20,298 results match your criteria Journal of neurophysiology[Journal]


Visual cortex neurons phase-lock selectively to subsets of LFP oscillations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biology II, LMU Munich, Germany.

It is generally thought that apart from receptive field differences, such as preferred orientation and spatial frequency selectivity, primary visual cortex neurons are functionally similar to each other. However the genetic diversity of cortical neurons plus the existence of inputs additional to those required to explain known receptive field properties, might suggest otherwise. Here we report the existence of desynchronised states in anesthetised cat area 17 lasting up to 45 minutes, characterised by variable narrow-band local field potential (LFP) oscillations in the range 2 - 100 Hz and the absence of a synchronised 1/f frequency spectrum. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00496.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00496.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Galvanic vestibular stimulation: from basic concepts to clinical applications.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.

Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) plays an important role in the quest to understand sensory signal processing in the vestibular system under normal and pathological conditions. It has become a highly relevant tool to probe neuronal computations and to assist in the differentiation and treatment of vestibular syndromes. Following its accidental discovery, GVS became a diagnostic tool that generates eye movements in the absence of head/body motion. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00035.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00035.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Receptor-dependence of BDNF Actions in Superficial Dorsal Horn; Relation to Central Sensitization and Actions of Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1).

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute and Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Canada.

Peripheral nerve injury elicits an enduring increase in the excitability of the spinal dorsal horn. This change, which contributes to the development of neuropathic pain, is a consequence of release and prolonged exposure of dorsal horn neurons to various neurotrophins and cytokines. We have shown in rats that nerve injury increases excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons but decreases drive to inhibitory neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00839.2018DOI Listing

Non-Human Primate Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Responses to Prosthetic Vestibular Stimulation are Robust to Pulse Timing Errors Caused by Temporal Discretization.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Otolaryngolgoy - Head & Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, United States.

Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent neurons to partially restore semicircular canal sensation of head rotation and the stabilizing reflexes that sensation supports has potential to effectively treat individuals disabled by bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Ideally, a vestibular implant system using this approach would be integrated with a cochlear implant, which would provide clinicians with a means to simultaneously treat loss of both vestibular and auditory sensation. Despite obvious similarities, merging these technologies poses several challenges, including stimulus pulse timing errors that arise when a system must implement a pulse-frequency-modulation encoding scheme (as is used in vestibular implants to mimic normal vestibular nerve encoding of head movement) within fixed-rate continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategies used in cochlear implants. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00887.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00887.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Supplemental vibrotactile feedback of real-time limb position enhances precision of goal-directed reaching.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, United States.

We examined vibrotactile stimulation as a form of supplemental limb state feedback to enhance planning and ongoing control of goal-directed movements. Subjects wore a two-dimensional vibrotactile display on their non-dominant arm while performing horizontal planar reaching with the dominant arm. The vibrotactile display provided feedback of hand position such that small hand displacements were more easily discriminable using vibrotactile feedback than with intrinsic proprioceptive feedback. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00337.2018DOI Listing

Control of Excitatory Hierarchical Circuits by Parvalbumin-FS Basket Cells in Layer 5 of the Frontal Cortex: Insights for Cortical Oscillations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Cerebral Circuitry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Japan.

The cortex contains multiple neuron types with specific connectivity and functions. Recent progress has provided a better understanding of the interactions of these neuron types as well as their output organization particularly for the frontal cortex, with implications for the circuit mechanisms underlying cortical oscillations that have cognitive functions. Layer 5 (L5) pyramidal cells (PCs) in the frontal cortex comprise two major subtypes: crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) and corticopontine (CPn) cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00778.2018DOI Listing

Multi-scale modeling of mechanotransduction in the utricle.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biological Sciences, Ohio University, United States.

We review recent progress in using numerical models to relate utricular hair bundle and otoconial membrane structure to the functional requirements imposed by natural behavior in turtles. Section I reviews the evolution of experimental attempts to understand vestibular system function with emphasis on turtles, including data showing that accelerations occurring during natural head movements achieve higher magnitudes and frequencies than previously assumed. Section 2 reviews quantitative anatomical data documenting topographical variation in the structures underlying macromechanical and micromechanical responses of the turtle utricle to head movement: hair bundles, otoconial membrane (OM), and bundle-OM coupling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00068.2019DOI Listing

A review on screening tests for vestibular disorders.

