20,148 results match your criteria Journal of neurophysiology[Journal]


Response to "An objective criterion for stimulation intensity may be necessary to properly assess muscle contractile properties".

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec;120(6):3288

Neuromuscular Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario , London, Ontario , Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00743.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

An objective criterion for stimulation intensity may be necessary to properly assess muscle contractile properties.

Authors:
Marcel B Lanza

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec;120(6):3287

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00685.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Automated homecage training of mice in a hold-still center-out reach task.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, United States.

An obstacle to understanding neural mechanisms of movement is the complex, distributed nature of the mammalian motor system. Here we present a novel behavioral paradigm for high-throughput dissection of neural circuits underlying mouse forelimb control. Custom touch-sensing joysticks were used to quantify mouse forelimb trajectories with micron-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00667.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00667.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Differential developmental changes in cortical representations of auditory-vocal stimuli in songbirds.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of Southern California, United States.

Procedural skill learning requires iterative comparisons between feedback of self-generated motor output and a goal sensorimotor pattern. In juvenile songbirds, neural representations of both self-generated behaviors (each bird's own immature song) and the goal motor pattern (each bird's adult tutor song) are essential for vocal learning, yet little is known about how these behaviorally relevant stimuli are encoded. We made extracellular recordings during song playback in anesthetized juvenile and adult zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata) in adjacent cortical regions RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium), AId (dorsal intermediate arcopallium), and RA-cup, each of which is well-situated to integrate auditory-vocal information: RA is a motor cortical region that drives vocal output, AId is an adjoining cortical region whose projections converge with basal ganglia loops for song learning in the dorsal thalamus, and RA-cup surrounds RA and receives inputs from primary and secondary auditory cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00714.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Shoulder reflexes integrate elbow information at "long-latency" delay throughout a corrective action.

Authors:
Isaac L Kurtzer

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology - College of Osteopathic Medicine, United States.

Previous studies have demonstrated a progression of function when healthy subjects counter a sudden mechanical load. Short-latency reflexes are linked to local stretch of the particular muscle and its antagonist. Long-latency reflexes integrate stretch information from both local sources and muscles crossing remote joints appropriate for limb's mechanical interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00611.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Poor estimates of motor variability are associated with longer grooved pegboard times for middle-aged and older adults.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, United States.

Goal-directed movements that involve greater motor variability are performed with an increased risk that the intended goal will not be achieved. The ability to estimate motor variability during such actions varies across individuals and influences how people decide to move about their environment. The purpose of our study was to identify the decision-making strategies used by middle-aged and older-adults when performing two goal-directed motor tasks and to determine if these strategies were associated with the time to complete the grooved pegboard test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00543.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Effects of Mirror-Box Therapy on Modulation of Sensorimotor EEG Oscillatory Rhythms: A Single-Case Longitudinal Study.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

3Pacific Development and Technology, LLC.

We provide direct electrophysiological evidence that Mirror Therapy (MT) can change brain activity and aid in recovery of motor function after stroke. In this longitudinal single-case study, the subject was a 58-year-old man with right-hand hemiplegia due to ischemic stroke. Over a nine-month period we treated him with MT twice a week and measured electroencephalograms (EEG) before, during, and after each therapy session. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00599.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Slowed Sensory Reweighting and Postural Illusions in Older Adults: The Moving Platform Illusion.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychology, Queen's University Belfast, Belgium.

We investigated whether postural after-effects witnessed during transitions from a moving to stable support are accompanied by a delayed perception of platform stabilization in older adults, in two experiments. In Experiment 1, postural sway and muscle co-contraction were assessed in eleven healthy young, eleven healthy older and eleven fall-prone older adults during blind-folded stance on a fixed platform, followed by a sway-referenced platform then followed by a fixed platform again. The sway-referenced platform was more compliant for young adults to induce similar levels of postural sway in both age groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00389.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

The transfer function of the rhesus macaque oculomotor system for small-amplitude slow motion trajectories.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Germany.

