1,705 results match your criteria Journal of experimental psychology. General[Journal]


Emotion sensitivity across the lifespan: Mapping clinical risk periods to sensitivity to facial emotion intensity.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute for Technology in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Depression and Anxiety Disorders, McLean Hospital / Harvard Medical School.

Face emotion perception is important for social functioning and mental health. In addition to recognizing categories of face emotion, accurate emotion perception relies on the ability to detect subtle differences in emotion intensity. The primary aim of this study was to examine participants' ability to discriminate the intensity of facial emotions (emotion sensitivity: ES) in three psychometrically matched ES tasks (fear, anger, or happiness), to identify developmental changes in sensitivity to face emotion intensity across the lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000559DOI Listing
February 2019

"It feels like it's in your body": How children in the United States think about nationality.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Psychology, New York University.

Concepts of national groups (e.g., Americans, Canadians) are an important source of identity and meaning in people's lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000567DOI Listing
February 2019

Common and specific loci of Stroop effects in vocal and manual tasks, revealed by event-related brain potentials and posthypnotic suggestions.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institut fur Psychologie.

In the Stroop task color words are shown in various print colors. When print colors are named or classified with button presses, interference occurs if word meaning is color-incongruent and facilitation if it is congruent. Although the Stroop effects in vocal and manual task versions are similar, it is unclear whether the underlying mechanisms are equivalent. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000574
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000574DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Lay beliefs about the controllability of everyday mental states.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania.

Prominent accounts of folk theory of mind posit that people judge others' mental states to be uncontrollable, unintentional, or otherwise involuntary. Yet, this claim has little empirical support: few studies have investigated lay judgments about mental state control, and those that have done so yield conflicting conclusions. We address this shortcoming across six studies, which show that, in fact, lay people attribute to others a high degree of intentional control over their mental states, including their emotions, desires, beliefs, and evaluative attitudes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000547DOI Listing
February 2019

Visual illusions help reveal the primitives of number perception.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology.

The human perceptual system is responsive to numerical information within visual and auditory scenes. For example, when shown 2 displays of dots, observers can instantly, albeit approximately, identify the set that is more numerous. Theories in perceptual and cognitive psychology have focused on 2 mechanisms for how vision accomplishes such a feat: Under the domain-specific encoding theory, number is represented as a primary visual feature of perception, much like motion or color, while under the domain-general theory, the visual system represents number indirectly, through a complex combination of features such as the size of the dots, their total cluster, and so forth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000553DOI Listing
February 2019

Interattribute evaluation theory.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell SC Johnson College of Business, Cornell University.

In this article we advance a theory that describes how people evaluate attribute values. We propose that evaluations involve a target and a reference value. Evaluators first seek a reference value on the target attribute (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000552DOI Listing
February 2019

Age similarities and differences in spontaneous use of emotion regulation tactics across five laboratory tasks.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Psychology, Northeastern University.

Theories of emotional aging have proposed that age differences in emotion regulation may partly explain why older adults report high levels of emotional well-being despite declines in other domains. The current research examined age differences and similarities in emotion regulatory tactic preferences across 5 laboratory tasks designed to measure the strategies within the process model of emotion regulation (situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation). An adult life span sample (ages 20-78, N = 225) completed tasks offering opportunities to use tactics that decrease negative, increase positive, or engage with negative aspects of the situation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000556DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The power of pupil size in establishing trust and reciprocity.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institute of Psychology.

The eyes are extremely important in communication and can send a multitude of different messages. Someone's pupil size carries significant social information and can reflect different cognitive and affective states that within a social interaction can prove to be particularly meaningful. In 3 studies we investigated the impact of a person's pupil size on how others evaluate that person. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000508DOI Listing
February 2019

Wise reasoning benefits from emodiversity, irrespective of emotional intensity.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.

The role of emotions in wise reasoning is not well understood. On the one hand, work on emotional regulation suggests that downregulating intense emotions may lead to wiser reasoning. On the other hand, emerging work suggests that recognizing and balancing emotions provides critical insights into life experiences, suggesting an alternative path to wiser reasoning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000543DOI Listing
January 2019

Robust color-shape binding representations for multiple objects in visual working memory.

Authors:
Jun Saiki

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Kyoto University.

The nature of feature-bound object representations in visual working memory (VWM) remains unclear. Many studies claim that they are held by a resource-limited system and are fragile. Using a novel paradigm called the redundant feature reviewing task, the current study showed that color-shape binding representations for multiple objects are maintained and matched with perceptual representation in a robust fashion in VWM. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000562
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January 2019
9 Reads

Perception in dynamic scenes: What is your Heider capacity?