Authors:
Helen S Cohen

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Bobby R Alford Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, United States.

Although many studies have reported on tests of the vestibular system a valid and reliable, evidence-based screening battery for easy clinical use remains elusive. Many screening tests attempt to assess the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Therefore, head shaking, the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, the supine roll test and head impulse tests are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00819.2018DOI Listing

How Cerebellar Motor Learning Keeps Saccades Accurate.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Physiology/Biophysics, Univ. of Washington, United States.

The neuronal substrate underlying the learning of a sophisticated task has been difficult to study. However, the advent of a behavioral paradigm that deceives the saccadic system into thinking it is making an error has allowed the mechanisms of the adaptation that corrects this error to be revealed in a primate. The neural elements that fashion the command signal for the generation of accurate saccades involve subcortical structures in the brainstem and cerebellum. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00781.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00781.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The effects of vibration-induced altered stretch reflex sensitivity on maximal motor unit firing properties.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Oklahoma State University, United States.

It is well known that muscle spindles have a monosynaptic, excitatory connection with alpha motoneurons. However, the influence of muscle spindles on human motor unit behavior during maximal efforts remains untested. It has also been shown that muscle spindle function, as assessed by peripheral reflexes, can be systematically manipulated with muscle vibration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00326.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Autonomous patch clamp robot for functional characterization of neurons in vivo: development and application to mouse visual cortex.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, United States.

Patch clamping is the gold standard measurement technique for cell type characterization in vivo but it is low throughput, difficult to scale, and requires highly skilled operation. We developed an autonomous robot that can acquire multiple consecutive patch clamp recordings in vivo. In practice, 40 pipettes loaded into a carousel are sequentially filled and inserted into the brain, localized to a cell, used for patch clamping, and disposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00738.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Stable memory and computation in randomly rewiring neural networks.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Brandeis University, United States.

Our brains must maintain a representation of the world over a period of time much longer than the typical lifetime of the biological components producing that representation. For example, recent research suggests that dendritic spines in the adult mouse hippocampus are transient with an average lifetime of approximately 10 days. If this is true, and if turnover is equally likely for all spines, approximately 95-percent of excitatory synapses onto a particular neuron will turn over within 30 days; however, a neuron's receptive field can be relatively stable over this period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00534.2018DOI Listing

The contradictory influence of velocity: Representational momentum in the tactile modality.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Universität Trier, Germany.

Representational momentum (RM) is the term used to describe a systematic mislocalization of dynamic stimuli, a forward shift, that is, an overestimation of the location of a stimulus along its anticipated trajectory. In the present study, we investigate the effect of velocity on tactile RM, as two distinct and contrasting predictions can be made, based on different theoretical accounts. According to classical accounts of RM, based on numerous visual and auditory RM studies, an increase of the forward shift with increasing target velocity is predicted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00128.2019DOI Listing

Somatosensory interactions reveal feature-dependent computations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, United States.

Our ability to perceive and discriminate textures is based on the processing of high-frequency vibrations generated on the fingertip as it is scanned across a surface. Although much is known about the processing of vibration amplitude and frequency information when cutaneous stimulation is experienced at a single location on the body, how these stimulus features are processed when touch occurs at multiple locations is poorly understood. We evaluated participants ability to discriminate tactile cues on one hand while they ignored distractor cues experienced on their other hand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00168.2019DOI Listing

Hand Forces and Placement are Modulated and Covary during Anticipatory Control of Bimanual Manipulation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, United States.

Dexterous object manipulation relies on the feedforward and feedback control of kinetics (forces) and kinematics (hand shaping and digit placement). Lifting objects with an uneven mass distribution involves the generation of compensatory moments at object lift-off to counter object torques. This is accomplished through the modulation and covariation of digit forces and placement, which has been shown to be a general feature of unimanual manipulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00760.2018DOI Listing

Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. I. Otolith sensor input is essential for gravity context-specific adaptation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Balance and Vision Laboratory, Neuroscience Research Australia, Australia.

