4,009,206 results match your criteria Journal of health & life sciences law[Journal]


[Recent studies on the signaling pathways implicated myopia].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2019 Feb;55(2):148-152

Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Xiamen 361102, China.

Myopia has emerged as one of the major health issues in China given its increasingly high prevalence. It is generally accepted that myopia is the result of a complex interaction of environmental exposures and genetic predisposition. Many studies have indicated that abnormal visual stimulation regulates retinal neurotransmitters and growth factors to release resulting in scleral remodeling and axial elongation through signaling pathway transduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0412-4081.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

[Clinical study on microcirculation changes of bulbar conjunctiva after contact lens wear].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2019 Feb;55(2):98-104

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China.

To explore the changes of microcirculation of the bulbar conjunctiva after wearing the contact lens and the relationship between contact lens discomfort and bulbar conjunctiva microcirculation. Prospective cohort study. The postgraduate students from School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and School of Biomedical Engineering of Wenzhou Medical University were included in this prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0412-4081.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

[Effective prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents].

Authors:
J Qu F Lyu L D Xu

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2019 Feb;55(2):81-85

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Engineering Research Center For Myopia Control and Management, Ministry of Education, Wenzhou 325000, China.

Myopia prevention and control is an important health issue related to children and adolescents, general public physical fitness and national defense security. In 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave instructions on students' myopia. Ministry of Education and other seven ministries and commissions issued the Implementation Plan of the Myopia Prevention and Control for Children and Adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0412-4081.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

[Predictive value of white blood cell, procalcitonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for the bloodstream infection in the super-elderly critically-ill patients].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;99(5):365-369

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

To investigate the ability of white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the super-elderly patients with bloodstream infection. It was a retrospective study. A total of 77 patients (≥85 years) admitted to the ICU of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June, 2016 to December, 2017 were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.05.009DOI Listing
January 2019

[Efficacy and mechanism of loading dose clopidogrel in patients with transient ischemic attack and minor stroke].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;99(5):349-353

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China.

To assess outcome, safety and possible mechanism of loading dose clopidogrel in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke. We reviewed patients with confirmed TIA and minor stroke admitted between July 2016 and December 2017 into the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Loss-of-function allele carriers of CYP2C19 were included and randomly divided into loading dose group (first dose of 300 mg clopidogrel) and standard dose group (first dose of 75 mg clopidogrel), 100 mg aspirin was gave at the same time, followed by aspirin 100 mg/d plus clopidogrel 75 mg/d maintaining for 20 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.05.006DOI Listing
January 2019

[Quantitative evaluation of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging and three-dimensional arterial spin labeling in Ki-67 labeling index and grading of brain gliomas].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;99(5):338-342

Department of Pathology, Li Huili Hospital, Ningbo Medical Center, Ningbo 315040, China.

To investigate the value of multiple parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) and three-dimensional arterial spin labeling (3D-ASL) in Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and grading of human brain gliomas. From December 2015 to May 2018, 45 patients of gliomas confirmed by surgical pathology in Li Huili Hospital, Ningbo Medical Center were divided into low-grade group (20 cases of WHO grade Ⅱ) and high-grade group (12 cases of WHO grade Ⅲ, 13 cases of WHO grade Ⅳ), and the Ki-67 LI of glioma was obtained by immunohistochemistry. All patients, 24 males and 21 females, aged 25-83 years, mean(53±12)years, underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), IVIM-DWI and 3D-ASL before operation, then measured the true water diffusion coefficient (D), microcirculation perfusion coefficient (D(*)), perfusion fraction (f) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the tumor solid area and the contralateral normal white matter area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.05.004DOI Listing
January 2019

[Magnetic resonance imaging study of endolymphatic hydrops based on 3D-FLAIR sequence after single-dose intravenous gadolinium injection].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;99(5):333-337

Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.

