1,856 results match your criteria Journal of neurovirology[Journal]


JC virus identified in a patient with persistent and severe West Nile virus disease.

J Neurovirol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Central Virology Laboratory, Israel Ministry of Health, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

West Nile virus is a notable cause of neuroinvasive disease, damage to the central nervous system, or even death. In this study, using metagenomics analysis and quantitative real-time PCR validation, we identified a JC virus infection in urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples of a West Nile virus patient with severe neurological symptoms and extended disease. JC virus is known to be involved in neurological complications, especially in immunocompromised individuals thus suggesting that the coinfection with JC virus is involved with the West Nile virus infection persistence and severe symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00744-zDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Cognitive behavioural impairment with irreversible sensorineural deafness as a complication of West Nile encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Despite common clinical features to suggest encephalitis, different viral encephalitides are known to have some specific clinical features, which if present, may suggest infection by a particular virus. West Nile viral (WNV) encephalitis has not been described with any specific diagnostic feature so far. In this context, we describe three patients of West Nile encephalitis (WNE) who had behavioural and cognitive impairment with acute irreversible bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural deafness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00733-2DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Aging, comorbidities, and the importance of finding biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect a large proportion of persons living with HIV despite effective viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, milder versions of HAND have become more prevalent. The pathogenesis of HAND in the era of cART appears to be multifactorial with contributions from central nervous system (CNS) damage that occur prior to starting cART, chronic immune activation, cART neurotoxicity, and various age-related comorbidities (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00735-0DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Does HIV infection contribute to increased beta-amyloid synthesis and plaque formation leading to neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease?

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

HIV infection in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era has become a chronic disease with a life expectancy almost identical to those free from this infection. Concomitantly, chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases have emerged as serious clinical problems. HIV-induced cognitive changes, although clinically very diverse are collectively called HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00732-3DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy treated with nivolumab.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Box 8111, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Therapy for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remains challenging since there are no antiviral therapies available for JC virus. Immune reconstitution has improved the prognosis in many settings where PML occurs, but it often is not possible in PML patients with hematologic malignancies. We describe the first biopsy proven PML case where the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab appears to have stimulated immune activation resulting in effective control of PML in a patient with hematologic malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00738-xDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Microglial cell depletion is fatal with low level picornavirus infection of the central nervous system.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 North Medical Drive East, 2600 EEJMRB, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Microglia are the only resident myeloid cell in the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma, but the role of microglia in the context of neurotropic viral infection is poorly understood. Using different amounts of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in a preclinical model of epilepsy and PLX5622, a colony stimulating factor-1 receptor inhibitor that selectively depletes microglia in the CNS, we report that microglia-depleted, TMEV-infected mice develop seizures, manifest paralysis, and uniformly succumb to fatal encephalitis regardless of viral amount. CNS demyelination correlates with viral amount; however, viral amount does not correlate with axon damage and TMEV antigen in the CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00740-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Various associations of aging and long-term HIV infection with different neurocognitive functions: detailed analysis of a Japanese nationwide multicenter study.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Detailed information of the effects of age and long-term HIV infection on various neurocognitive function have not been fully evaluated yet. In a prospective Japanese nationwide multicenter study of 17 facilities (J-HAND study), 728 HIV-infected individuals completed 14 neuropsychological (NP) tests; Verbal Fluency (VF; category and letter), Digit Span (DS; forward and backward), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT; copy, immediate and delayed recall), Story Memory Test (SMT; immediate and delayed recall), Digit Symbol Subset (DSS), and the Grooved Pegboard (GP; dominant and non-dominant). Multivariate analysis identified older age (≥ 50 years) to be associated with lower scores in all three ROCFT and GP dominant [odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0704-7DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Intrathecal complement activation by the classical pathway in tick-borne encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most prevalent viral central nervous system (CNS) infections in Eurasia and neurological sequelae are common. The immune responses are considered crucial for the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the activation of the complement system in TBE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00734-1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

HIV-associated neurodegeneration: exploitation of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Pharmacology & Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC, 20057, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection of the central nervous system damages synapses and promotes axonal injury, ultimately resulting in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms through which HIV causes damage to neurons are still under investigation. The cytoskeleton and associated proteins are fundamental for axonal and dendritic integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00737-yDOI Listing

Infectious causes and outcomes in patients presenting with cerebral spinal fluid pleocytosis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Clinical Science Graduate Program, University of Colorado Graduate School, Aurora, CO, USA.

