20,223 results match your criteria Journal of neurophysiology[Journal]


Time-resolved quantification of the dynamic extracellular space in the brain: Study of cortical spreading depression.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, China.

Extracellular diffusion in the brain is customarily characterized by two parameters, the extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction α and the diffusion tortuosity λ. How these two parameters are temporarily modified and correlated in a physiological/pathological event remains unclear to date. Using tetramethyl ammonium (TMA) as the ECS ion tracer in a newly updated iontophoretic sinusoidal method, we studied in this work the dynamic α( t) and λ( t) in rat somatosensory cortex during spreading depression (SD). Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00348.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00348.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Time-resolved quantification of the dynamic extracellular space in the brain during short-lived event: methodology and simulations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Shantou University.

Two macroscopic parameters describe the interstitial diffusion of substances in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain, the ECS volume fraction α and the diffusion tortuosity λ. Past methods based on sampling the extracellular concentration of a membrane-impermeable ion tracer, such as tetramethyl ammonium (TMA+), can characterize either the dynamic α(t) alone or the constant α and λ in resting state, but never the dynamic α(t) and λ(t) simultaneously in short-lived brain events. In this work, we propose to use a sinusoidal method of TMA+ to provide time-resolved quantification of α(t) and λ(t) in acute brain events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00347.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Parallel distributed networks resolved at high resolution reveal close juxtaposition of distinct regions.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Harvard.

Examination of large-scale distributed networks within the individual reveals details of cortical network organization that are absent in group-averaged studies. One recent discovery is that a distributed transmodal network, often referred to as the 'default network', is comprised of two closely interdigitated networks, only one of which is coupled to posterior parahippocampal cortex. Not all studies of individuals have identified the same networks and questions remain about the degree to which the two networks are separate, particularly within regions hypothesized to be interconnected hubs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00808.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Impaired posture, movement preparation, and execution during both paretic and nonparetic reaching following stroke.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States.

Posture and movement planning, preparation, and execution of a goal-directed reaching movement are impaired in individuals with stroke. No studies have shown whether the deficits are generally impaired or are specific to the lesioned hemisphere/ paretic arm. This study utilized StartReact (SR) responses elicited by loud acoustic stimuli (LAS) to investigate the preparation and execution of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and reach movement response during both the paretic and nonparetic arm reaching in individuals with stroke and age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00694.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Planning Face, Hand, and Leg Movements: Anatomical Constraints on Preparatory Inhibition.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Psychology, UC Berkeley.

Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), elicited by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex, are reduced during the preparatory period in delayed response tasks. Here we examine how MEP suppression varies as a function of the anatomical organization of the motor cortex. MEPs were recorded from a left index muscle while participants prepared a hand or leg movement in Experiment 1, or prepared an eye or mouth movement in Experiment 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00711.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Volitional control of single-electrode high gamma local field potentials (LFPs) by people with paralysis.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, United States.

Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can enable individuals to control effectors, such as a computer cursor, by directly decoding the user's movement intentions from action potentials and local field potentials (LFPs) recorded within the motor cortex. However, the accuracy and complexity of effector control achieved with such "biomimetic" BCIs will depend on the degree to which the intended movements used to elicit control modulate the neural activity. In particular, channels that do not record distinguishable action potentials and only record LFP modulations may be of limited use for BCI control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00131.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Capsaicin causes robust reduction in glycinergic transmission to rat hypoglossal motor neurons via a TRPV1-independent mechanism.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia.

The effect of capsaicin on glycinergic synaptic transmission to juvenile rat hypoglossal motoneurons in acute brainstem slices was evaluated in the presence of TTX. Capsaicin caused a robust decrease in miniature IPSC frequency, amplitude and half-width, showing that this effect is independent of action potential generation. In the presence of capsazepine, a classic TRPV1 antagonist, capsaicin was still able to reduce spontaneous IPSC amplitude and frequency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00059.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Increased preparation time reduces, but does not abolish, action history bias of saccadic eye movements.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Australia.