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb;148(2):252-271

Visual Attention Lab, Harvard Medical School/Brigham & Women's Hospital.

The classic animation experiment by Heider and Simmel (1944) revealed that humans have a strong tendency to impose narrative even on displays showing interactions between simple geometric shapes. In their most famous animation with three simple shapes, observers almost inevitably interpreted them as rational agents with intentions, desires, and beliefs ("That nasty big triangle!"). Much work on dynamic scenes has identified basic visual properties that can make shapes seem animate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000557DOI Listing
February 2019

Visual search within working memory.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, New York University Abu Dhabi.

Attention and working memory are 2 key pillars of cognition. Despite much research, there are important aspects about the relationship between the 2 constructs that are not well understood. Here we explore the similarity in the mechanisms that select and update working memory to those that guide attention during perception, such as in visual search. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000555DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Storage and processing in working memory: Assessing dual-task performance and task prioritization across the adult lifespan.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.

There is a theoretical disagreement in the working memory literature, with some proposing that the storage and processing of information rely on distinct parts of the cognitive system and others who posit that they rely, to some extent, on a shared attentional capacity. This debate is mirrored in the literature on working memory and aging, where there have been mixed findings on the ability of older adults to perform simultaneous storage and processing tasks. We assess the overlap between storage and processing and how this changes with age using a procedure in which both tasks have been carefully adjusted to produce comparable levels of single-task performance across a sample (N = 164) of participants aged 18-81. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000539DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Should we control? The interplay between cognitive control and information integration in the resolution of the exploration-exploitation dilemma.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University.

In their daily decisions, humans and animals are often confronted with the conflicting choice of opting either for a rewarding familiar option (i.e., exploitation) or for a novel, uncertain option that may, however, yield a better reward in the near future (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000546DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Risk contagion by peers affects learning and decision-making in adolescents.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University.

Adolescence is a period of life in which social influences-particularly if they come from peers-play a critical role in shaping learning and decision preferences. Recent studies in adults show evidence of a risk contagion effect; that is, individual risk preferences are modulated by observing and learning from others' risk-related decisions. In this study, using choice data and computational modeling, we demonstrate stronger risk contagion in male adolescents when observing peers compared to nonpeers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000512DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Threat learning promotes generalization of episodic memory.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychiatry.

The ability to generalize from and distinguish between aversive memories and novel experiences is critical to survival. Previous research has revealed mechanisms underlying generalization of threat-conditioned defensive responses, but little is known about generalization of episodic memory for threatening events. Here we tested if aversive learning influences generalization of episodic memory for threatening events in human adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000551DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Inducing the use of right eye enhances face-sex categorization performance.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Département de psychologie, Université de Montréal.

Face recognition ability varies tremendously among neurologically typical individuals. What causes these differences is still largely unknown. Here, we first used a data-driven experimental technique-bubbles-to measure the use of local facial information in 140 neurotypical individuals during a face-sex categorization task. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000542
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000542DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Reconstructing the side-effect effect: A new way of understanding how moral considerations drive intentionality asymmetries.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Social Science & Policy Studies, Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

People typically apply the concept of intentionality to actions directed at achieving desired outcomes. For example, a businessperson might intentionally start a program aimed at increasing company profits. However, if starting the program leads to a foreknown and harmful side effect (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000554DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Bound together: Social binding leads to faster processing, spatial distortion, and enhanced memory of interacting partners.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychology, University of York.

The binding of features into perceptual wholes is a well-established phenomenon, which has previously only been studied in the context of early vision and low-level features, such as color or proximity. We hypothesized that a similar binding process, based on higher level information, could bind people into interacting groups, facilitating faster processing and enhanced memory of social situations. To investigate this possibility we used 3 experimental approaches to explore grouping effects in displays involving interacting people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000545DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Reduced perceptual specialization in autism: Evidence from the other-race face effect.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Special Education, Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center, University of Haifa.

Emerging accounts of autism suggest that flexible and broadly tuned perceptual representations, presumably resulting from reduced specialization, may underlie atypical perception. Here, we examined the other-race effect (ORE) to study face processing specialization arising from specific experience with own-race faces. Face discrimination was tested for own- and other-race faces in typically developed individuals and in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000550
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000550DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Social antecedents and perceptual consequences of how we look at others.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan;148(1):143-157

The New School for Social Research.