To evaluate the infectious etiologies, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with CNS infections at a tertiary care center. Patients that present with a pleocytosis in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), defined as a CSF WBC count > 5 cells/mm, from July 2015 to June 2016 at a tertiary care hospital were analyzed for this report. Data from patients with confirmed (n = 43) and presumed (n = 51) CNS infections were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00739-wDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Pathogenesis of age-related HIV neurodegeneration.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

People over the age of 50 are the fastest growing segment of the HIV-infected population in the USA. Although antiretroviral therapy has remarkable success controlling the systemic HIV infection, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) prevalence has increased or remained the same among this group, and cognitive deficits appear more severe in aged patients with HIV. The mechanisms of HAND in the aged population are not completely understood; a leading hypothesis is that aged individuals with HIV might be at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) or one of the AD-related dementias (ADRD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00728-zDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Progressive brain atrophy in chronically infected and treated HIV+ individuals.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Public Health, Infection Unit, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Growing evidence points to persistent neurological injury in chronic HIV infection. It remains unclear whether chronically HIV-infected individuals on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop progressive brain injury and impaired neurocognitive function despite successful viral suppression and immunological restoration. In a longitudinal neuroimaging study for the HIV Neuroimaging Consortium (HIVNC), we used tensor-based morphometry to map the annual rate of change of regional brain volumes (mean time interval 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00723-4DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Sex differences in neurocognitive screening among adults living with HIV in China.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, The Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Fudan University, P.O.Box 289,138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

HIV-infected (HIV+) women may be more vulnerable to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) due to psychological and physiological factors but previous studies show mixed findings. We investigated the neurocognitive performances in HIV+ versus HIV- women and men. This cross-sectional analysis included 669 HIV+ patients (223 women) and 1338 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) controls (446 women) which were frequency matched on sex, education, and 5-year age categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00727-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Osteopontin counters human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced impairment of neurite growth through mammalian target of rapamycin and beta-integrin signaling pathways.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Meyer 6-119, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Despite the fact that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not enter or replicate in neurons, its infection of a subset of resident brain glia cells (microglia and astrocytes) induces via disparate mechanisms, dysregulation of glutamate metabolism, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Antiretroviral therapies suppress viral load, but cellular activation and release of proinflammatory factors, some of which is likely related to viral reservoirs, continue to promote a microenvironment that is injurious to neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms remain to be identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00729-yDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The recruitment of peripheral blood leukocytes to the brain is delayed in susceptible BALB/c compared to resistant C57BL/6 mice during herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU of Quebec and Laval University, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 10 and 5 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 10 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00730-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Hypertrophic chronic pachymeningitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation: a case report.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Salzburg, Austria.

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory condition characterized by the thickening of the dura mater. We describe a patient who presented with intractable headache and complex cranial nerve palsy. Hypertrophy of the frontal dura was accompanied by pleocytosis and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-019-00731-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00731-4DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Morphine counteracts the antiviral effect of antiretroviral drugs and causes upregulation of p62/SQSTM1 and histone-modifying enzymes in HIV-infected astrocytes.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology and Nano-medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 33199, USA.

Accelerated neurological disorders are increasingly prominent among the HIV-infected population and are likely driven by the toxicity from long-term use of antiretroviral drugs. We explored potential side effects of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected primary human astrocytes and whether opioid co-exposure exacerbates the response. HIV-infected human astrocytes were exposed to the reverse transcriptase inhibitor, emtricitabine, alone or in combination with two protease inhibitors ritonavir and atazanavir (ERA) with and without morphine co-exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0715-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

MRI reveals segmental distribution of enterovirus lesions in the central nervous system: a probable clinical evidence of retrograde axonal transport of EV-A71.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Guangzou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510623, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), especially severe HFMD characterized by neurologic involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the distribution of neurologic infection and the outcomes of severe HFMD. A total of 139 suspected severe HFMD cases (92 were confirmed as EV-A71 infection) underwent clinical and laboratory diagnosis as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00724-3DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and Zika virus: tale of two reemerging viruses with neuropathological sequelae of public health concern.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 West Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have been considered neglected viruses of low public health concern until recently when incidences of HTLV-1 and ZIKV were observed to be linked to serious immune-related disease and neurological complications. This review will discuss the epidemiology, genomic evolution, virus-host interactions, virulence factors, neuropathological sequelae, and current perspectives of these reemerging viruses. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines against these viruses, and as such, it is important for clinical trials to focus on developing vaccines that can induce cell-mediated immune response to confer long-term protective immunity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-019-00720-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00720-7DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Correction to: The role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections in the development of fibromyalgia.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

August Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Rīga Stradiņš University, Ratsupites 5, Riga, LV-1067, Latvia.