The characteristics of movements are strongly history-dependent. Marinovic et al. (2017a) showed that past experience influences the execution of limb movements through a combination of temporally-stable processes that are strictly use-dependent, and dynamically-evolving and context-dependent processes that reflect prediction of future actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00512.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Processing of fast amplitude modulations in bat auditory cortex matches communication call specific sound features.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Zoology, TU Munich, Germany.

Bats use a large repertoire of calls for social communication. In the bat Phyllostomus discolor, social communication calls are often characterized by sinusoidal amplitude and frequency modulations with modulation frequencies in the range of 100-130 Hz. However, in the mammalian auditory cortex modulation transfer functions are typically limited to modulation frequencies below 100 Hz. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00748.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Discriminating between anticipatory and visually triggered saccades: Measuring minimal visual saccadic response time using luminance.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Queens University, Canada.

We describe a novel behavioral method to accurately discriminate anticipatory (i.e., saccades are not generated by visual input) from visually triggered saccades and to identify the minimal visual saccadic reaction time (SRT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00378.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Optogenetic and transcriptomic interrogation of enhanced muscle function in the paralyzed mouse whisker pad.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, United States.

The functional state of denervated muscle is a critical factor in the ability to restore movement after injury- or disease-related paralysis. Here we used peripheral optogenetic stimulation and transcriptome profiling in the mouse whisker system to investigate the time course of changes in neuromuscular function following complete unilateral facial nerve transection. While most skeletal muscles rapidly lose functionality after lower motor neuron denervation, optogenetic muscle stimulation of the paralyzed whisker pad revealed sustained increases in the sensitivity, velocity, and amplitude of whisker movements, and reduced fatigability, starting 48 h after denervation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00837.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Central sensitization increases the pupil dilation elicited by mechanical pinprick stimulation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institute of Neuroscience (IONS), Universite catholique de Louvain, Belgium.

High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of skin nociceptors triggers central sensitization (CS), manifested as increased pinprick sensitivity of the skin surrounding the site of HFS. Our aim was to assess the effect of CS on pinprick-evoked pupil dilation responses (PDRs) and pinprick-evoked brain potentials (PEPs). We hypothesized that the increase in the positive wave of PEPs following HFS would result from an enhanced pinprick-evoked phasic response of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system (LC-NS), indicated by enhanced PDRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00816.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Semantic representation of abstract and concrete words: a mini-review of neural evidence.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Padova, Italy.

Evidence from both behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that different types of organizational principles govern semantic representations of abstract and concrete words. The reviewed neuroimaging studies provide new evidence about the role of brain areas of the semantic network involved in the encoding of some types of information during processing of abstract and concrete concepts, characterizing better the neural underpinnings and the organizational principles of semantic representation of these types of word. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00065.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

CORRIGENDUM.

Authors:

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb;121(2):728

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.z9k-4970-corr.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Synapse Formation: From Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms to Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Anatomy & Physiology, University of Calgary, Canada.

The precise patterns of neuronal assembly during development determine all functional outputs of a nervous system; these may range from simple reflexes to learning, memory, cognition etc. To understand how brain functions and how best to repair it after injury, disease or trauma, it is imperative that we first seek to define fundamental steps mediating this neuronal assembly. To acquire the sophisticated ensemble of highly specialized networks seen in a mature brain, all proliferated and migrated neurons must extend their axonal and dendritic processes towards targets, which are often located at some distance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00833.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Torque planning errors affect the perception of object properties and sensorimotor memories during object manipulation in uncertain grasp situations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Sport and Health Science, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Predicting instead of only reacting to the properties of objects we grasp is crucial to dexterous object manipulation. While we normally plan our grasps according to well-learned associations, we rely on implicit sensorimotor memories when we learn to interact with novel or ambiguous objects. However, little is known about the influence of sensorimotor predictions on subsequent perception and action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00710.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Human frontoparietal cortex represents behaviorally-relevant target status based on abstract object features.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Psychology, UCSD, United States.

Searching for items that are useful given current goals, or "target" recognition, requires observers to flexibly attend to certain object properties at the expense of others. This could involve focusing on the identity of an object while ignoring identity-preserving transformations such as changes in viewpoint, or focusing on its current viewpoint while ignoring its identity. To effectively filter out variation due to the irrelevant dimension, performing either type of task is likely to require high-level, abstract search templates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00015.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Acquisition of a precision walking skill and the impact of proprioceptive deficits in people with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Canada.

