1,845 results match your criteria Journal of neurovirology[Journal]


Progressive brain atrophy in chronically infected and treated HIV+ individuals.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Public Health, Infection Unit, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Growing evidence points to persistent neurological injury in chronic HIV infection. It remains unclear whether chronically HIV-infected individuals on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop progressive brain injury and impaired neurocognitive function despite successful viral suppression and immunological restoration. In a longitudinal neuroimaging study for the HIV Neuroimaging Consortium (HIVNC), we used tensor-based morphometry to map the annual rate of change of regional brain volumes (mean time interval 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00723-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Sex differences in neurocognitive screening among adults living with HIV in China.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, The Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Fudan University, P.O.Box 289,138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

HIV-infected (HIV+) women may be more vulnerable to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) due to psychological and physiological factors but previous studies show mixed findings. We investigated the neurocognitive performances in HIV+ versus HIV- women and men. This cross-sectional analysis included 669 HIV+ patients (223 women) and 1338 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) controls (446 women) which were frequency matched on sex, education, and 5-year age categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00727-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Osteopontin counters human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced impairment of neurite growth through mammalian target of rapamycin and beta-integrin signaling pathways.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Meyer 6-119, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Despite the fact that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not enter or replicate in neurons, its infection of a subset of resident brain glia cells (microglia and astrocytes) induces via disparate mechanisms, dysregulation of glutamate metabolism, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Antiretroviral therapies suppress viral load, but cellular activation and release of proinflammatory factors, some of which is likely related to viral reservoirs, continue to promote a microenvironment that is injurious to neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms remain to be identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00729-yDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The recruitment of peripheral blood leukocytes to the brain is delayed in susceptible BALB/c compared to resistant C57BL/6 mice during herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU of Quebec and Laval University, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 10 and 5 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 10 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00730-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Hypertrophic chronic pachymeningitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation: a case report.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Salzburg, Austria.

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory condition characterized by the thickening of the dura mater. We describe a patient who presented with intractable headache and complex cranial nerve palsy. Hypertrophy of the frontal dura was accompanied by pleocytosis and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-019-00731-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00731-4DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Morphine counteracts the antiviral effect of antiretroviral drugs and causes upregulation of p62/SQSTM1 and histone-modifying enzymes in HIV-infected astrocytes.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology and Nano-medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 33199, USA.

Accelerated neurological disorders are increasingly prominent among the HIV-infected population and are likely driven by the toxicity from long-term use of antiretroviral drugs. We explored potential side effects of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected primary human astrocytes and whether opioid co-exposure exacerbates the response. HIV-infected human astrocytes were exposed to the reverse transcriptase inhibitor, emtricitabine, alone or in combination with two protease inhibitors ritonavir and atazanavir (ERA) with and without morphine co-exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0715-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

MRI reveals segmental distribution of enterovirus lesions in the central nervous system: a probable clinical evidence of retrograde axonal transport of EV-A71.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Guangzou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510623, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), especially severe HFMD characterized by neurologic involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the distribution of neurologic infection and the outcomes of severe HFMD. A total of 139 suspected severe HFMD cases (92 were confirmed as EV-A71 infection) underwent clinical and laboratory diagnosis as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00724-3DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and Zika virus: tale of two reemerging viruses with neuropathological sequelae of public health concern.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 West Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have been considered neglected viruses of low public health concern until recently when incidences of HTLV-1 and ZIKV were observed to be linked to serious immune-related disease and neurological complications. This review will discuss the epidemiology, genomic evolution, virus-host interactions, virulence factors, neuropathological sequelae, and current perspectives of these reemerging viruses. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines against these viruses, and as such, it is important for clinical trials to focus on developing vaccines that can induce cell-mediated immune response to confer long-term protective immunity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-019-00720-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00720-7DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Correction to: The role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections in the development of fibromyalgia.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

August Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Rīga Stradiņš University, Ratsupites 5, Riga, LV-1067, Latvia.

There are several typographical errors in the section "Statistical Analysis" The corrected version follows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00725-2DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Diagnostic importance of eosinophilic meningitis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

The presence of eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should always be considered abnormal. This study aimed to evaluate the causes of eosinophils in the CSF of patients who are HIV positive and HIV negative. This is the first study of eosinophils in the CSF of patients who are HIV-positive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00722-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Astrocyte activation and altered metabolism in normal aging, age-related CNS diseases, and HAND.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Astrocytes regulate local cerebral blood flow, maintain ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis, provide metabolic support, regulate synaptic activity, and respond to brain injury, insults, and infection. Because of their abundance, extensive connectivity, and multiple roles in the brain, astrocytes are intimately involved in normal functioning of the CNS and their dysregulation can lead to neuronal dysfunction. In normal aging, decreased biological functioning and reduced cognitive abilities are commonly experienced in individuals free of overt neurological disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00721-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Vitamin D is not associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Rakai, Uganda.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