Seeing each other's faces-and looking into each other's eyes-are the first steps in almost all human encounters, within and across groups. This article explores the links among visual attention, visual perception, and social behavior. Study 1 uses eye tracking to document that social information such as someone being a norm violator, which produces attenuations in configural processing, also shapes how people attend to faces. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000506
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000506DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Inhibiting responses to difficult choices.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan;148(1):124-142

School of Medicine, University of Tasmania.

The stop-signal paradigm is a widely used procedure to study response inhibition. It consists of a 2-choice response-time task (a "go" task) that is occasionally interrupted by a stop signal instructing participants to withhold their responses. The paradigm owes its popularity to the underlying race model that enables estimation of the otherwise unobservable latency of stopping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000525DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Domain-general enhancements of metacognitive ability through adaptive training.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan;148(1):51-64

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London.

The metacognitive ability to introspect about self-performance varies substantially across individuals. Given that effective monitoring of performance is deemed important for effective behavioral control, intervening to improve metacognition may have widespread benefits, for example in educational and clinical settings. However, it is unknown whether and how metacognition can be systematically improved through training independently of task performance, or whether metacognitive improvements generalize across different task domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000505DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Neural activity reveals interactions between episodic and semantic memory systems during retrieval.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan;148(1):1-12

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania.

Whereas numerous findings support a distinction between episodic and semantic memory, it is now widely acknowledged that these two forms of memory interact during both encoding and retrieval. The precise nature of this interaction, however, remains poorly understood. To examine the role of semantic organization during episodic encoding and retrieval, we recorded intracranial encephalographic signals as 69 neurosurgical patients studied and subsequently recalled categorized and unrelated word lists. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000480
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000480DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Intentionally "biased": People purposely use to-be-ignored information, but can be persuaded not to.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Operations, Innovation and Data Sciences.

Abundant research has shown that people fail to disregard to-be-ignored information (e.g., hindsight bias, curse of knowledge), which has contributed to the popular notion that people are unwillingly and unconsciously affected by information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000541DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

An ideological asymmetry in the diffusion of moralized content on social media among political leaders.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology.

Online social networks constitute a major platform for the exchange of moral and political ideas, and political elites increasingly rely on social media platforms to communicate directly with the public. However, little is known about the processes that render some political elites more influential than others when it comes to online communication. Here, we gauge influence of political elites on social media by examining how message factors (characteristics of the communication) interact with source factors (characteristics of elites) to impact the diffusion of elites' messages through Twitter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000532DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Construal level and cross-sensory influences: High-level construal increases the effect of color on drink perception.

Authors:
Jochim Hansen

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

University of Salzburg.

Because people integrate more information into their representations when they construe a situation abstractly (i.e., on a high level) than when they construe a situation concretely (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000548DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Loud and unclear: Intense real-life vocalizations during affective situations are perceptually ambiguous and contextually malleable.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

A basic premise of emotion theories is that experienced feelings (whether specific emotions or broad valence) are expressed via vocalizations in a veridical and clear manner. By contrast, functional-contextual frameworks, rooted in animal communication research, view vocalizations as contextually flexible tools for social influence, not as expressions of emotion. Testing these theories has proved difficult because past research relied heavily on posed sounds which may lack ecological validity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000535DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The dark side of morality: Prioritizing sanctity over care motivates denial of mind and prejudice toward sexual outgroups.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 20;148(2):342-360. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University.

Moral values bind communities together and foster cooperation, yet these same values can lead to the derogation and marginalization of outgroups. Five studies tested a theoretical framework proposing that preferentially endorsing moral values of sanctity versus care (the sanctity-care trade-off) produces a motivational bias whereby people perceive sexual outgroup members as less human. This denial of mind, in turn, legitimizes expressions of prejudice and discrimination toward sexual outgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000537DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The role of group norms in evaluating uncommon and negative behaviors.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 20;148(2):374-387. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Psychology.

Children often believe that how a group is reflects how individual group members We provided a strong test of this descriptive-to-prescriptive tendency by examining whether children (Ages 4 to 9) maintained the correctness of group norms even when such norms differed in their prevalence (e.g., drinking juice out of bowls instead of cups; Study 1) or in their valence (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000534DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Probabilistic learning of emotion categories.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Psychology.