To investigate the visualization of endolymph in patients with otogenic vertigo by intravenous administration of single dose of gadolinium contrast agents and magnetic resonance three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (3D-FLAIR MRI), and further assess the extent of endolymphatic hydrops. From Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University between October 2017 and June 2018, 30 patients (16 males, 14 females) with unilateral otogenic vertigo were involved in this study, with the age of 30 to 68 years, mean age of (53±10) years. Eight hours after intravenous administration of single dose (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.05.003DOI Listing
January 2019

[Functional lateralization of major Chinese language cortex for presurgical evaluation in neurosurgery].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;99(5):329-332

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

To investigate the functional lateralization of major Chinese language cortex in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in dominant hemispheric via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nine right-handed normal volunteers and fourteen patients with cerebral AVM in dominant hemisphere diagnosed in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between December 2017 and June 2018 were included. Three language tasks (semantic judgment, word reading, and listening comprehension) were applied to activate language areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.05.002DOI Listing
January 2019

Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in the Palivizumab Prophylaxis Era: Need for Reconsideration of Preventive Timing and Eligibility.

Isr Med Assoc J 2019 Feb;21(2):110-115

Department of Pediatrics A, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related bronchiolitis is a common cause of morbidity in young infants. The recommendations for its passive prevention by palivizumab are currently under intensive debate.

Objectives: To elucidate the optimal prevention strategy by studying the morbidity of RSV disease under the current recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis in Israel. Read More

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February 2019

Ga-PSMA PET/CT Staging of Newly Diagnosed Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

Isr Med Assoc J 2019 Feb;21(2):100-104

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is part of the initial workup of patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer provided by the Israeli national health services.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of metastatic spread in consecutive patients with newly diagnosed cancer, and the potential added value of Ga-PSMA PET/CT to the staging imaging algorithm.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer were referred for initial staging by Ga-PSMA PET/CT between May 2016 and April 2017. Read More

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February 2019

Unilateral Renal Agenesis Diagnosed on Early Prenatal Trans-Vaginal Scans.

Isr Med Assoc J 2019 Feb;21(2):85-87

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rambam Medical Center, affiliated with Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Unilateral renal agenesis is a rare finding. There are no large-scale studies reporting this finding in early pregnancy.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of unilateral renal agenesis (URA) and of associated anomalies diagnosed by early prenatal trans-vaginal sonography. Read More

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February 2019

Transcriptomic evidence for immaturity induced by antidepressant fluoxetine in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan.

Aims: The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine in the brain are not fully understood. Emerging evidence has led to the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment induces dematuration of certain types of mature neurons in rodents. These studies have focused on the properties of typical molecular and/or electrophysiological markers for neuronal maturation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12048DOI Listing
February 2019

The latest progress on miR-374 and its functional implications in physiological and pathological processes.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been emerging players in cell development, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Based on their differences in length and structure, they are subdivided into several categories including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs >200nt), stable non-coding RNAs (60-300nt), microRNAs (miRs or miRNAs, 18-24nt), circular RNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (26-31nt) and small interfering RNAs (about 21nt). Therein, miRNAs not only directly regulate gene expression through pairing of nucleotide bases between the miRNA sequence and a specific mRNA that leads to the translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA, but also indirectly affect the function of downstream genes through interactions with lncRNAs and circRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14219DOI Listing
February 2019

Risk factors and self-perception for facial aging among Nepalese population.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Dermatology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

Background: Facial appearance has increasing importance to individuals and women, in particular. Till date, there are no reports of the extrinsic factors influencing skin aging in Nepalese population.

Objectives: To assess the risk factors and self-perception for facial aging in Nepalese population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12885DOI Listing
February 2019

Local oestrogen therapy modulates extracellular matrix and immune response in the vaginal tissue of post-menopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

This study investigates the effect of local oestrogen therapy (LET) on the expression of proteins participating in collagen/elastin biogenesis and immune markers in vaginal tissues of post-menopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Vaginal biopsies were collected from the anterior vaginal wall of informed and consented 52 post-menopausal women with severe POP undergoing total hysterectomy. Twenty-nine of the 52 women were treated with LET (in the form of vaginal oestrogen cream or tablet), while the remaining 23 untreated patients served as the controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14199DOI Listing
February 2019

Nutrition and its role in human evolution.

J Intern Med 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Vice Chancellor and Dean for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Texas A&M AgriLife, College Station, TX, USA.

Our understanding of human evolution has improved rapidly over recent decades, facilitated by large-scale cataloguing of genomic variability amongst both modern and archaic humans. It seems clear that the evolution of the ancestors of chimpanzees and hominins separated 7-9 million years ago with some migration out of Africa by the earlier hominins; Homo sapiens slowly emerged as climate change resulted in drier, less forested African conditions. The African populations expanded and evolved in many different conditions with slow mutation and selection rates in the human genome, but with much more rapid mutation occurring in mitochondrial DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.12878DOI Listing
February 2019

Iodine status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Top End, before and after mandatory fortification.