There are several typographical errors in the section "Statistical Analysis" The corrected version follows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00725-2DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Diagnostic importance of eosinophilic meningitis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

The presence of eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should always be considered abnormal. This study aimed to evaluate the causes of eosinophils in the CSF of patients who are HIV positive and HIV negative. This is the first study of eosinophils in the CSF of patients who are HIV-positive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00722-5DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Astrocyte activation and altered metabolism in normal aging, age-related CNS diseases, and HAND.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Astrocytes regulate local cerebral blood flow, maintain ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis, provide metabolic support, regulate synaptic activity, and respond to brain injury, insults, and infection. Because of their abundance, extensive connectivity, and multiple roles in the brain, astrocytes are intimately involved in normal functioning of the CNS and their dysregulation can lead to neuronal dysfunction. In normal aging, decreased biological functioning and reduced cognitive abilities are commonly experienced in individuals free of overt neurological disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00721-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Vitamin D is not associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Rakai, Uganda.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

We investigated whether vitamin D is associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults in rural Uganda underwent a neurocognitive battery for determination of HAND stage at baseline and after 2 years. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) and serum and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) were obtained. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-00719-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-00719-6DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

The current understanding of overlap between characteristics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The advent of effective antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has led to an aging of the HIV population with approximately 50% of people with HIV (PWH) being over the age of 50 years. Neurocognitive complications, typically known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), persist in the era of ARVs and, in addition to risk of HAND, older PWH are also at risk for age-associated, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been postulated that risk for AD may be greater among PWH due to potential compounding effects of HIV and aging on mechanisms of neural insult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0702-9DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

A case of fulminant Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis in an immune-competent adult.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, The Netherlands.

A 21-year-old female presented with headache, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, difficulty finding words, vertigo, episodical diplopia and an abnormal gait since 2 days. Additionally, we found marked ataxia and disturbed liver chemistry whilst her infection parameters were low. Her head CT scan was unremarkable, but her MRI scan showed leptomeningeal enhancement along the cerebellar folia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0718-1DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Vascular cognitive impairment and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: a new paradigm.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In this review, we propose that vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), with relevance for the global HIV population, is fundamentally and clinically linked to the persistence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in ageing people living with HIV infection (PLWH). After placing our review within the context of the general literature on HIV and ageing, we review non-VCI risks for dementia in ageing PLWH. We then present the recently updated VCI nomenclature and show that the neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypes of VCI and HAND are largely overlapping, suggesting that further research is needed to accurately distinguish them. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0706-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0706-5DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Molecular detection of viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in rodents in the south-west of Korea.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Health and Environment Research Institute of Gwangju Metropolitan City, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We investigated the occurrence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius (n = 39), were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0708-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0708-3DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Impact of infection on risk of Parkinson's disease: a quantitative assessment of case-control and cohort studies.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Institute of Biomedical Research, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Identifying modifiable risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) to help prevent this disease has attracted increasing interest in recent years for the limited effective drugs at present. Despite many studies indicated that infection acts as a risk factor for PD, there is no quantitative assessment of the impact of viral and bacterial infections on the risk of developing PD. The present study performed a meta-analysis on the basis of 38 datasets from 13 studies covering 287,773 PD cases and 7,102,901 controls to ascertain the association between PD and infection and the differences in the strength of the viral and bacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0707-4DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Simplification of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the brain-a real-life experience.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, TX, USA.

Modern antiretroviral combination therapy (cART) has transformed HIV from a life-threatening infection into a chronic disease. However, the life-long treatment has side effects that frequently have a negative impact on patients' quality of life. Thus, there are some efforts to "simplify" therapy, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0701-xDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections in the development of fibromyalgia.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

August Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Rīga Stradiņš University, Ratsupites 5, Riga, LV-1067, Latvia.

Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and human herpes virus-7 (HHV-7) are immunomodulating viruses potentially affecting the nervous system. We evaluated the influence of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections on fibromyalgia (FM) clinical course. Forty-three FM patients and 50 control group participants were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0703-8DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Initiation of antiretroviral therapy after the critical neuronal developmental period of the second postnatal year affects white matter microstructure in adolescents living with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Rapid maturation of major white matter pathways occurs in the first 2 years of life, indicating a critical neuronal developmental period. The impact of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children perinatally infected with HIV-1, after the age of 2 years on neurocognitive functioning and white matter development in adolescence has not been studied. Forty-six adolescents who initiated ART during the first 2 years of life (< 2 years) and 79 adolescents who initiated ART after 2 years of age (> 2 years), with perinatally acquired HIV were enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0712-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0712-7DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads
2.595 Impact Factor

Self-initiated continuation of and adherence to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) after PrEP demonstration project roll-off in men who have sex with men: associations with risky decision making, impulsivity/disinhibition, and sensation seeking.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

University of California San Diego (UCSD), San Diego, CA, USA.