The role of the otoliths in mammals on the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) has been difficult to determine because there is no surgical technique that can reliably ablate them without damaging the semicircular canals. The Otopetrin1 (Otop1) mouse lacks functioning otoliths due to failure to develop otoconia, but seems to have otherwise normal peripheral anatomy and neural circuitry. By using these animals we sought to determine the role of the otoliths in angular VOR baseline function and adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00811.2018DOI Listing

Dry eye sensitizes cool cells to capsaicin-induced changes in activity via TRPV1.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Biomedical Sciences, University of New England, United States.

Corneal cool cells are sensitive to the ocular fluid status of the corneal surface and may be responsible for the regulation of basal tear production. Previously, we have shown that dry eye, induced by lacrimal gland excision (LGE) in rats, sensitized corneal cool cells to the TRPM8 agonist menthol and to cool stimulation. In the present study, we examined the effect of dry eye on the sensitivity of cool cells to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00126.2018DOI Listing

Case Studies in Neuroscience: The central and somatosensory contributions to finger inter-dependence and coordination: A study of a "deafferented person".

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

We tested finger force interdependence and multi-finger force-stabilizing synergies in a patient with large-fiber peripheral neuropathy ("deafferented person"). The subject performed a range of tasks involving accurate force production with one finger and with four fingers. In one-finger tasks, non-task fingers showed unintentional force production (enslaving) with an atypical pattern: Very large indices for the lateral (index and little) fingers and relatively small indices for the central (middle and ring) fingers. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00153.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00153.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

A decade of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS): from serendipity to physics to the clinic.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurology, United States.

For many years, people working near strong static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines have reported dizziness and sensations of vertigo. The discovery a decade ago that a sustained nystagmus can be observed in all humans with an intact labyrinth inside MRI machines led to a possible mechanism: a Lorentz force occurring in the labyrinth from the interactions of normal inner ear ionic currents and the strong static magnetic fields of the MRI machine. Inside an MRI, the Lorentz force acts to induce a constant deflection of the semicircular canal cupula of the superior and lateral semicircular canals. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00873.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00873.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. II. Otolith sensor input improves compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Balance and Vision Laboratory, Neuroscience Research Australia, Australia.

The role of the otoliths in mammals on the normal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was characterised in an accompanying study based on the Otopetrin1 (Otop1) mouse, which lacks functioning otoliths due to failure to develop otoconia but seems to have otherwise normal peripheral anatomy and neural circuitry. That study showed that otoliths do not contribute to the normal horizontal (rotation about Earth-vertical axis parallel to dorso-ventral axis) and vertical angular VOR (rotation about Earth-vertical axis parallel to inter-aural axis), but do affect gravity context-specific VOR adaptation. By using these animals, we sought to determine whether the otoliths play a role in the angular VOR after unilateral labyrinthectomy when the total canal signal is reduced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00812.2018DOI Listing

Sequence learning is driven by improvements in motor planning.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, Canada.

The ability to perform complex sequences of movements quickly and accurately is critical for many motor skills. While training improves performance in a large variety of motor-sequence tasks, the precise mechanisms behind such improvements are poorly understood. Here we investigated the contribution of single-action selection, sequence pre-planning, online planning, and motor execution to performance in a discrete sequence production (DSP) task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00041.2019DOI Listing

Pure tones modulate the representation of orientation and direction in the primary visual cortex.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

CMBN, Rutgers University, United States.

Multimodal sensory integration facilitates the generation of a unified and coherent perception of the environment. It is now well established that unimodal sensory perceptions, such as vision, are improved in multisensory contexts. While multimodal integration is primarily performed by dedicated multisensory brain regions such as the association cortices or the superior colliculus, recent studies have shown that multisensory interactions also occur in primary sensory cortices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00069.2019DOI Listing

Thalamocortical dysrhythmia in intraoperative recordings of focal epilepsy.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

University of Toronto, Canada.

Resonant interactions between the thalamus and cortex subserve a critical role for maintenance of consciousness as well as cognitive functions; In states of abnormal thalamic inhibition, thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) has been described. The characteristics of TCD include a slowing of resting oscillations, ectopic high-frequency activity, and increased cross-frequency coupling. Here, we demonstrate the presence of TCD in four patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery with chronically implanted electrodes continuously recording activity from brain regions at the periphery of the epileptogenic zone before and after resection, under anesthesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00079.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
2.887 Impact Factor

Firing Rate Models for Gamma Oscillations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, United States.