Many people with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (m-iSCI) experience difficulty navigating obstacles, such as curbs and stairs. The ability to relearn walking skills may be limited by proprioceptive deficits. The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of participants to acquire a precision walking skill, and to evaluate the influence of proprioceptive deficits on the skill acquisition in individuals with m-iSCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00432.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Distinct Types of Neural Reorganization During Long-Term Learning.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

CNBC, Carnegie Mellon University, United States.

What are the neural mechanisms of skill acquisition? Many studies find that long-term practice is associated with a functional reorganization of cortical neural activity. However, the link between these changes in neural activity and the behavioral improvements that occur is not well understood, especially for long-term learning that takes place over several weeks. To probe this link in detail, we leveraged a brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm in which Rhesus monkeys learned to master non-intuitive mappings between neural spiking in primary motor cortex and computer cursor movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00466.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Neurally-constrained modeling of speed-accuracy tradeoff during visual search: Gated accumulation of modulated evidence.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Vanderbildt, United States.

Stochastic accumulator models account for response times and errors in perceptual decision making by assuming a noisy accumulation of perceptual evidence to a threshold. Previously, we explained saccade visual search decision making by macaque monkeys with a stochastic multi-accumulator model where accumulation was driven by a gated feed-forward integration to threshold of spike trains from visually-responsive neurons in frontal eye field that signal stimulus salience. This neurally-constrained model quantitatively accounted for response times and errors in visual search for a target among varying numbers of distractors and replicated the dynamics of presaccadic movement neurons hypothesized to instantiate evidence accumulation. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00507.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00507.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Sensorimotor uncertainty modulates corticospinal excitability during skilled object manipulation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, United States.

Sensorimotor memory built through previous hand-object interactions allows subjects to plan grasp forces. The memory-based mechanism is particularly effective when contact points on the object do not change across multiple manipulations, thus allowing subjects to generate the same forces in a feedforward fashion. However, allowing subjects to choose where to grasp an object causes trial-to-trial variability in fingertip positioning, suggesting a decreased ability to predict where the object will be grasped. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00800.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Analysis of upper threshold mechanisms of spherical neurons during extracellular stimulation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

TU Wien, Austria.

Exceeding a certain stimulation strength can prevent the generation of somatic action potentials, as has been demonstrated in-vitro with extracellularly stimulated dorsal root ganglion cells as well as retinal ganglion cells. This phenomenon, termed upper threshold, is currently thought to be a consequence of sodium current reversal in strongly depolarized regions. Here, we analyze the contribution of membrane kinetics using spherical model neurons that are stimulated externally with a microelectrode in more detail. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00700.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Dopamine D1 receptor activation reduces local inner retinal inhibition to light-adapted levels.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, United States.

During adaptation from dim to bright environments, changes in retinal signaling are mediated in part by dopamine. Dopamine is released with light and can modulate retinal receptive fields, neuronal coupling, inhibitory receptors, and rod pathway inhibition. However, it is unclear how dopamine affects inner retinal inhibition to cone bipolar cells, which relay visual information from photoreceptors to ganglion cells and are important signal processing sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00448.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Phase Response Theory Explains Cluster Formation in Sparsely but Strongly Connected Inhibitory Neural Networks and Effects of Jitter due to Sparse Connectivity.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, United States.

We show how to predict whether a neural network will exhibit global synchrony (a one-cluster state) or a two-cluster state, based on the assumption of pulsatile coupling and critically dependent upon the phase response curve (PRC) generated by the appropriate perturbation from a partner cluster. Our results hold for a monotonically increasing (meaning longer delays as the phase increases) PRC, that likely characterizes inhibitory fast spiking basket and cortical LTS interneurons in response to strong inhibition. Conduction delays stabilize synchrony for this PRC shape, whereas they destroy two-cluster states; the former by avoiding a destabilizing discontinuity and the latter by approaching it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00728.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Theta/delta coupling across cortical laminae contributes to semantic cognition.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Biology, HYMS, University of York, United Kingdom.