The objective of this study was to examine differences in the levels of risky decision making and other frontal system behavior constructs in relation to self-initiated continuance of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and PrEP adherence outcomes among men who have sex with men (MSM) following completion of a clinical PrEP trial. At the last PrEP trial visit, study provided PrEP was discontinued and participants were navigated to the community for PrEP continuation. In this cross-sectional analysis, 84/187 (45%) MSM who completed a prospective observational post-PrEP trial follow-up visit at the University of California San Diego were included. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0716-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0716-3DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

White matter microstructure among perinatally HIV-infected youth: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1721, USA.

We evaluated white matter microstructure integrity in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) youths receiving cART compared to age- and gender-matched healthy youths through DTI metrics using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated 14 perinatally HIV-infected patients (age 17.9 ± 2. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0714-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0714-5DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

High-dose corticosteroids for acute cytomegalovirus-associated transverse myelitis in the immunocompetent patient: a case report and systematic review.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Division of Neurology, University Hospital, Western University, 339 Windermere Rd, London, ON, N6A 5A5, Canada.

We present an immunocompetent patient with transverse myelitis (TM) during acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, as evidenced by a reactive serum CMV IgM and CMV viremia. The patient had an excellent outcome after receiving only high-dose methylprednisolone. Given concerns that practitioners may have around the use of immunosuppressive therapy for this potentially infectious myelopathy, we systematically reviewed the literature to assess outcomes after administration of high-dose corticosteroids to this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0717-2DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cerebral patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in hepatitis C patients.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment have been consistently reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Since the mechanisms behind remain to be established, the present study attempted to assess whether neuropsychological impairments in HCV-infected patients are accompanied by structural alterations in the brain. Therefore, 19 anti-HCV-antibody-positive women with mild liver disease and 16 healthy controls underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0709-2DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
2.595 Impact Factor

Plasma neuronal exosomes serve as biomarkers of cognitive impairment in HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health (NIA/NIH), Bethesda, USA.

Fluid biomarkers for cognitive impairment have the advantage of being relatively noninvasive and capable of monitoring neuronal and other brain cell health in real time. Biomarkers can predict the onset of dementing illness, but also correlate with cognition in a dynamic way allowing us to follow treatment responses and determine brain recovery. Chronic HIV infection causes cognitive impairment in a subset of individuals suggesting "premature aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0695-4DOI Listing
January 2019
25 Reads

Acute paraplegia due to schistosomiasis: an uncommon cause in developed countries.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of internal medicine, Hôpital Cochin, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, University Paris-Descartes, Paris, France.

We present a case of a young African migrant from Guinea-Conakry presented to a French emergency department with burning pain in both feet for 2 days. The symptoms progressed to limb paraparesis with sphincter disorders. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a hyperintense spinal cord lesion without contrast enhancement extending from the T6 vertebrae to the conus medullaris. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0713-6DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Headache prevalence and its functional impact among HIV-infected adults in rural Rakai District, Uganda.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Meyer 6-113, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Headache is common, but its prevalence and impact in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in HIV+ individuals is relatively unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and functional impact of headache among HIV-infected (HIV+) adults in a cross-sectional observational cohort study in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Participants completed a sociodemographic survey, depression screen, functional status assessments, and answered the headache screening question, "Do you have headaches?" Participants responding affirmatively were assessed with the ID Migraine tool for diagnosis of migraine and Headache Impact Test-6 to determine functional impact of headache. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0710-9DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Post-transplant primary central nervous system lymphoma after Epstein-Barr virus cerebellitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Division of Neurology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 East Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ, 85259, USA.

Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cases with isolated central nervous system (CNS) disease are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causative role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0711-8DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HAND.

J Neurovirol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, 1512 Pendleton Street, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA.

In 2007, the nosology for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) was updated to a primarily neurocognitive disorder. However, currently available diagnostic tools lack the sensitivity and specificity needed for an accurate diagnosis for HAND. Scientists and clinicians, therefore, have been on a quest for an innovative biomarker to diagnose (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0705-6DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Extrapyramidal motor signs in older adults with HIV disease: frequency, 1-year course, and associations with activities of daily living and quality of life.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Age and HIV disease have additive effects on neural systems that support motor functioning. The current study examined the combined impact of aging and HIV on extrapyramidal motor functions, which were hypothesized to influence on activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QoL). Participants included 336 adults classified by HIV serostatus and age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0699-0DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Empiric neurocognitive performance profile discovery and interpretation in HIV infection.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 5;25(1):72-84. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry, 1E.1 WC Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R7, Canada.