'Gamma oscillations are readily observed in a variety of brain regions during both waking and sleeping states. Computational models of gamma oscillations typically involve simulations of large networks of synaptically coupled spiking units. These networks can exhibit strongly synchronized gamma behavior, whereby neurons fire in near synchrony on every cycle, or weakly modulated gamma behavior, corresponding to stochastic, sparse firing of the individual units on each cycle of the population gamma rhythm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00741.2018DOI Listing

Generalization via superposition: Combined effects of mixed reference frame representations for explicit and implicit learning in a visuomotor adaptation task.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Psychology, Princeton University, United States.

Studies on generalization of learned visuomotor perturbations has generally focused on whether learning is coded in extrinsic or intrinsic reference frames. This dichotomy, however, is challenged by recent findings showing that learning is represented in a mixed reference frame. Overlooked in this framework is how learning appears to consist of multiple processes, such as explicit re-aiming and implicit motor adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00624.2018DOI Listing

Adaptation to Coriolis Force Perturbations of Postural Sway Requires an Asymmetric two-leg model.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Lab, Brandeis University, United States.

In the companion paper, we reported how voluntary forward-backward sway in a rotating room generated medial-lateral Coriolis forces that initially deviated intended body sway paths. Pure fore-aft sway was gradually restored over per-rotation trials, and a negative aftereffect occurred during post-rotation sway. Force plate recordings showed that subjects learned to compensate for the Coriolis forces by executing a bimodal torque, the distribution of which was asymmetric across the two legs and of opposite sign for forward versus backward sway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00607.2018DOI Listing

Saccadic suppression measured by steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs).

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Giessen University.

Visual sensitivity is severely impaired during the execution of saccadic eye movements. This phenomenon has been extensively characterized in human psychophysics and non-human primate single-neuron studies, but a physiological characterization in humans is less established. Here, we used a method based on steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), an oscillatory brain response to periodic visual stimulation, to examine how saccades affect visual sensitivity. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00712.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00712.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Rapid geometric feature signaling in the simulated spiking activity of a complete population of tactile nerve fibers.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, United States.

Tactile feature extraction is essential to guide the dexterous manipulation of objects. The longstanding theory is that geometric features at each location of contact between hand and object are extracted from the spatial layout of the response of populations of tactile nerve fibers. However, recent evidence suggests that some features are extracted very rapidly (<200ms), casting doubt that this information relies on a spatial code, which ostensibly requires integrating responses over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00002.2019DOI Listing

Visual imagery and visual perception induce similar changes in occipital slow waves of sleep.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Center for Investigation and Research on Sleep, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland.

Previous studies have shown that regional slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM-sleep is modulated by prior experience and learning. While this effect has been convincingly demonstrated for the sensorimotor domain, attempts to extend these findings to the visual system have provided mixed results. Here we asked whether depriving subjects of external visual stimuli during daytime would lead to regional changes in slow waves during sleep and whether the degree of 'internal visual stimulation' (spontaneous imagery) would influence such changes. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00085.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00085.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Eye movements do not play an important role in the adaptation of hand tracking to a visuomotor rotation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

UMR 7289, Institute of Neuroscience of la Timone, France.

Adapting hand movements to changes in our body or the environment is essential for skilled motor behavior. Although eye movements are known to assist hand movement control, how eye movements might contribute to the adaptation of hand movements remains largely unexplored. To determine to what extent eye movements contribute to visuomotor adaptation of hand tracking, participants were asked to track a visual target that followed an unpredictable trajectory with a cursor using a joystick. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00814.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Hair Cell and Neural Contributions to the Cochlear Summating Potential.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States.

The cochlear summating potential (SP) to a tone is a baseline shift that persists for the duration of the burst. It is often considered the most enigmatic of cochlear potentials because its magnitude and polarity vary across frequency and level and its origins are uncertain. Here, we used pharmacology to isolate sources of the SP originating from the gerbil cochlea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00006.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Analysis of excitatory and inhibitory neuron types in the inferior colliculus based on Ih properties.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

The inferior colliculus (IC) is a large midbrain nucleus that integrates inputs from many auditory brainstem and cortical structures. Despite its prominent role in auditory processing, the various cell types and their connections within the IC are not well characterized. To further separate GABAergic and non-GABAergic neuron types according to their physiological properties, we used a mouse model that expresses channelrhodopsin and EYFP in all GABAergic neurons and allows identification of GABAergic cells by light stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00594.2018DOI Listing

No effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on force field and visuomotor reach adaptation in young and healthy subjects.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, Germany.