Rhythmic activity in populations of neurons is associated with cognitive and motor function. Our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying these core brain functions has benefitted from demonstrations of cellular, synaptic and network phenomena underiying the generation of discrete rhythms at the local network level. However, discrete frequencies of rhythmic activity rarely occur alone. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00686.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00686.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Role of astroglia in diet-induced central neuroplasticity.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, United States.

Obesity, characterized by increased adiposity that develops when energy intake outweighs expenditure, is rapidly becoming a serious health crisis that affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with severe comorbid disorders including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type II diabetes. Obesity is also associated with the dysregulation of central neurocircuits involved in the control of autonomic, metabolic, and cognitive functions. Systemic inflammation associated with diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been proposed to be responsible for the development of these comorbidities as well as the dysregulation of central neurocircuits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00823.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Adrenergic agonist induces rhythmic firing in quiescent cardiac preganglionic neurons in nucleus ambiguous via activation of intrinsic membrane excitability.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Baylor College of Medicine, United States.

Cholinergic vagal nerves projecting from neurons in the brainstem nucleus ambiguus (NAm) play a predominant role in cardiac parasympathetic pacemaking control. Central adrenergic signaling modulates the tone of this vagal output; however the exact excitability mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated responses of NAm neurons to adrenergic agonists using in vitro mouse brainstem slices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00761.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

The effects of tonic muscle pain on fusimotor control of human muscle spindles during isometric ankle dorsiflexion.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Australia.

Studies on anaesthetised animals have revealed that nociceptors can excite fusimotor neurones and thereby change the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch; such nociceptive reflexes have been suggested to underlie the mechanisms that lead to chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. However, the validity of the "vicious cycle" hypothesis in humans has yielded contrasting results to that found in animals. Given that spindle firing rates are much lower in humans than in animals, it is possible that some of the discrepancies between human experimental data and those obtained in animals could be explained by differences in background fusimotor drive when the leg muscles are relaxed. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00862.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00862.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Processing of object motion and self-motion in the lateral subdivision of the medial superior temporal area in macaques.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Brain & Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, United States.

Multiple areas of macaque cortex are involved in visual motion processing, but their relative functional roles remain unclear. The medial superior temporal (MST) area is typically divided into lateral (MSTl) and dorsal (MSTd) subdivisions that are thought to be involved in processing object motion and self-motion, respectively. Whereas MSTd has been studied extensively with regard to processing visual and non-visual self-motion cues, little is known about self-motion signals in MSTl, especially non-visual signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00497.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

The Neural Basis of Motion Sickness.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, United States.

Although motion of the head and body has been suspected or known as the provocative cause for generation of motion sickness for centuries, it is only within the last 20 years that the source of the signal generating motion sickness and its neural basis have been firmly established. Here we briefly review the source of the conflicts that cause the body to generate the autonomic signs and symptoms that constitute motion sickness, and provide a summary of the experimental data that has led to an understanding of how motion sickness is generated and can be controlled. Activity and structures that produce motion sickness include vestibular input through the semicircular canals, the otolith organs and the Velocity Storage Integrator in the vestibular nuclei. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00674.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Temporal cueing enhances neuronal and behavioral discrimination performance in rat whisker system.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Eccles Institute of Neuroscience, Australian National University, Australia.

Since sensory systems operate with a finite quantity of processing resources, an animal would benefit from prioritizing processing of sensory stimuli within a time window that is expected to provide key information. This behavioral manifestation of such prioritization is known as attention. Here, we investigate attention with temporal cueing and its neuronal correlates in the rat primary vibrissal somatosensory (vS1) cortex. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00604.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00604.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Age-related re-weighting of visual and vestibular cues for vertical perception.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Donders institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Netherlands.

As we age, the acuity of our sensory organs declines, which may affect our lifestyle. Sensory deterioration in the vestibular system is typically bilateral and gradual, and could lead to problems with balance and spatial orientation. To compensate for the sensory deterioration, it has been suggested that the brain reweights the sensory information sources according to their relative noise characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00481.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Modelling diverse responses to filled and outline shapes in macaque V4.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Biological Structure, University of Washington.