We investigated whether vitamin D is associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults in rural Uganda underwent a neurocognitive battery for determination of HAND stage at baseline and after 2 years. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) and serum and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) were obtained. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-00719-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-00719-6DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The current understanding of overlap between characteristics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The advent of effective antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has led to an aging of the HIV population with approximately 50% of people with HIV (PWH) being over the age of 50 years. Neurocognitive complications, typically known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), persist in the era of ARVs and, in addition to risk of HAND, older PWH are also at risk for age-associated, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been postulated that risk for AD may be greater among PWH due to potential compounding effects of HIV and aging on mechanisms of neural insult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0702-9DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A case of fulminant Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis in an immune-competent adult.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, The Netherlands.

A 21-year-old female presented with headache, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, difficulty finding words, vertigo, episodical diplopia and an abnormal gait since 2 days. Additionally, we found marked ataxia and disturbed liver chemistry whilst her infection parameters were low. Her head CT scan was unremarkable, but her MRI scan showed leptomeningeal enhancement along the cerebellar folia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0718-1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Vascular cognitive impairment and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: a new paradigm.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In this review, we propose that vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), with relevance for the global HIV population, is fundamentally and clinically linked to the persistence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in ageing people living with HIV infection (PLWH). After placing our review within the context of the general literature on HIV and ageing, we review non-VCI risks for dementia in ageing PLWH. We then present the recently updated VCI nomenclature and show that the neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypes of VCI and HAND are largely overlapping, suggesting that further research is needed to accurately distinguish them. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0706-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0706-5DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Molecular detection of viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in rodents in the south-west of Korea.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Health and Environment Research Institute of Gwangju Metropolitan City, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We investigated the occurrence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius (n = 39), were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0708-3DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of infection on risk of Parkinson's disease: a quantitative assessment of case-control and cohort studies.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Institute of Biomedical Research, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Identifying modifiable risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) to help prevent this disease has attracted increasing interest in recent years for the limited effective drugs at present. Despite many studies indicated that infection acts as a risk factor for PD, there is no quantitative assessment of the impact of viral and bacterial infections on the risk of developing PD. The present study performed a meta-analysis on the basis of 38 datasets from 13 studies covering 287,773 PD cases and 7,102,901 controls to ascertain the association between PD and infection and the differences in the strength of the viral and bacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0707-4DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Simplification of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the brain-a real-life experience.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, TX, USA.

Modern antiretroviral combination therapy (cART) has transformed HIV from a life-threatening infection into a chronic disease. However, the life-long treatment has side effects that frequently have a negative impact on patients' quality of life. Thus, there are some efforts to "simplify" therapy, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0701-xDOI Listing
January 2019

The role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections in the development of fibromyalgia.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

August Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Rīga Stradiņš University, Ratsupites 5, Riga, LV-1067, Latvia.

Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and human herpes virus-7 (HHV-7) are immunomodulating viruses potentially affecting the nervous system. We evaluated the influence of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections on fibromyalgia (FM) clinical course. Forty-three FM patients and 50 control group participants were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0703-8DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Initiation of antiretroviral therapy after the critical neuronal developmental period of the second postnatal year affects white matter microstructure in adolescents living with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Rapid maturation of major white matter pathways occurs in the first 2 years of life, indicating a critical neuronal developmental period. The impact of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children perinatally infected with HIV-1, after the age of 2 years on neurocognitive functioning and white matter development in adolescence has not been studied. Forty-six adolescents who initiated ART during the first 2 years of life (< 2 years) and 79 adolescents who initiated ART after 2 years of age (> 2 years), with perinatally acquired HIV were enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0712-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0712-7DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads
2.595 Impact Factor

Self-initiated continuation of and adherence to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) after PrEP demonstration project roll-off in men who have sex with men: associations with risky decision making, impulsivity/disinhibition, and sensation seeking.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

University of California San Diego (UCSD), San Diego, CA, USA.

The objective of this study was to examine differences in the levels of risky decision making and other frontal system behavior constructs in relation to self-initiated continuance of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and PrEP adherence outcomes among men who have sex with men (MSM) following completion of a clinical PrEP trial. At the last PrEP trial visit, study provided PrEP was discontinued and participants were navigated to the community for PrEP continuation. In this cross-sectional analysis, 84/187 (45%) MSM who completed a prospective observational post-PrEP trial follow-up visit at the University of California San Diego were included. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0716-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0716-3DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

White matter microstructure among perinatally HIV-infected youth: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1721, USA.