Two main types of small eye movements occur during gaze fixation: microsaccades and slow ocular drifts. While microsaccade generation has been relatively well-studied, ocular drift control mechanisms are unknown. Here we explored the degree to which monkey smooth eye movements, on the velocity scale of slow ocular drifts, can be generated systematically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00437.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Effort matching between arms depends on relative limb geometry and personal control.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

Proprioception encompasses our sense of position and movement of our limbs, as well as the effort with which we engage in voluntary actions. Historically, sense of effort has been linked to centrally generated signals that elicit voluntary movements. We were interested in determining the effect of differences in limb geometry and personal control on sense of effort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00346.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Phase shifts in high beta and low gamma band local field potentials predict the focus of visual spatial attention.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine, United States.

The local field potential (LFP) contains rich information about activity in local neuronal populations. However, it has been challenging to establish direct links between LFP modulations and task-relevant behavior or cognitive processes, such as attention. We sought to determine whether LFP amplitude or phase modulations were predictive of the allocation of visual spatial attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00469.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Human perception of whole body roll-tilt orientation in a hypogravity analog: underestimation and adaptation.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 17;120(6):3110-3121. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Man-Vehicle Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Overestimation of roll tilt in hypergravity ("G-excess" illusion) has been demonstrated, but corresponding sustained hypogravic conditions are impossible to create in ground laboratories. In this article we describe the first systematic experimental evidence that in a hypogravity analog, humans underestimate roll tilt. We studied perception of self-roll tilt in nine subjects, who were supine while spun on a centrifuge to create a hypogravity analog. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00140.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Locating primary somatosensory cortex in human brain stimulation studies: Systematic review and meta-analytic evidence.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human primary somatosensory cortex (S1), unlike over primary motor cortex (M1), does not produce an immediate, objective output. Researchers must therefore rely on one or more indirect methods to position the TMS coil over S1. The 'gold standard' method of TMS coil positioning is to use individual functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (F/SMRI) alongside a stereotactic navigation system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00614.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Altered A-Type Potassium Channel Function in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius in Acquired Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Neuroscience, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, United States.

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is among the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. Individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have a high risk for SUDEP because the seizures are often medically intractable. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) have been implicated in mouse models of SUDEP and play a critical role in modulating cardiorespiratory and autonomic output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00556.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Fluoxetine reverses brain radiation and temozolomide-induced anxiety and spatial learning and memory defect in mice.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, China.

Radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy are commonly used in treatment of brain tumors, but they may also result in behavioral impairments such as anxiety and cognitive deficit. The present study sought to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on the behavioral impairments caused by radiation and temozolomide treatment. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single cranial radiation followed by 6-week cyclic temozolomide administration, and then treated with chronic administration of fluoxetine. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00581.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00581.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Ipsilateral finger representations in the sensorimotor cortex are driven by active movement processes, not passive sensory input.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, Canada.

Hand and finger movements are mostly controlled through crossed corticospinal projections from the contralateral hemisphere. During unimanual movements, activity in the contralateral hemisphere is increased while the ipsilateral hemisphere is suppressed below resting baseline. Despite this suppression, unimanual movements can be decoded from ipsilateral activity alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00439.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The role of sensory stimulation on motor learning via action observation: a mini review.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Kinesiology, Michigan State University, United States.

Action observation involves the observation of an action followed by an attempt to replicate it. Recent studies show that increased sensorimotor cortical connectivity improves motor performance via observation, and that priming the sensory system before observation enhances the effects of observation-based learning. Understanding the role of the sensory system is, therefore, critical for rehabilitation of movement disorders that have a sensory deficit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00747.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Theta-Gamma Cascades and Running Speed.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, United States.

Oscillations in the hippocampal LFP at theta and gamma frequencies are prominent during awake-behavior and have demonstrated several behavioral correlates. Both oscillations have been observed to increase in amplitude and frequency as a function of running speed. Previous investigations, however, have examined the relationship between speed and each of these oscillation bands separately. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00636.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00636.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Enhanced visual experience rehabilitates the injured brain in Xenopus tadpoles in an NMDAR-dependent manner.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Scripps Research Institute, United States.

