the scoring system, 5 people each rated 95 adult zebrafish. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241379PMC
October 2018
15 Reads

Preventing Adverse Events at Research Facilities.

Authors:
V Wensley Koch

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

In this article, adverse events are defined as events that lead to significant injury or illness, unrelieved pain or distress, orthe death of an animal, excluding those caused by IACUC-approved research procedures. The ability to identify possible adverse events is an essential step in planning for risk prevention and mitigation. Using data from news sources and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) website, this article provides guidance to research facilities regarding various types of adverse events to consider in risk management plans because these events might occur or have occurred and, in some cases, have been documented as noncompliances at APHIS-regulated research facilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241386PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Sterilization of Silastic Capsules Containing 17β-Estradiol for Effective Hormone Delivery in Mus musculus.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 12. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Silastic capsules are frequently used to study the physiologic effects of estrogen exposure in animal models. The Officeof Laboratory Animal Welfare requires the sterilization of nonpharmaceutical-grade compounds before use. We compared 2commonly used terminal sterilization methods-ionizing radiation (IR) and ethylene oxide (EO)-for their utility in sterilizingsilastic capsules containing 0. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241387PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Using Hysterectomy Rederivation to Produce Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Free of Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Due to similarities in placentation, guinea pigs can be used as models of human cytomegalovirus infection, but they mustbe free of guinea pig cytomegalovirus. Many commercial guinea pig colonies are enzootically infected with guinea pigcytomegalovirus, which can be transmitted vertically as well as horizontally through saliva, vaginal secretions, and milk.These characteristics make its eradication in a commercial setting challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241382PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Home Cage Compared with Induction Chamber for Euthanasia of Laboratory Rats.

Authors:
Debra L Hickman

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

This study compared behavioral and physiologic changes in Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats that were euthanizedby using a 30% volume displacement rate of CO2 in either their home cage or an induction chamber; rats euthanized in thehome cage were hypothesized to demonstrate a higher level of animal wellbeing. No significant differences were detectedin the physiologic responses to home cage versus induction chamber euthanasia groups. A few strain-related behavioraldifferences occurred. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-17-000160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241385PMC
October 2018
16 Reads

Interpreting Neuroendocrine Hormones, Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose to Assess the Wellbeing of Anesthetized Rats during Euthanasia.

Authors:
Debra L Hickman

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Current recommendations for assessing animal wellbeing during euthanasia suggest that measuring neuroendocrine hormones-such as ACTH, noradrenaline, and adrenaline-is preferable to measuring corticosterone and blood glucose because of the sensitivity of neuroendocrine hormones to the acute stress associated with rapid methods of euthanasia. However, theseneuroendocrine hormones can be stimulated in ways that confound interpretation of welfare assessment in euthanasia studies.Although this property does not negate the usefulness of neuroendocrine hormones as tools of assessment, it is importantto differentiate the stress associated with the induction of anesthesia before the loss of consciousness (an animal wellbeingconcern) with the physiologic responses that occur after the loss of consciousness (not an animal wellbeing concern). Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-17-000159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241377PMC
October 2018
2 Reads