We evaluated white matter microstructure integrity in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youths receiving cART compared to age- and gender-matched healthy youths through DTI metrics using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated 14 perinatally HIV-infected patients (age 17.9 ± 2. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0714-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0714-5DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

High-dose corticosteroids for acute cytomegalovirus-associated transverse myelitis in the immunocompetent patient: a case report and systematic review.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Division of Neurology, University Hospital, Western University, 339 Windermere Rd, London, ON, N6A 5A5, Canada.

We present an immunocompetent patient with transverse myelitis (TM) during acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, as evidenced by a reactive serum CMV IgM and CMV viremia. The patient had an excellent outcome after receiving only high-dose methylprednisolone. Given concerns that practitioners may have around the use of immunosuppressive therapy for this potentially infectious myelopathy, we systematically reviewed the literature to assess outcomes after administration of high-dose corticosteroids to this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0717-2DOI Listing
January 2019

Cerebral patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in hepatitis C patients.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment have been consistently reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Since the mechanisms behind remain to be established, the present study attempted to assess whether neuropsychological impairments in HCV-infected patients are accompanied by structural alterations in the brain. Therefore, 19 anti-HCV-antibody-positive women with mild liver disease and 16 healthy controls underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0709-2DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
2.595 Impact Factor

Plasma neuronal exosomes serve as biomarkers of cognitive impairment in HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health (NIA/NIH), Bethesda, USA.

Fluid biomarkers for cognitive impairment have the advantage of being relatively noninvasive and capable of monitoring neuronal and other brain cell health in real time. Biomarkers can predict the onset of dementing illness, but also correlate with cognition in a dynamic way allowing us to follow treatment responses and determine brain recovery. Chronic HIV infection causes cognitive impairment in a subset of individuals suggesting "premature aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0695-4DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

Acute paraplegia due to schistosomiasis: an uncommon cause in developed countries.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of internal medicine, Hôpital Cochin, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, University Paris-Descartes, Paris, France.

We present a case of a young African migrant from Guinea-Conakry presented to a French emergency department with burning pain in both feet for 2 days. The symptoms progressed to limb paraparesis with sphincter disorders. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a hyperintense spinal cord lesion without contrast enhancement extending from the T6 vertebrae to the conus medullaris. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0713-6DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Headache prevalence and its functional impact among HIV-infected adults in rural Rakai District, Uganda.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Meyer 6-113, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Headache is common, but its prevalence and impact in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in HIV+ individuals is relatively unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and functional impact of headache among HIV-infected (HIV+) adults in a cross-sectional observational cohort study in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Participants completed a sociodemographic survey, depression screen, functional status assessments, and answered the headache screening question, "Do you have headaches?" Participants responding affirmatively were assessed with the ID Migraine tool for diagnosis of migraine and Headache Impact Test-6 to determine functional impact of headache. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0710-9DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Post-transplant primary central nervous system lymphoma after Epstein-Barr virus cerebellitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Division of Neurology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 East Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ, 85259, USA.

Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cases with isolated central nervous system (CNS) disease are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causative role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0711-8DOI Listing
January 2019

Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HAND.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, 1512 Pendleton Street, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA.

In 2007, the nosology for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) was updated to a primarily neurocognitive disorder. However, currently available diagnostic tools lack the sensitivity and specificity needed for an accurate diagnosis for HAND. Scientists and clinicians, therefore, have been on a quest for an innovative biomarker to diagnose (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0705-6DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Extrapyramidal motor signs in older adults with HIV disease: frequency, 1-year course, and associations with activities of daily living and quality of life.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Age and HIV disease have additive effects on neural systems that support motor functioning. The current study examined the combined impact of aging and HIV on extrapyramidal motor functions, which were hypothesized to influence on activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QoL). Participants included 336 adults classified by HIV serostatus and age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0699-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Empiric neurocognitive performance profile discovery and interpretation in HIV infection.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry, 1E.1 WC Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R7, Canada.