Traumatic brain injuries introduce functional and structural circuit deficits that must be repaired for an organism to regain function. We developed an injury model in which Xenopus laevis tadpoles are given a penetrating stab wound that damages the optic tectal circuit and impairs visuomotor behavior. In tadpoles, as in other systems, injury induces neurogenesis. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00664.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00664.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

LTD at mossy fiber synapses onto stratum lucidum interneurons requires TrkB and retrograde endocannabinoid signaling.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Dept. of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, United States.

Hippocampal mossy fiber axons simultaneously activate CA3 pyramidal cells and stratum lucidum interneurons (SLIN), the latter providing feedforward inhibition to control CA3 pyramidal cell excitability. Filopodial extensions of giant boutons of mossy fibers provide excitatory synaptic input to the SLIN. These filopodia undergo extraordinary structural plasticity causally linked to executing memory tasks, leading us to seek the mechanisms by which activity regulates these synapses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00669.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Dissociation of muscle and cortical response scaling to balance perturbation acceleration.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

W.H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, United States.

The role of cortical activity in standing balance is unclear. Here we tested whether perturbation-evoked cortical responses share sensory input with simultaneous balance-correcting muscle responses. We hypothesized that the acceleration-dependent somatosensory signals that drive the initial burst of the muscle automatic postural response also drive the simultaneous perturbation-evoked cortical N1 response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00237.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Temporal resolution of single photon responses in primate rod photoreceptors and limits imposed by cellular noise.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Physiology & Biophysics, University of Washington.

Sensory receptor noise corrupts sensory signals, contributing to imperfect perception and dictating central processing strategies. For example, noise in rod phototransduction limits our ability to detect light and minimizing the impact of this noise requires precisely tuned nonlinear processing by the retina. But detection sensitivity is only one aspect of night vision: prompt and accurate behavior also requires that rods reliably encode the timing of photon arrivals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00683.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

TRPA1 - a molecular view.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

The TRPA1 ion channel is expressed in pain sensing neurons and other tissues and has become a major target in the development of novel pharmaceuticals. A remarkable feature of the channel is its long list of activators, many of which we are exposed to in daily life. Many of these agonists induce pain and inflammation, making TRPA1 a major target for anti-inflammatory and analgesic therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00524.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

Encoding prediction signals during appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in the primate lateral hypothalamus.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Kansai Medical University, Japan.

The lateral hypothalamus (LH), which plays a role in homeostatic functions like appetite regulation, is also linked to arousal and motivational behavior. However, little is known about how these components are encoded in the LH. Thus, cynomolgus monkeys were conditioned with two distinct contexts, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00247.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

Interaction between TRPV1-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Physiology, Tulane University, United States.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. TRPV1-dependent mechanisms take part in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological pathways including the regulation of homeostatic functions. TRPV1 expression in the hypothalamus has been described as well as evidence that TRPV1-dependent excitatory inputs to hypothalamic preautonomic neurons are diminished in diabetic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00004.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Functional brainstem circuits for control of nose motion.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Physics, UCSD, United States.

Rodents shift their nose from side to side when they actively explore and lateralize odors in the space. This motor action is driven by a pair of muscles, the deflector nasi. Here we study the premotor control of this motion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00608.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Causal inference for spatial constancy across whole-body motion.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Donders institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Netherlands.

The brain uses self-motion information to internally update egocentric representations of locations of remembered world-fixed visual objects. If a discrepancy is observed between this internal update and reafferent visual feedback, this could be due to either an inaccurate update or because the object has moved during the motion. To optimally infer the object's location it is therefore critical for the brain to estimate the probabilities of these two causal structures and accordingly integrate and/or segregate the internal and sensory estimates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00473.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Neuromuscular junction abnormalities in a zebrafish loss-of-function model of TDP-43.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Neurosciences, University of Montréal, Canada.