Visual area V4 is an important mid-level cortical processing stage that subserves object recognition in primates. Studies investigating shape coding in V4 have largely probed neuronal responses with filled shapes, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00456.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Doxapram stimulates respiratory activity through distinct activation of neurons in the Nucleus Hypoglossus and the PreBötzinger Complex.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Neurology, University of Tubingen, Germany.

Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used for decades as a treatment option in apnea of prematurity (AOP) refractory to methylxanthine treatment. Its mode of action, however, is still poorly understood. We investigated direct effects of doxapram on the PreBötzinger complex (PreBötC) and on a downstream motor output system, the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), in the transverse brainstem slice preparation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00304.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

D-type potassium channels normalize action potential firing between dorsal and ventral CA1 neurons of the mouse hippocampus.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Center for Learning and Memory, University of Texas at Austin, United States.

Specific memory processes and neurological disorders can be ascribed to different dorsoventral regions of the hippocampus. Recently, differences in the anatomical and physiological properties between dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1 neurons were described for both the rat and mouse hippocampus and have greatly contributed to our understanding of these processes. While differences in the subthreshold properties were similar between rat and mouse neurons, differences in action potential output between dorsal and ventral neurons were strikingly less divergent in mouse compared to rat CA1 neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00737.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Visual delay affects force scaling and weight perception when lifting objects in virtual reality.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Movement Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Lifting an object requires precise scaling of fingertip forces based on a prediction of object weight. At object contact, a series of tactile and visual events arise that need to be rapidly processed online to fine-tune the planned motor commands for lifting the object. The brain mechanisms underlying multisensory integration serially at transient sensorimotor events, a general feature of actions requiring hand-object interactions, are not yet understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00396.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

2-D-deoxyglucose Reduces Epileptiform Activity by Presynaptic Mechanisms.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Neurology, University of Wisconsin, United States.

2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), a glucose analogue that inhibits glycolysis, has acute and chronic antiepileptic effects. We evaluated 2DG's acute effects on synaptic and membrane properties of CA3 pyramidal neurons in vitro. 2DG (10 mM) had no effects on spontaneously occurring post synaptic currents (PSCs) in 3. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00723.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00723.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Microneurography and Sympathetic Nerve Activity: A Decade-By-Decade Journey across 50 Years.

Authors:
Jason R Carter

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology, Michigan Technological University, United States.

The technique of microneurography has advanced the field of neuroscience for the past 50 years. While there have been a number of reviews on microneurography, this paper takes an objective approach to exploring the impact of microneurography studies. Briefly, Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) was used to identify the highest citation articles over the past 50 years, and key findings are presented in a decade-by-decade highlight. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00570.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Cochlear compound action potentials from high-level tone bursts originate from wide cochlear regions that are offset toward the most sensitive cochlear region.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Washington University in St. Louis, United States.

Little is known about the spatial origins of auditory-nerve (AN) compound action potentials (CAPs) evoked by moderate-to-intense sounds. We studied the spatial origins of AN CAPs evoked by 2-16 kHz tone bursts at several sound levels by slowly injecting kainic acid solution into the cochlear apex of anesthetized guinea pigs. As the solution flowed from apex to base, it sequentially reduced CAP responses from low- to high-frequency cochlear regions. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00677.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00677.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Material-Weight Illusion disappears or inverts in objects made of two materials.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Psychology, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.

The Material-Weight Illusion (MWI) occurs when an object that looks heavy (e.g. stone) and one that looks light (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00199.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuroinflammation and the cGAS-STING pathway.

Authors:
Alfred C Chin

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.

The recent discovery of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) as the mammalian cytosolic DNA sensor has profound therapeutic implications for infection, immunology, and cancer. Because neurovirology, neuroimmunology, neuro-oncology, and neurodegeneration implicate cytosolic DNA sensing, cGAS activation and induction of the downstream signaling protein stimulator of intereferon genes (STING) has become increasingly recognized as a crucial determinant of neuropathophysiology. This Neuro Forum article reviews recent advances on the role of cGAS-STING signaling in neuroinflammation and neurological disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00848.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Altered Baroreflex Sensitivity in Young Women with a Family History of Hypertension.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Kinesiology & Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, United States.