Med J Aust 2019 Feb 7;210(3):121-125. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Canberra, ACT.

Objective: To assess the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of young adults in the Top End of Northern Territory, before and after fortification of bread with iodised salt became mandatory.

Design, Setting: Analysis of cross-sectional data from two longitudinal studies, the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and the non-Indigenous Top End Cohort, pre- (Indigenous participants: 2006-2007; non-Indigenous participants: 2007-2009) and post-fortification (2013-15).

Participants: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian young adults (mean age: pre-fortification, 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.12031DOI Listing
February 2019

Evidence for compromised data integrity in studies of liberal peri-operative inspired oxygen.

Anaesthesia 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

In 2016 the World Health Organization recommended intra-operative ventilation with 80% inspired oxygen to reduce surgical site infection rates, based upon a meta-analysis of 15 randomised controlled trials, of which two were by Mario Schietroma's research group. Five trials by this group have been retracted for duplication, plagiarism, statistical error and lack of ethical approval. We analysed 40 papers by this group: 24 randomised controlled trials (5064 participants) and 16 observational studies (1847 patients). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.14584DOI Listing
February 2019

NAD metabolism as a target for metabolic health: have we found the silver bullet?

Diabetologia 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

NAD has gone in and out of fashion within the scientific community a number of times since its discovery in the early 1900s. Over the last decade, NAD has emerged as a potential target for combatting metabolic disturbances and the mitochondrial dysfunction that is mediated through sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes. The beneficial metabolic effects of the NAD/SIRT axis have triggered an increased interest in NAD as an enhancer of energy metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4831-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Associated with Germline Pathogenic Variants in the Homologous Recombination Pathway.

Endocr Pathol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Fred A. Litwin Family Center in Genetic Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12022-019-9569-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Characterizing Perceptions Around the Patient-Oncologist Relationship: a Qualitative Focus Group Analysis.

J Cancer Educ 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

The purpose of the current study was to characterize the experiences of cancer patients and their caregiver/family members around their relationship with their oncologist, health care team, and the hospital environment. Participants were recruited from The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participant sociodemographic factors were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-019-1481-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Evaluating the health risk of metals (Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb) in staple foods from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwestern Nigeria.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Feb 16;191(3):167. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Pure and Applied Zoology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, PMB 2240, Nigeria.

The study evaluated the health risk of metals in commonly consumed staple foods from Lagos and Ogun states, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-three food samples were collected and analyzed for Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Data collected were analyzed for simple descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS for Windows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7307-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Dynamic Piston Function of the Mitral Annulus to Assess Early Left Ventricular Diastolic Filling: A Proof of Concept Study.

Cardiol Ther 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Cardiovascular Medicine Division, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA.

Introduction: Early left ventricular (LV) filling has been described as an asymmetric toroidal vortex ring of blood entering the LV upon opening of the mitral valve. This phenomenon is in part responsible for cyclical changes in LV volumes during the cardiac cycle and also contributes to the apical and basal longitudinal displacements of the mitral annulus (MA). Although MA early diastolic (e') velocities have been used to assess early LV filling characteristics, accurate distinction between normal aging and pathological diastolic dysfunction (DD) might be challenging at times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40119-019-0130-9DOI Listing
February 2019

The Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-9 Group Producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections in Children.

Infect Dis Ther 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Introduction: The pandemic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (Ent) is strongly linked to the dissemination of CTX-M-type-ESBL-Ent. We sought to define the epidemiology of infections in children due to an emerging resistance type, CTX-M-9-group-producing-Ent (CTX-M-9-grp-Ent).

Methods: A retrospective matched case-control analysis of children with CTX-M-9-grp-Ent infections who received medical care at three Chicago area hospitals was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-019-0237-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Maternal blood pressure, cord glucocorticoids, and child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age: a birth cohort study.

Am J Hypertens 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Pregnancy hypertensive disorders have impaired neurodevelopment in offspring. We aimed to explore the association of normal range maternal blood pressure (BP) with child neurodevelopment, as well as the possible role of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) therein.