Although the configurations of facial muscles that humans perceive vary continuously, we often represent emotions as categories. This suggests that, as in other domains of categorical perception such as speech and color perception, humans become attuned to features of emotion cues that map onto meaningful thresholds for these signals given their environments. However, little is known about the learning processes underlying the representation of these salient social signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000529DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

I see what you meant to say: Anticipating speech errors during online sentence processing.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.

Everyday speech is rife with errors and disfluencies, yet processing what we hear usually feels effortless. How does the language comprehension system accomplish such an impressive feat? The current experiment tests the hypothesis that listeners draw on relevant contextual and linguistic cues to anticipate speech errors and mentally correct them, even before receiving an explicit correction from the speaker. In the current visual-world eye-tracking experiment, we monitored participants' eye movements to objects in a display while they listened to utterances containing reparandum-repair speech errors (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000544DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Psychological constraints on aggressive predation in economic contests.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Social and Developmental Psychology, Sapienza University Rome.

When humans compete, they invest energy and effort to injure others and to protect against injury and exploitation. The psychology behind exploiting others and protecting against exploitation is still poorly understood and is addressed here in an incentivized economic contest game in which individuals invested in predatory attack and prey defense. Consistent with standard economic theory on production and predation, we find that individuals compete less intensely when they attack rather than defend and that attacks disproportionally often fail. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000531
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000531DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Perception of a surface split induced by globally inconsistent kinetic occlusion: Objects with salient parts break apart easily.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, Ewha Womans University.

Unlike previous studies of part-based shape representations that mostly investigated static images, we tested whether part segmentation can affect the perception of ambiguous dynamic events, involving globally inconsistent kinetic occlusion: An object moved horizontally across another stationary object, with either its top or bottom half occluding and the other half being occluded by the stationary one, which could be perceived as one object being split into halves by the other object. We manipulated an object's part structure by introducing concave or convex cusps along the contour of an object and found that objects with concave cusps were more likely perceived as being split than those with no or convex cusps. This study provides a new insight into a broad framework of spatiotemporal perceptual organization, by demonstrating that salient parts are readily perceived as broken apart in a physical sense, which in turn alters the perception of a motion event and its causal structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000530DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The same with age: Evidence for age-related similarities in interpersonal accuracy.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Interpersonal accuracy refers to the ability to make accurate perceptions about others' social and emotional qualities. Despite this broad definition, the measurement of interpersonal accuracy remains narrow, as most studies focus on the accurate perception of others' emotional states. Moreover, previous research has relied primarily upon traditional tasks consisting of posed, prototypic expressions and behaviors as stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000540DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

False memory at short and long term.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

False memories are well-established long-term memory (LTM) phenomena. Recent reports of false recognition at short term suggest that working memory (WM) could also give rise to false memories, supporting the unitary view of memory. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the emergence of false memories at short term results from the impairment of WM maintenance, memory performance relying then on LTM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000526DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The relationship between second language acquisition and nonverbal cognitive abilities.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Experimental Psychology.

We monitored the progress of 40 children when they first started to acquire a second language (L2) implicitly through immersion. Employing a longitudinal design, we tested them before they had any notions of an L2 (Time 0) and after 1 school year of L2 exposure (Time 1) to determine whether cognitive abilities can predict the success of L2 learning. Task administration included measures of intelligence, cognitive control, and language skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000536DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The intuitive greater good: Testing the corrective dual process model of moral cognition.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UMR CNRS 8240.

Building on the old adage that the deliberate mind corrects the emotional heart, the influential dual process model of moral cognition has posited that utilitarian responding to moral dilemmas (i.e., choosing the greater good) requires deliberate correction of an intuitive deontological response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000533DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The consistency of visual attention to losses and loss sensitivity across valuation and choice.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec;147(12):1791-1809

Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

Sensitivity to losses has been found to vary greatly across individuals. One explanation for this variability is that for some losses garner more visual attention and are subsequently given more weight in decision-making processes. In three studies we examined whether biases in visual attention toward potential losses during valuation and choice were related to loss sensitivity, as well as the valuations provided and the choices made. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000524DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Catecholaminergic modulation of the avoidance of cognitive control.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec;147(12):1763-1781

Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University.

The catecholamines have long been associated with cognitive control and value-based decision-making. More recently, we proposed that the catecholamines might modulate value-based decision-making about whether or not to engage in cognitive control. We test this hypothesis by assessing effects of a catecholamine challenge in a large sample of young, healthy adults (n = 100) on the avoidance of a cognitively demanding control process: task switching. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000523DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Social media and depression symptoms: A network perspective.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychological Research Methods, University of Amsterdam.