The measurement and determinants of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are under intense debate. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) and machine learning to define neurocognitive performance profiles and identify their associated risk factors in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurocognitive performance was assessed by a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0685-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0685-6DOI Listing
February 2019
34 Reads

Tryptophan metabolism and its relationship with central nervous system toxicity in people living with HIV switching from efavirenz to dolutegravir.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 26;25(1):85-90. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

The mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) toxicities in antiretroviral-treated persons living with HIV (PLWH) remain elusive. We investigated the associations between markers of tryptophan metabolism and measurements of CNS toxicity in PLWH. In a prospective study, virologically suppressed PLWH receiving efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimens with ongoing CNS toxicity were switched to dolutegravir-containing regimens and followed up for 12 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0688-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416362PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Elevated cerebrospinal fluid Galectin-9 is associated with central nervous system immune activation and poor cognitive performance in older HIV-infected individuals.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology & Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 651 Ilalo St BSB 325, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

We previously reported that galectin-9 (Gal-9), a soluble lectin with immunomodulatory properties, is elevated in plasma during HIV infection and induces HIV transcription. The link between Gal-9 and compromised neuronal function is becoming increasingly evident; however, the association with neuroHIV remains unknown. We measured Gal-9 levels by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 70 HIV-infected (HIV+) adults stratified by age (older > 40 years and younger < 40 years) either ART suppressed or with detectable CSF HIV RNA, including a subgroup with cognitive assessments, and 18 HIV uninfected (HIV-) controls. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0696-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0696-3DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Childhood trauma interacts with ApoE to influence neurocognitive function in women living with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) describes a spectrum of behavioural, motor and cognitive disturbances that can occur secondary to HIV infection. Less severe forms of the disorder persist despite advances in antiretroviral medication efficacy and availability. Childhood trauma (CT) may predispose individuals to developing HAND. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0700-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0700-yDOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Low-frequency fluctuation characteristics in rhesus macaques with SIV infection: a resting-state fMRI study.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.8, Xi Tou Tiao, You An MenWai, Feng Tai District, Beijing, 100069, China.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque is a widely used model to study human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of the study is to discover the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) changes in SIV-infected macaques. Seven rhesus macaques were involved in the longitudinal MRI scans: (1) baseline (healthy state); (2) SIV infection stage (12 weeks after SIV inoculation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0694-5DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads
2.595 Impact Factor

Recurrent strokes, central nervous system vasculitis, and acquired protein S deficiency secondary to varicella zoster in a child with AIDS.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 26;25(1):137-140. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Research, Gundersen Health System, Mail Stop C03-006B, 1836 South Avenue, La Crosse, WI, 54601, USA.

A child with vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus refractory to therapy developed zoster-induced protein S deficiency and recurrent strokes. Extensive carotid arteritis was found postmortem. The carotid tissue was positive for herpes varicella zoster by polymerase chain reaction, as were immunofixation stains of the arterial wall. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0697-2DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Correction to: Aging and apolipoprotein E in HIV infection.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec;24(6):813

Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

The row describing the clinical study of Mukerji et al. (2016) was inadvertently deleted during the compilation of Table 3. As a result, the citation for Mukerji et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0698-1DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Quantitative electroencephalography supports diagnosis of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 9;25(1):133-136. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Long-term treatment of multiple sclerosis with natalizumab (NTZ) carries the risk of a devastating complication in the form of an encephalopathy caused by a reactivation of a latent John Cunningham virus infection (progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, PML). Early diagnosis is associated with considerably better prognosis. Quantitative EEG as an objective, rater-independent technique provides high sensitivity (88%) and specificity (82%) for the diagnosis of NTZ-PML. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0689-2DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Enhanced facilitation and diminished inhibition characterizes the pronociceptive endogenous pain modulatory balance of persons living with HIV and chronic pain.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 9;25(1):57-71. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1300 University Boulevard, Campbell Hall, Room 237, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Chronic pain in persons living with HIV (PLWH) may be related to alterations in endogenous pain modulatory processes (e.g., high facilitation and low inhibition of nociception) that promote exaggerated pain responses, known as hyperalgesia, and central nervous system (CNS) sensitization. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0686-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0686-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446934PMC
February 2019
20 Reads