Almost 90% of ALS cases are characterized by the presence of aggregates of insoluble, misfolded cytoplasmic TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43). Distal axonopathy with impaired neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) prior to motor neuron degeneration or clinical onset of symptoms has been hypothesized as an early pathology in ALS. However, synaptic defects at the NMJ caused by TDP-43 mutations have not been characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00265.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Temporal and spatial asymmetries during stationary cycling cause different feedforward and feedback modifications in the muscular control of the lower limbs.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

University College Dublin, Ireland.

Motor adaptations are useful for studying the way in which the lower limbs are controlled by the brain. However, motor adaptation paradigms for the lower limbs are typically based on locomotion tasks, where the necessity of maintaining postural stability is the main driver of adaptation and could possibly mask other underlying processes. In this study we investigated whether small temporal or spatial asymmetries can trigger motor adaptations during stationary cycling, where stability is not directly compromised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00482.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

Response properties of single neurons in higher-level auditory cortex of adult songbirds.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

University of Southern California, United States.

The caudo-medial nidopallium (NCM) is a higher-level region of auditory cortex in songbirds that has been implicated in encoding learned vocalizations and mediating perception of complex sounds. We made cell-attached recordings in awake adult male zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata) to characterize responses of single NCM neurons to playback of tones and songs. Neurons fell into two broad classes: narrow fast-spiking cells and broad sparsely-firing cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00751.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

Dentate spikes and learning: Disrupting hippocampal function during memory consolidation can improve pattern separation.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Hippocampal dentate spikes (DSs) are short-duration, large-amplitude fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials and take place while resting and sleeping. During DSs, dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells increase firing while CA1 pyramidal cells decrease firing. Recent findings suggest DSs play a significant role in memory consolidation after training on a hippocampus-dependent, non-spatial associative learning task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00696.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Intersegmental coordination patterns are differently affected in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar ataxia.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel.

The law of intersegmental coordination (Borghese et al. 1996) may be altered in pathological conditions. Here we investigated the contribution of the basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum to lower limb intersegmental coordination by inspecting the plane's orientation and other parameters pertinent to this law in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) or cerebellar ataxia (CA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00788.2017DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

The noradrenergic and serotonergic contributions to Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Controls over the course of the monoiodoacetate model of Osteoarthritis.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

n/a, University College of London, United Kingdom.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating conditioning with pain as the major clinical symptom. Understanding the mechanisms that drive OA-associated chronic pain is crucial for developing the most effective analgesics. Although the degradation of the joint is the initial trigger for the development of chronic pain, the discordance between radiographic joint damage and the reported pain experience in patients, coupled with clinical features that cannot be explained by purely peripheral mechanisms, suggest there are often other factors at play. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00613.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Co-localization of Distinct NMDA Receptor Subtypes at Excitatory Synapses in the Entorhinal Cortex.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, United States.

The subunit composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at synaptic inputs onto a neuron can either vary or be uniform depending on the type of neuron and/or brain region. Excitatory pyramidal neurons in the frontal and somatosensory cortices (L5), for example, show pathway-specific differences in NMDAR subunit composition in contrast with the entorhinal cortex (L3) where we now show co-localization of NMDARs with distinct subunit compositions at individual synaptic inputs onto these neurons. Subunit composition was deduced electrophysiologically based on alterations of current-voltage relationship ( I-V) profiles, amplitudes, and decay kinetics of minimally-evoked, pharmacologically isolated, NMDAR-mediated EPSCs by known subunit-preferring antagonists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00468.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Cerebellum and cognition in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 15;120(6):2707-2709. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University , Fort Collins, Colorado.

Kalron et al. (Kalron A, Allali G, Achiron A. J Neurol 265: 809-816, 2018. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00245.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00245.2018DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Corrigendum.

Authors:

J Neurophysiol 2018 Jul;120(1):385

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.z9k-4741-corr.2018DOI Listing

Functional and Anatomical Relationships Between the Medial Precentral Cortex, Dorsal Striatum, and Head Direction Cell Circuitry. I: Recording Studies.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Dartmouth, United States.