Previous studies have shown that cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) leads to faster adaptation of arm reaching movements to visuomotor rotation and force field perturbations in healthy subjects. The first aim of the present study was to confirm a stimulation-dependent effect on motor adaptation. Secondly, we investigated whether tDCS effects differ depending on onset, that is prior to or at the beginning of the adaptation phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00352.2018DOI Listing

Rostral lumbar segments are the key controllers of hindlimb locomotor rhythmicity in the adult spinal rat.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY, United States.

The precise location and functional organization of the spinal neuronal locomotor-related networks in adult mammals remains unclear. Our recent neurophysiological findings provided empirical evidence that the rostral lumbar spinal cord segments play a critical role in the initiation and generation of the rhythmic activation patterns necessary for hindlimb locomotion in adult spinal rats. Since added epidural stimulation at the S1 segments significantly enhanced the motor output generated by L2 stimulation, these data also suggested that the sacral spinal cord provides a strong facilitory influence in rhythm initiation and generation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00810.2018DOI Listing

A Supervised Machine Learning Approach to Characterize Spinal Network Function.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada.

Spontaneous activity is a common feature of immature neuronal networks throughout the central nervous system and plays an important role in network development and consolidation. In postnatal rodents, spontaneous activity in the spinal cord exhibits complex, stochastic patterns that have historically proven challenging to characterize. We developed a software tool for quickly and automatically characterizing and classifying episodes of spontaneous activity generated from developing spinal networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00763.2018DOI Listing

Rapid Adaptation to Coriolis Force Perturbations of Voluntary Body Sway.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Lab, Brandeis University, United States.

Studying adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of arm movements has advanced our understanding of motor control and learning. We have now applied this paradigm to 2-D postural sway. We measured how subjects (n=8) standing at the center of a fully enclosed rotating room who made voluntary anterior-posterior swaying movements adapted to the Coriolis perturbations generated by their sway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00606.2018DOI Listing

Upper and lower limb motor axons demonstrate differential excitability and accommodation to strong hyperpolarising currents during induced hyperthermia.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust.

Length-dependent peripheral neuropathy typically involves the insidious onset of sensory loss in the lower limbs before later progressing proximally. Recent evidence proposes HCN channels as dysfunctional in rodent models of peripheral neuropathy and differential expression of HCN channels in the lower limbs was hypothesised as a pathophysiological mechanism accounting for the pattern of symptomatology. We studied six healthy participants using motor axon excitability including strong and long (-70% & -100% TEh) hyperpolarising currents to preferably study HCN channel function from the median and tibial nerves from high(40%) and low (20%) threshold. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00464.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00464.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect for shape defined by binocular disparity and motion parallax.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

United Kingdom.

Discerning objects from their surrounds (i.e., figure-ground segmentation) in a way that guides adaptive behaviours is a fundamental task of the brain. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00111.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00111.2019DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

V1 Microcircuit Dynamics: Altered Signal Propagation Suggests Intracortical Origins for Adaptation in Response to Visual Repetition.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Psychology, Vanderbilt University, United States.

Repetitive visual stimulation profoundly changes sensory processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we show how the associated adaptive changes are linked to an altered flow of synaptic activation across the V1 laminar microcircuit. Using repeated visual stimulation, we recorded layer-specific responses in V1 of two fixating monkeys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00113.2019DOI Listing

Differential Effects of Left and Right Prefrontal Cortex Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation during Probabilistic Sequence Learning.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, United States.

Left and right prefrontal cortex and the primary motor cortex (M1) are activated during learning of motor sequences. Previous literature is mixed on whether prefrontal cortex aids or interferes with sequence learning. The present study investigated the roles of prefrontal cortices and M1 in sequence learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00795.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Weighting neurons by selectivity produces near optimal population codes.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Physiology, Australia.