Methods: Among 1,008 mother-child pairs recruited in Wuhan, China, in 2013-2015, we measured maternal third-trimester BP (systolic and diastolic BP, SBP and DBP) and cord glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone), a marker reflecting placental 11β-HSD2 activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz024DOI Listing
February 2019

Circulating anthocyanin metabolites mediate vascular benefits of blueberries: insights from randomized controlled trials, metabolomics, and nutrigenomics.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, University Duesseldorf, Germany.

Potential health benefits of blueberries may be due to vascular effects of anthocyanins which predominantly circulate in blood as phenolic acid metabolites. We investigated which role blueberry anthocyanins and circulating metabolites play in mediating improvements in vascular function and explore potential mechanisms using metabolomics and nutrigenomics. Purified anthocyanins exerted a dose-dependent improvement of endothelial function in healthy humans, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz047DOI Listing
February 2019

Trends in risk of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living over age in older persons with and without multiple chronic conditions.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: To investigate trends over age by comorbidity-status for the risk of limitations in individual activities of daily living for community-living older persons.

Methods: A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in 9,319 community-living Dutch persons aged 60 years and older. Self-reported MCC and nine IADLs were assessed in fifteen studies of the Dutch National Care for the Elderly Program (TOPICS-MDS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz049DOI Listing
February 2019

Dual role of TGF-B in early pregnancy: Clues from tumor progression.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

TGF-β signaling in the endometrium is active during the implantation period and has a pivotal role in regulating endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. During embryo implantation, both apoptosis and proliferation of endometrial cells happen at the same time and it seems TGF-β is the factor that controls both of these processes. As shown in cancer cells, in special conditions this cytokine can have a dual effect and switch the action from apoptosis to proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz024DOI Listing
February 2019

Antioxidant Systems as a Response to Midgut Cellular of Bombyx mori Lineu, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Infection for Baculoviruses.

J Econ Entomol 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Statistical Research, State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR, Brazil.

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a DNA virus that infects different tissues in Bombyx mori at immature stage. Caterpillars become infected after ingesting polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB) present in contaminated mulberry leaves and spread through the body after passing the epithelium of the midgut. As this organ is responsible for digestion, most absorption of nutrients requires an intact epithelium to maintain gastrointestinal physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz009DOI Listing
February 2019

Sarcopenia and variation in the Human Leukocyte Antigen complex.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Epidemiology and Public Health Group, University of Exeter Medical School, RILD Building, Barrack Road, Exeter, UK.

Background: Aging is characterized by chronic inflammation plus muscle mass and strength loss, termed sarcopenia. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) types are drivers of autoimmune disease, although with limited penetrance. We tested whether autoimmune diagnoses are associated with sarcopenia, and whether HLA types and related genetic variants associate with sarcopenia in autoimmune disease free older people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz042DOI Listing
February 2019

Effectiveness of individual and group multicomponent interventions for smoking cessation in primary care: a quasi-experimental study.

Fam Pract 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Servicio Extremeño de Salud, Centro de Salud Universitario 'La Paz', Unidad Docente de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain.

Background: The efficacy of smoking cessation interventions can be quite diverse in day-to-day clinical practice.

Objective: To analyse the effectiveness in smoking cessation of multicomponent interventions carried out in groups or individually in primary care practices.

Methods: A quasi-experimental, multicentre study of 12-month follow-up of patients treated in multicomponent smoking cessation interventions was carried out in Urban health care centres in Sevilla, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmz005DOI Listing
February 2019

Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis AG5 effectively assimilates cholesterol and produces fatty acids including propionate.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Integrative Biology, School of BioSciences and Technology, VIT, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Probiotics are known for their health promoting abilities through the production of various metabolites and also benefits are membrane associated. Probiotic Enterococcus faecalis AG5 has been previously assessed for its probiotic properties and this study further strengthens that claim. Strain AG5 was inoculated with 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz039DOI Listing
February 2019

Patterns of high-risk prescribing and other factors in relation to receipt of a home medicines review: a prospective cohort investigation among adults aged 45 years and over in Australia.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e027305. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: To quantify the relationship between home medicines review (HMR) receipt in older adults and sociodemographic, medication-related and health factors.