The measurement and determinants of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are under intense debate. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) and machine learning to define neurocognitive performance profiles and identify their associated risk factors in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive performance was assessed by a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0685-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0685-6DOI Listing
December 2018
30 Reads

Tryptophan metabolism and its relationship with central nervous system toxicity in people living with HIV switching from efavirenz to dolutegravir.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

The mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) toxicities in antiretroviral-treated persons living with HIV (PLWH) remain elusive. We investigated the associations between markers of tryptophan metabolism and measurements of CNS toxicity in PLWH. In a prospective study, virologically suppressed PLWH receiving efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimens with ongoing CNS toxicity were switched to dolutegravir-containing regimens and followed up for 12 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0688-3DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Elevated cerebrospinal fluid Galectin-9 is associated with central nervous system immune activation and poor cognitive performance in older HIV-infected individuals.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology & Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 651 Ilalo St BSB 325, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

We previously reported that galectin-9 (Gal-9), a soluble lectin with immunomodulatory properties, is elevated in plasma during HIV infection and induces HIV transcription. The link between Gal-9 and compromised neuronal function is becoming increasingly evident; however, the association with neuroHIV remains unknown. We measured Gal-9 levels by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 70 HIV-infected (HIV+) adults stratified by age (older > 40 years and younger < 40 years) either ART suppressed or with detectable CSF HIV RNA, including a subgroup with cognitive assessments, and 18 HIV uninfected (HIV-) controls. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0696-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0696-3DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Childhood trauma interacts with ApoE to influence neurocognitive function in women living with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) describes a spectrum of behavioural, motor and cognitive disturbances that can occur secondary to HIV infection. Less severe forms of the disorder persist despite advances in antiretroviral medication efficacy and availability. Childhood trauma (CT) may predispose individuals to developing HAND. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0700-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0700-yDOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Low-frequency fluctuation characteristics in rhesus macaques with SIV infection: a resting-state fMRI study.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.8, Xi Tou Tiao, You An MenWai, Feng Tai District, Beijing, 100069, China.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque is a widely used model to study human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of the study is to discover the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) changes in SIV-infected macaques. Seven rhesus macaques were involved in the longitudinal MRI scans: (1) baseline (healthy state); (2) SIV infection stage (12 weeks after SIV inoculation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0694-5DOI Listing
November 2018
2.595 Impact Factor

Recurrent strokes, central nervous system vasculitis, and acquired protein S deficiency secondary to varicella zoster in a child with AIDS.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Research, Gundersen Health System, Mail Stop C03-006B, 1836 South Avenue, La Crosse, WI, 54601, USA.

A child with vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus refractory to therapy developed zoster-induced protein S deficiency and recurrent strokes. Extensive carotid arteritis was found postmortem. The carotid tissue was positive for herpes varicella zoster by polymerase chain reaction, as were immunofixation stains of the arterial wall. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0697-2DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Correction to: Aging and apolipoprotein E in HIV infection.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec;24(6):813

Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

The row describing the clinical study of Mukerji et al. (2016) was inadvertently deleted during the compilation of Table 3. As a result, the citation for Mukerji et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0698-1DOI Listing
December 2018

Quantitative electroencephalography supports diagnosis of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Long-term treatment of multiple sclerosis with natalizumab (NTZ) carries the risk of a devastating complication in the form of an encephalopathy caused by a reactivation of a latent John Cunningham virus infection (progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, PML). Early diagnosis is associated with considerably better prognosis. Quantitative EEG as an objective, rater-independent technique provides high sensitivity (88%) and specificity (82%) for the diagnosis of NTZ-PML. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0689-2DOI Listing
November 2018

Enhanced facilitation and diminished inhibition characterizes the pronociceptive endogenous pain modulatory balance of persons living with HIV and chronic pain.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1300 University Boulevard, Campbell Hall, Room 237, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Chronic pain in persons living with HIV (PLWH) may be related to alterations in endogenous pain modulatory processes (e.g., high facilitation and low inhibition of nociception) that promote exaggerated pain responses, known as hyperalgesia, and central nervous system (CNS) sensitization. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0686-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0686-5DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

2018 Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society Symposium.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 9;24(6):797-812. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Ave, Mail Stop B1182, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Meeting Report on the 8th Annual Symposium of the Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society (CALS), held on May 16-19, 2018, in Vail, Colorado. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0681-xDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

HIV-1 infection renders brain vascular pericytes susceptible to the extracellular glutamate.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 6. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Reduced pericytes' coverage of endothelium in the brain is one of the structural changes leading to breach of the blood-brain barrier during HIV infection. We previously showed in central memory T (T) cells that HIV latency increases cellular susceptibility to DNA damage. In this study, we investigated susceptibility of primary brain pericytes infected with HIV-1 to DNA damage in response to glutamate and TNF-α, both known to induce neuronal death during chronic inflammatory conditions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0693-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0693-6DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

The bovine herpesvirus 1 regulatory proteins, bICP4 and bICP22, are expressed during the escape from latency.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 6. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), sensory neurons are a primary site for lifelong latency. Stress, as mimicked by the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone, consistently induces reactivation from latency. Two viral regulatory proteins (VP16 and bICP0) are expressed within 1 h after calves latently infected with BoHV-1 are treated with dexamethasone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0684-7DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Herpes zoster increased risk of neuralgic amyotrophy: a retrospective, population-based matched cohort study.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, No. 325, Sec. 2, Cheng-Kung Road, Neihu District, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Although neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has occasionally been reported to be associated with reactivated herpes zoster, their associated risk remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing NA following preceding herpes zoster. The authors used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to select 41,548 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during the period 2000 to 2010 and randomly extracted 166,192 matched control subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0687-4DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Multimodal techniques failed to detect cytomegalovirus in human glioblastoma samples.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Paris 7 Diderot University, Paris, France.