Perception is produced by 'reading out' the representation of a sensory stimulus contained in the activity of a population of neurons. To examine experimentally how populations code information, a common approach is to decode a linearly-weighted sum of the neurons' spike counts. This approach is popular because of the biological plausibility of weighted, nonlinear, integration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00504.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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Neurophysiology of the brainstem in Parkinson's Disease.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, United States.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is predominantly idiopathic in origin, and a large body of evidence indicates that gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions are a significant co-morbid clinical feature; these dysfunctions include dysphagia, nausea, delayed gastric emptying and severe constipation, all of which occur commonly before the onset of the well-known motor symptoms of PD. Based on a distinct distribution pattern of Lewy bodies (LB) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and in the preganglionic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), and together with the early onset of GI symptoms, it was suggested that idiopathic PD begins in the ENS, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS) reaching the DMV and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). These two areas are connected by a recently discovered monosynaptic nigro-vagal pathway, which is dysfunctional in rodent models of PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00056.2019DOI Listing
March 2019
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Astrocytic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission is reduced in NTS of rats submitted to short-term sustained hypoxia.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Dept. of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Sustained hypoxia (SH) activates chemoreceptors to produce cardiovascular and respiratory responses to bring the PaO back to the physiological range. We evaluated the effect of SH (FiO= 0.10 - 24 hours) on glutamatergic synaptic transmission and the interaction neuron-astrocyte in neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00279.2018DOI Listing

Disrupting the medial Prefrontal Cortex Alters Hippocampal Sequences during Deliberative Decision-Making.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, United States.

Current theories of deliberative decision-making suggest that deliberative decisions arise from imagined simulations that require interactions between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In rodent navigation experiments, hippocampal theta sequences advance from the location of the rat ahead to the subsequent goal. In order to examine the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on the hippocampus, we disrupted the mPFC with DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs). Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00793.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00793.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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Discharge properties of morphologically identified vestibular neurons recorded during horizontal eye movements in the goldfish.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.

Computational capability and connectivity are key elements for understanding how central vestibular neurons contribute to gaze-stabilizing eye movements during self-motion. In the well-characterized and segmentally distributed hindbrain oculomotor network of goldfish, we determined afferent and efferent connections along with discharge patterns of descending octaval nucleus (DO) neurons during different eye motion. Based on activity correlated with horizontal eye and head movements, DO neurons were categorized into two complementary groups that either increased discharge during both contraversive (type II) eye (e) and ipsiversive (type I) head (h) movements (eh) or vice versa (eh). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00772.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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Gait synergetic neuromuscular control in children with Cerebral Palsy at different Gross Motor Function Classification System levels.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

University of Science and Technology of China.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neural developmental disease featured with gait abnormalities. CP gait assessment is usually performed with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in clinics, which does not involve a thorough assessment of neuromuscular control. To understand how the neuromuscular control disorders lead to gait abnormalities, we explored the relationship between GMFCS levels and the gait synergetic control characteristics in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00580.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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Direction of action of presynaptic GABA receptors is highly dependent on the level of receptor activation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, United States.

Many synapses, including parallel fiber synapses in the cerebellum, express presynaptic GABA receptors. However, reports of the functional consequences of presynaptic GABA receptor activation are variable across synapses, from inhibition to enhancement of transmitter release. We find that presynaptic GABA receptor function is bidirectional at parallel fiber synapses depending on GABA concentration and modulation of GABA receptors in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00779.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2.887 Impact Factor

Corrigendum.

Authors:

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar;121(3):1085

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.z9k-4997-corr.2019DOI Listing

Disentangling expectation from selective attention during perceptual decision-making.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Neurology, UCSF, United States.

A large body of work has investigated the effects of attention and expectation on early sensory processing to support decision-making. In a recent paper published in The Journal of Neuroscience, Rungratsameetaweemana et al. (2018) found that expectations driven by implicitly learned task regularities do not modulate neural markers of early visual processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00639.2018DOI Listing

Stimulating balance: recent advances in vestibular stimulation for balance and gait.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Maastricht University Medical Centre, Netherlands.

Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can boost vestibular sensory thresholds via stochastic resonance and research on nGVS as an intervention for vestibulopathy has accelerated recently. Recently, six articles have investigated the effects and associated mechanisms of nGVS on balance and gait (Inukai et al., J Neuroeng Rehabil, 15: 63, 2018; Inukai et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00851.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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