Design: Prospective cohort analysis.

Settings, Participants, Measurements: Questionnaire data from a population-based cohort study of individuals aged ≥45 years, Sydney, Australia were linked with primary healthcare data, medication and hospitalisation data, to ascertain factors associated with HMR receipt during the period July 2009-June 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027305DOI Listing
February 2019

Defining compassion in the digital health age: protocol for a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e026338. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: The notion of compassion and compassionate care is playing an increasingly important role in health professional education and in the delivery of high-quality healthcare. Digital contexts, however, are not considered in the conceptualisation of compassionate care, nor is there guidance on how compassionate care is to be exercised while using digital health technologies. The widespread diffusion of digital health technologies provides new contexts for compassionate care, with both opportunities for new forms and instantiations of compassion as well as new challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026338DOI Listing
February 2019

Paramedics' experiences of administering fascia iliaca compartment block to patients in South Wales with suspected hip fracture at the scene of injury: results of focus groups.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e026073. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

Objectives: To explore paramedics' experience of delivering fascia iliaca compartment block FICB) to patients with suspected hip fracture at the scene of injury.

Design: Focus groups within a randomised controlled trial.

Setting: Paramedics based at ambulance stations in the catchment area of one Emergency Department in South Wales, recruited and trained in a feasibility study about an alternative to routine prehospital pain management for patients with suspected hip fracture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026073DOI Listing
February 2019

Lung Cancer App (LuCApp) study protocol: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate a mobile supportive care app for patients with metastatic lung cancer.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e025483. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Centre for Research in Health and Social Care Management (CERGAS), SDA Bocconi, Milano, Italy.

Introduction: Mobile health technologies may enhance patient empowerment and data integration along the whole care continuum. However, these interventions pose relatively new regulatory, organisational and technological challenges that limit appropriate evaluation. Lung Cancer App (LuCApp) is a mobile application developed by researchers and clinicians to promote real-time monitoring and management of patients' symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025483DOI Listing
February 2019

Medical management of acute upper respiratory infections in an urban primary care out-of-hours facility: cross-sectional study of patient presentations and expectations.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e025396. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, Limerick, Ireland.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the expectations of patients attending an urban primary care out-of-hours (OOH) facility with acute upper respiratory tract infection (acute URTI) regarding clinical examination, symptom management, information on their condition, reassurance, antibiotic treatment and other possible options including referral.

Design: Cross-sectional design.

Setting: One urban primary care OOH facility located in the midwest of Ireland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025396DOI Listing
February 2019

Systematic review of clinical outcome reporting in randomised controlled trials of burn care.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e025135. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Introduction: Systematic reviews collate trial data to provide evidence to support clinical decision-making. For effective synthesis, there must be consistency in outcome reporting. There is no agreed set of outcomes for reporting the effect of burn care interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025135DOI Listing
February 2019

Breastfeeding and behavioural problems: Propensity score matching with a national cohort of infants in Chile.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e025058. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Psychology School, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Importance: Potential effects of breast feeding on children's behaviour remains an elusive debate given inherent methodological challenges. Propensity score matching affords benefits by ensuring greater equivalence on observable social and health determinants, helping to reduce bias between groups.

Objectives: We examined whether the duration of breast feeding had an impact on children's externalising and internalising behaviours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025058DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of the EQ-5D 3L and the SF-6D (SF-36) contemporaneous utility scores in patients with chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional survey.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e024854. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare utility weights of EuroQoL-five-dimension-3 levels (EQ-5D-3L) and Short-Form six-dimension (SF-6D) in a representative cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A cost-utility analysis (CUA) is designed to report the change to costs required to achieve an estimated change to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The quality component of a QALY is measured by utility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024854DOI Listing
February 2019

Frailty in the context of rehabilitation interventions for adults: protocol for a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e024838. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Toronto Rehabilitation Institute - University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Although a growing number of frail adults can benefit from rehabilitation services, few are included in rehabilitation services, and reasons for their exclusion are not well understood. To inform research directions in rehabilitation for all adults (aged 18 years and older), we will conduct a scoping review to describe (1) the characteristics of frail adult individuals included in rehabilitation interventions (eg, age range, inclusion and exclusion criteria that are applied), (2) the type of rehabilitation interventions that are used for individuals who are considered frail and (3) the commonly reported outcome measures used for these rehabilitation interventions.