Passive social media use (PSMU)-for example, scrolling through social media news feeds-has been associated with depression symptoms. It is unclear, however, if PSMU causes depression symptoms or vice versa. In this study, 125 students reported PSMU, depression symptoms, and stress 7 times daily for 14 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000528DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The biasing nature of the tip-of-the-tongue experience: When decisions bask in the glow of the tip-of-the-tongue state.

Authors:
Anne M Cleary

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychology.

The present study demonstrates a counterintuitive pattern regarding the affective nature of the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon (when a currently inaccessible word feels right on the verge of retrieval). First, TOT reports were more likely for questions corresponding to positively valenced than negatively valenced targets. Second, TOT states were associated with a bias toward inferring positive characteristics regarding the unretrieved information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000520DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

When averaging goes wrong: The case for mixture model estimation in psychological science.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Psychology and Centre for Brain Research, The University of Auckland.

Recent failed attempts to replicate numerous findings in psychology have raised concerns about methodological practices in the behavioral sciences. More caution appears to be required when evaluating single studies, while systematic replications and meta-analyses are being encouraged. Here, we provide an additional element to this ongoing discussion, by proposing that typical assumptions of meta-analyses be substantiated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000504DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Costs and benefits of acting extraverted: A randomized controlled trial.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Melbourne School of Psychological Science.

Evidence suggests that extraverted (i.e., bold, agentic) behavior increases positive affect (PA), and could be targeted in wellbeing interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000516DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Capacity limitations of dishonesty.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychology III.

Cognitive theories of dishonesty revolve around an automatic activation of honest response tendencies, which is assumed to impair response selection for the intended dishonest response. Clear-cut evidence for the claim is still limited, however. We therefore present a novel approach to dishonest responding that takes advantage of psychological refractory period methodology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000510DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Negative evidence and inductive reasoning in generalization of associative learning.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 26;148(2):289-303. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

School of Psychology.

When generalizing properties from known to novel instances, both positive evidence (instances known to possess a property) and negative evidence (instances known not to possess a property) must be integrated. The current study compared generalization based on positive evidence alone against a mixture of positive evidence and perceptually dissimilar negative evidence in an interdimensional discrimination procedure. In 2 experiments, we compared generalization following training with a single positive stimulus (that predicted shock) against groups where an additional negative stimulus (that did not predict shock) was presented in a causal judgment (Experiment 1) and a fear conditioning (Experiment 2) procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000496DOI Listing
February 2019
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Monitoring prediction errors facilitates cognition in action.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University.

Cognition in action requires strategic allocation of attention between internal processes and the sensory environment. We hypothesized that this resource allocation could be facilitated by mechanisms that predict sensory results of self-generated actions. Sensory signals conforming to predictions would be safely ignored to facilitate focus on internally generated content, whereas those violating predictions would draw attention for additional scrutiny. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000519
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000519DOI Listing
November 2018
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Electrical stimulation of alpha oscillations stabilizes performance on visual attention tasks.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 12;148(2):203-220. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford.

Neural oscillations in the alpha band (7-13 Hz) have long been associated with reductions in attention. However, recent studies have suggested a more nuanced perspective in which alpha oscillations also facilitate processes of cognitive control and perceptual stability. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over occipitoparietal cortex at 10 Hz (alpha-tACS) can selectively enhance EEG alpha power. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000502DOI Listing
February 2019
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More evidence that a switch is not (always) a switch: Binning bilinguals reveals dissociations between task and language switching.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego.

The current study examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying task and language switching by comparing them with each other, and with flanker task performance, at multiple points of the response time distribution. Ninety-eight Spanish-English bilinguals completed cued language and color-shape switching tasks, and 2 versions of a nonlinguistic flanker task. Bilinguals responded more quickly and exhibited smaller mixing costs in the language task, but surprisingly exhibited larger switching costs than in the color-shape task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000515DOI Listing
November 2018
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Knowledge is power: Prior knowledge aids memory for both congruent and incongruent events, but in different ways.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 5;148(2):325-341. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

MRC Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge.

Events that conform to our expectations, that is, are congruent with our world knowledge or schemas, are better remembered than unrelated events. Yet events that conflict with schemas can also be remembered better. We examined this apparent paradox in 4 experiments, in which schemas were established by training ordinal relationships between randomly paired objects, whereas event memory was tested for the number of objects on each trial. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000498
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February 2019
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