A positive family history of hypertension (+FH) is a risk factor for the future development of hypertension. Hypertension is associated with reductions in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Therefore, we hypothesized that young women with a +FH (n=12, 22±1 yrs, BMI 21±1 kg/m2, MAP 79±1 mmHg) would have lower BRS compared to young women without a family history of hypertension (-FH) (n=13, 22±1 yrs, BMI 21±1 kg/m2, MAP 77±2 mmHg, all P>0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00471.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Changes in Motor Evoked Potential Latency during Grasping after Tetraplegia.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

University of Miami, United States.

The corticospinal pathway contributes to the control of grasping in intact humans. Although after spinal cord injury (SCI) there is an extensive reorganization in the corticospinal pathway, its contribution to the control of grasping remains poorly understood. We addressed this question by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand representation of the motor cortex to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in an intrinsic finger muscle during precision grip and power grip with the TMS coil oriented to induce currents in the brain in the latero-medial (LM) direction to activate corticospinal axons directly and in the posterior-anterior (PA) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions to activate the axon indirectly through synaptic inputs in humans with and without cervical incomplete SCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00671.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Multiple facets of the cerebellum in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan;121(1):345

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Neurology, Geneva University Hospitals , Geneva , Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00829.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2.887 Impact Factor

Intrinsic Physiological Properties Underlie Auditory Response Diversity in the Avian Cochlear Nucleus.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Psychology; Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, United States.

Sensory systems exploit parallel processing of stimulus features to enable rapid, simultaneous extraction of information. Mechanisms that facilitate this differential extraction of stimulus features can be intrinsic or synaptic in origin. A subdivision of the avian cochlear nucleus, Nucleus Angularis (NA), extracts sound intensity information from the auditory nerve, and contains neurons that exhibit diverse responses to sound and current injection. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00459.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00459.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
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Experimental and theoretical study of velocity fluctuations during slow movements in humans.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 16;121(2):715-727. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et de Robotique, CNRS, Sorbonne Université , Paris , France.

Moving smoothly is generally considered as a higher-order goal of motor control and moving jerkily as a witness of clumsiness or pathology, yet many common and well-controlled movements (e.g., tracking movements) have irregular velocity profiles with widespread fluctuations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00576.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Altered R-spondin 1/CART neurocircuit in the hypothalamus contributes to hyperphagia in diabetes.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical Center, United States.

Hyperphagia is common in diabetes and may worsen hyperglycemia and diabetic complications. The responsible mechanisms are not well understood. The hypothalamus is a key center for the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00413.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

A comparison of neural responses in the primary auditory cortex, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex of cats during auditory discrimination tasks.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Physiology, China Medical University, China.

Discriminating biologically relevant sounds is crucial for survival. The neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate this process must register both the reward significance and the physical parameters of acoustic stimuli. Previous experiments have revealed that the primary function of the auditory cortex (AC) is to provide a neural representation of the acoustic parameters of sound stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00425.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Regional brainstem activations during capsaicin inhalation using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Australia.

Coughing is an airway protective behaviour elicited by airway irritation. Animal studies show that airway sensory information is relayed via vagal sensory fibers to termination sites within dorsal caudal brainstem and thereafter relayed to more rostral sites. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans, we previously reported that inhalation of the tussigenic stimulus capsaicin evokes a perception of airway irritation ('urge-to-cough') accompanied by activations in a widely distributed brain network including the primary sensorimotor, insular, prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00547.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00547.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
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Saccade selection and inhibition: motor and attentional components.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Germany.

Motor responses are fundamentally spatial in their function and neural organization. However, studies of inhibitory motor control, focused on global stopping of all actions, have ignored whether inhibitory control can be exercised selectively for specific actions. We used a new approach to elicit and measure motor inhibition by asking human participants to either look at (select) or avoid looking at (inhibit) a location in space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00726.2017DOI Listing
January 2019