Methods: This scoping review will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024838DOI Listing
February 2019

Therapist-guided and parent-guided internet-delivered behaviour therapy for paediatric Tourette's disorder: a pilot randomised controlled trial with long-term follow-up.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e024685. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Behaviour therapy (BT) for Tourette's disorder (TD) and persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder (PTD) is rarely available. We evaluated the feasibility of adapting two existing BT protocols for TD/PTD (habit reversal training (HRT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP)) into a therapist-guided and parent-guided online self-help format.

Design: A pilot, single-blind, parallel group randomised controlled trial. Read More

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February 2019

Using specialist screening practitioners (SSPs) to increase uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening: results of a feasibility single-stage phase II randomised trial.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023801. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Research Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objective: To determine the feasibility of specialist screening practitioners (SSPs) offering patient navigation (PN) to facilitate uptake of bowel scope screening (BSS) among patients who do not confirm or attend their appointment.

Design: A single-stage phase II trial.

Setting: South Tyneside District Hospital, Tyne and Wear, England, UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023801DOI Listing
February 2019

Trial summary and protocol for a phase II randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded trial of Interleukin 1 blockade in Acute Severe Colitis: the IASO trial.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023765. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a severe manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC) that warrants hospitalisation. Despite significant advances in therapeutic options for UC and in the medical management of steroid-refractory ASUC, the initial treatment paradigm has not changed since 1955 and is based on the use of intravenous corticosteroids. This treatment is successful in approximately 50% of patients but failure of this and subsequent medical therapy still occurs, with colectomy rates of up to 40% reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023765DOI Listing
February 2019

PROFIT, a PROspective, randomised placebo controlled feasibility trial of Faecal mIcrobiota Transplantation in cirrhosis: study protocol for a single-blinded trial.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023518. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

James Black Centre, School of Immunology & Microbial Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Patients with advanced cirrhosis have enteric bacterial dysbiosis and translocation of bacteria and their products across the gut epithelial barrier. This culminates in systemic inflammation and endotoxaemia, inducing innate immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection, and development of complications such as bleeding, sepsis and hepatic encephalopathy. This feasibility study aims to assess the safety of administering faecal microbiota transplantion to patients with cirrhosis and explore the effect of the intervention on their prognosis by achieving restoration of a healthy gut microbiome. Read More

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February 2019

Can a tool developed for industry be used to assess fatigue risk in medical rotas? A pilot study of foundation doctors' rotas in a tertiary centre.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023470. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: To determine the feasibility and ease of using a pre-existing health and safety executive fatigue risk calculator to assess doctors' rotas.

Design: Observational.

Setting: A large tertiary-referral teaching hospital in the UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023470DOI Listing
February 2019

Industrially produced fat in popular foods in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from 2015 to 2016: a market basket investigation.

Authors:
Steen Stender

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023184. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Objective: To minimise the intake of industrially produced fat (I-TF) and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, several countries have implemented a legislative restriction on I-TF in foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of I-TF in biscuits/cakes/wafers in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union that all have a high coronary mortality rate compared with countries in Western Europe.

Methods: Three large supermarkets in 15 capitals were visited in 2015 or 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023184DOI Listing
February 2019

Cohort profile: the Danish Future Occupation of Children and Adolescents cohort (the FOCA cohort): education, work-life, health and living conditions in a life-course perspective.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e022784. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

Purpose: The Future Occupation of Children and Adolescents cohort (the FOCA cohort) is a large population-based cohort study that was established as a resource for research in order to study adolescence factors and future educational and vocational trajectories in a life-course perspective. The cohort covers a broad array of themes within public health, including diseases and health behaviours. Through linkage to register data on the participants' parents, the cohort allows investigation of parental effects over time on adolescents' behaviours and interactions across generations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022784DOI Listing
February 2019

Can differences in length of stay between Dutch university hospitals and other hospitals be explained by patient characteristics? A cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e021851. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The indicator unexpectedly long length of stay (UL-LOS) is used to gain insight into quality and safety of care in hospitals. The calculation of UL-LOS takes patients' age, main diagnosis and main procedure into account. University hospitals have relatively more patients with a UL-LOS than other hospitals. Read More

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February 2019
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