The role of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in gliomagenesis is largely debated. Contradictory data exist regarding the sensitivity and specificity of HCMV detection techniques, including immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and RNA and DNA sequencing. The aim of this study is to detect HCMV in glioblastoma (GBM) tumor samples using IHC, ISH, and real-time PCR (qPCR), as well as to correlate the findings with serological status and HCMV DNA load in blood. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0683-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0683-8DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Astrocytes as an HIV CNS reservoir: highlights and reflections of an NIMH-sponsored symposium.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 5;24(6):665-669. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

HIV Neuropathogenesis, Genetics and Therapeutics Branch, Division of AIDS Research, National Institute of Mental Health, Bldg 10, Room 7C-103, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

This a summary of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) sponsored symposium that was focused on the role of astrocytes as a reservoir of the human immunodeficiency virus in the brain. The talks were grouped into four themes. The first theme reviewed the evidence for HIV infection of astrocytes and discussed the challenges in the use of traditional methods of immunostaining and in situ hybridization for detection of infected astrocytes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0691-8
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279544PMC
December 2018
11 Reads

HERV-W env regulates calcium influx via activating TRPC3 channel together with depressing DISC1 in human neuroblastoma cells.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, 185 Donghu Road, Wuhan, 430071, People's Republic of China.

The activation and involvement of human endogenous retroviruses W family envelope gene (HERV-W env, also called ERVWE1) have been reported in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, as well as in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dysregulation of intracellular calcium content is also involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Our previous studies showed that HERV-W env overexpression results in activation of small conductance Ca-activated K channel protein 3 (SK3), a potential risk factor for schizophrenia. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0692-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0692-7DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Vibrio vulnificus meningoencephalitis in a patient with thalassemia and a splenectomy.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Neurology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 253 Middle Industrial Avenue, Guangzhou, 510282, Guangdong, China.

Vibrio vulnificus usually causes wound infection, gastroenteritis, and septicemia. However, it is a rare conditional pathogen causing meningoencephalitis. We report a case of a young, immunocompromised man presenting with severe sepsis after exposure to sea water and consumption of seafood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0675-8DOI Listing
November 2018

Neuroinvasion of influenza A/H3N2: a fatal case in an immunocompetent adult.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Microbiology Department, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (IISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a severe neurologic complication caused by influenza virus that has been infrequently reported in adult population. The diagnosis is made on epidemiological, clinical, and neuroimaging suspicion, but is rarely confirmed by microbiological findings in samples from the central nervous system (CNS), thus making it difficult to define the mechanism of pathogenesis of influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathies (IAE). We report a microbiologically documented case of ANE caused by influenza A/H3N2, in a previously healthy adult patient infected during a flu epidemic in Asturias (Spain). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0690-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0690-9DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Effects of age, HIV, and HIV-associated clinical factors on neuropsychological functioning and brain regional volume in HIV+ patients on effective treatment.

J Neurovirol 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

The Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Stawki 5/7, 00-183, Warsaw, Poland.

It is yet unclear if people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) on stable, combined antiretroviral therapies (cARTs) decline with age at the same or greater rate than healthy people. In this study, we examined independent and interactive effects of HIV, age, and HIV-related clinical parameters on neuropsychological functioning and brain regional volume in a sizable group of Polish HIV+ men receiving cART. We also estimated the impact of nadir CD4 cell count, CD4 cell count during participation in the study, duration of HIV infection, or duration of cART along with age. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0679-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0679-4DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Similar neurocognitive outcomes after 48 weeks in HIV-1-infected participants randomized to continue tenofovir/emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir or simplify to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir.

J Neurovirol 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

ViiV Healthcare Company, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders can persist in many patients despite achieving viral suppression while on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive function over 48 weeks was evaluated using a Cogstate test battery assessing psychomotor function, attention, learning, and working memory in 293 HIV-1-infected, ART-experienced, and virologically suppressed adults. The ASSURE study randomized participants 1:2 to remain on tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) or simplify to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC + ATV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0680-yDOI Listing
October 2018