Head direction (HD) cells fire as a function of the animal's directional heading and provide the animal with a sense of direction. In rodents, these neurons are located primarily within the limbic system, but small populations of HD cells are found in two extralimbic areas: the medial precentral cortex (PrCM) and dorsal striatum (DS). HD cell activity in these structures could be driven by output from the limbic HD circuit or generated intrinsically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00143.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

A review and consideration on the kinematics of reach-to-grasp movements in macaque monkeys.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Psicologia Generale, Universita` di Padova, Italy.

The bases for understanding the neuronal mechanisms that underlie the control of reach-to-grasp movements among nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, has been widely studied. However, only a few kinematic descriptions of their prehensile actions are available. A thorough understanding of macaques' prehensile movements is manifestly critical, in light of their role in biomedical research as valuable models for studying neuromotor disorders and brain mechanisms, as well as for developing brain-machine interfaces to facilitate arm control. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00598.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00598.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

A rapid visuomotor response on the human upper limb is selectively influenced by implicit motor learning.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Physiology & Pharmacology, Psychology, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

How do humans learn to adapt their motor actions to achieve task success? Recent behavioral and patient studies have challenged the classic notion that motor learning arises solely from the errors produced during a task, suggesting instead that explicit cognitive strategies can act in concert with the implicit, error-based, motor learning component. Here, we show that the earliest wave of directionally-tuned neuromuscular activity that begins within ~100 ms of peripheral visual stimulus onset is selectively influenced by the implicit component of motor learning. In contrast, the voluntary neuromuscular activity associated with reach initiation, which evolves ~100 to 200 ms later is influenced by both the implicit and explicit components of motor learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00720.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

FIRING PROPERTIES OF MUSCLE SPINDLES SUPPLYING THE INTRINSIC FOOT MUSCLES OF HUMANS IN UNLOADED AND FREE-STANDING CONDITIONS.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Human Autonomic Neurophysiology, Baker Heart & Diabetes Institute, Australia.

We recently developed an approach to record from muscle spindles in the intrinsic muscles of the foot in free-standing humans by inserting a tungsten microelectrode into the posterior tibial nerve behind the medial malleolus of the ankle. Here, we characterize the behaviour of muscle spindles in the small muscles of the foot in (i) seated subjects with the leg horizontal and foot naturally plantarflexed and (ii) in standing subjects. In the first study recordings were made from 26 muscle spindle afferents located within flexor digiti minimi brevis (n=4), abductor digiti minimi (n=3), quadratus plantae (n=3), plantar interossei (n=4), flexor digitorum brevis (n=3), dorsal interossei (n=2) and lumbricals (n=2), with one each supplying abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis and flexor hallucis brevis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00539.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Agmatine Preferentially Antagonizes GluN2B-Containing N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors in Spinal Cord.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, United States.

The role of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAr) as a contributor to maladaptive neuroplasticity underlying the maintenance of chronic pain is well established. Agmatine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, has been shown to reverse tactile hypersensitivity in rodent models of neuropathic pain while lacking the side effects characteristic of global NMDAr antagonism including sedation and motor impairment, indicating a likely subunit-specificity of agmatine's NMDAr inhibition. The present study assessed whether agmatine inhibits subunit-specific NMDAr-mediated current in the dorsal horn of mouse spinal cord slices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00172.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Functional and Anatomical Relationships Between the Medial Precentral Cortex, Dorsal Striatum, and Head Direction Cell Circuitry. II: Neuroanatomical Studies.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Dartmouth, United States.

An animal's directional heading within its environment is encoded by the activity of head direction (HD) cells. In rodents, these neurons are found primarily within the limbic system in the interconnected structures that form the limbic HD circuit. We previously described two HD cell populations located outside of this circuit in the medial precentral cortex (PrCM) and dorsal striatum (DS); these extralimbic areas receive their HD signals from the limbic system, but do not provide critical input or feedback to limbic HD cells (Mehlman et al. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00144.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00144.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
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Effects of swimming exercise on the extinction of fear memory in rats.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 19;120(5):2649-2653. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas , Campinas , Brazil.

We investigated the relation between swimming exercise and fear memory extinction. Rats that performed regular swimming exercise over 6 wk underwent fear conditioning. Twenty-eight days later, they were submitted to extinction tests. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00586.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00586.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Learning to shape virtual patient locomotor patterns: Internal representations adapt to exploit interactive dynamics.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Bioengineering, and Biology, Northeastern University, United States.

This work aims to understand the sensorimotor processes used by humans when learning how to manipulate a virtual model of locomotor dynamics. Prior research shows that when interacting with novel dynamics, humans develop internal models that map neural commands to limb motion, and vice-versa. Whether this can be extrapolated to locomotor rehabilitation, a continuous and rhythmic activity that involves dynamically complex interactions is unknown. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00408.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00408.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Kinematic analysis of bimanual movements during food handling by head-fixed rats.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Neurobiology Research Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Japan.

Bimanual coordination - in which both hands work together to achieve a goal - is crucial for the basic needs of life, such as gathering and feeding. Such coordinated motor skill is highly developed in primates, where it has been most extensively studied. Rodents also exhibit remarkable dexterity and coordination of forelimbs during food handling and consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00295.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

Rethinking assumptions about how trial and nuisance variability impact neural task performance in a fast processing regime.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, United States.

Task performance is determined not only by the amount of task-relevant signal present in our brains, but also by the presence of noise, which can arise from multiple sources. Internal noise, or "trial variability", manifests as trial-by-trial variations in neural responses under seemingly identical conditions. External factors can also translate into noise, particularly when a task requires extracting a particular type of information from our environment amid changes in other task-irrelevant, "nuisance" parameters. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00503.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00503.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Continuously updating one's predictions underlies successful interception.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

This paper reviews our understanding of the interception of moving objects. Interception is a demanding task that requires both spatial and temporal precision. The required precision must be achieved on the basis of imprecise and sometimes biased sensory information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00517.2018DOI Listing
October 2018

Cortical Neural Modulation by Previous Trial Outcome Differentiates Fast from Slow Learning Rats on a Visuomotor Directional Choice Task.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Arizona State University, United States.

To better understand the neural cortical underpinnings that explain behavioral differences in learning rate, we recorded single unit activity in rat primary motor (M1) and secondary motor (M2) areas while rats learned to perform a directional (left or right) operant visuomotor association task. Analysis of neural activity during the early portion of the cue period showed that neural modulation in the motor cortex was most strongly associated with two task factors: the previous trial outcome (success or error) and the current trial's directional choice (left or right). Furthermore, the fast learners, defined as those who had steeper learning curves and required fewer learning sessions to reach criterion performance, encoded the previous trial outcome factor more strongly than the directional choice factor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00950.2016DOI Listing
October 2018

Three-dimensional Tuning of Head Direction Cells in Rats.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Psychological & Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, United States.

Head direction (HD) cells fire when the animal faces that cell's preferred firing direction (PFD) in the horizontal plane. The PFD response when the animal is oriented outside the earth-horizontal plane could result from cells representing direction in the plane of locomotion or as a three-dimensional (3D), global-referenced direction anchored to gravity. To investigate these possibilities, anterodorsal thalamic HD cells were recorded from restrained rats while they were passively positioned in various 3D orientations. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00880.2017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00880.2017DOI Listing
October 2018
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Physiological and behavioral reactivity to social exclusion: a functional infrared thermal imaging study in patients with psoriasis.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Recent studies show that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity can be heavily impacted not only by basic threats to survival, but by threats to social bonds. Herein we explored the behavioral and physiological consequences of social exclusion/inclusion in patients with psoriasis, a disease frequently associated with the experience of being ostracized and deficient emotion regulation skills. We employed a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball) to induce the experience of social exclusion/inclusion. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00555.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00555.2018DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read