1,743 results match your criteria Journal of experimental psychology. General[Journal]


Cognitive control and capacity for prospective memory in complex dynamic environments.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Psychological Science.

Performing deferred actions in the future relies upon Prospective Memory (PM). Often, PM demands arise in complex dynamic tasks. Not only can PM be challenging in such environments, the processes required for PM may affect the performance of other tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000599DOI Listing

Empathy is hard work: People choose to avoid empathy because of its cognitive costs.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychology.

Empathy is considered a virtue, yet it fails in many situations, leading to a basic question: When given a choice, do people avoid empathy? And if so, why? Whereas past work has focused on material and emotional costs of empathy, here, we examined whether people experience empathy as cognitively taxing and costly, leading them to avoid it. We developed the empathy selection task, which uses free choices to assess the desire to empathize. Participants make a series of binary choices, selecting situations that lead them to engage in empathy or an alternative course of action. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000595
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000595DOI Listing
April 2019
21 Reads

Children value objects with distinctive histories.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology.

From ancient objects in museums to souvenirs obtained on vacation, we often value objects for their distinctive histories. The present experiments investigate the developmental origins of people's feelings that objects with distinctive histories are special. In each of four experiments, 4- to 7-year-olds (total = 400) saw pairs of identical-looking objects in which one object was new and the other had a history that was either distinctive or mundane. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000606
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000606DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Visual perspective taking in young and older adults.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centre for Clinical Research.

Advanced age is associated with difficulties in social understanding. However, little is known about the underlying cognitive processes. In the present study, healthy young and older adults completed measures of implicit and explicit visual perspective taking (VPT) and measures of executive and social cognition across four experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000584DOI Listing

Still no evidence that risk-taking and consumer choices can be primed by mating motives: Reply to Sundie, Beal, Neuberg, and Kenrick (2019).

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):e12-e22

Department of Basic Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid.

Shanks et al. (2015) challenged the evidence that various forms of decision making can be influenced by romantic/mating primes. In their comment, Sundie, Beal, Neuberg, and Kenrick (2019) question both the meta-analysis and the 8 studies Shanks et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000597DOI Listing

"Neural activity reveals interactions between episodic and semantic memory systems during retrieval": Correction to Weidemann et al. (2019).

Authors:

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 04;148(4):782

Reports an error in "Neural activity reveals interactions between episodic and semantic memory systems during retrieval" by Christoph T. Weidemann, James E. Kragel, Bradley C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000604DOI Listing

Modeling early lexico-semantic network development: Perceptual features matter most.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):763-782

Department of Speech, Hearing, and Language Sciences.

What aspects of word meaning are important in early word learning and lexico-semantic network development? Adult lexico-semantic systems flexibly encode multiple types of semantic features, including functional, perceptual, taxonomic, and encyclopedic. However, various theoretical accounts of lexical development differ on whether and how these semantic properties of word meanings are initially encoded into young children's emerging lexico-semantic networks. Whereas some accounts highlight the importance of early perceptual versus conceptual properties, others posit that thematic or functional aspects of word meaning are primary relative to taxonomic knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461380PMC

Cognitive correlates of memory integration across development: Explaining variability in an educationally relevant phenomenon.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):739-762

Department of Psychology, Emory University.

The current research was an investigation of the cognitive correlates of individual differences in participants' capacity to derive new factual knowledge through integration of information acquired across separate yet related learning episodes. In a sample of 117 adults (Experiment 1) and 57 children aged 8 to 10 years (Experiment 2), we investigated the respective roles of verbal comprehension, working memory span, and relational reasoning in self-derivation of new knowledge through memory integration. The findings revealed patterns of consistency and inconsistency in the cognitive profiles underlying this form of learning in adults and children. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000581
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461377PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Blocking tactile input to one finger using anaesthetic enhances touch perception and learning in other fingers.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):713-727

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London.

Brain plasticity is a key mechanism for learning and recovery. A striking example of plasticity in the adult brain occurs following input loss, for example, following amputation, whereby the deprived zone is "invaded" by new representations. Although it has long been assumed that such reorganization leads to functional benefits for the invading representation, the behavioral evidence is controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459089PMC

A comprehensive meta-analysis of money priming.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):688-712

Department of Methodology and Statistics.

Research on money priming typically investigates whether exposure to money-related stimuli can affect people's thoughts, feelings, motivations, and behaviors (for a review, see Vohs, 2015). Our study answers the call for a comprehensive meta-analysis examining the available evidence on money priming (Vadillo, Hardwicke, & Shanks, 2016). By conducting a systematic search of published and unpublished literature on money priming, we sought to achieve three key goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000570DOI Listing

Shooting the messenger.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):644-666

Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University.

Eleven experiments provide evidence that people have a tendency to "shoot the messenger," deeming innocent bearers of bad news unlikeable. In a preregistered lab experiment, participants rated messengers who delivered bad news from a random drawing as relatively unlikeable (Study 1). A second set of studies points to the specificity of the effect: Study 2A shows that it is unique to the (innocent) messenger, and not mere bystanders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000586DOI Listing

From the structure of experience to concepts of structure: How the concept "cause" is attributed to objects and events.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):619-643

Department of Psychology.

The pervasive presence of relational information in concepts, and its indirect presence in sensory input, raises the question of how it is extracted from experience. We operationalized experience as a stream of events in which reliable predictive relationships exist among random ones, and in which learners are naïve as to what they will learn (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461371PMC

Causal processes in psychology are heterogeneous.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):601-618

Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

All experimenters know that human and animal subjects do not respond uniformly to experimental treatments. Yet theories and findings in experimental psychology either ignore this causal effect heterogeneity or treat it as uninteresting error. This is the case even when data are available to examine effect heterogeneity directly, in within-subjects designs where experimental effects can be examined subject by subject. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000558
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April 2019
1 Read

Moving beyond unwise replication practices: The case of romantic motivation.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):e1-e11

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University.

Replication research holds an increasingly important place in modern psychological science. If such work is to improve the state of knowledge rather than add confusion, however, replication attempts must be held to high standards of rigor. As an example of how replication attempts can add confusion rather than clarity, we consider an article by Shanks and colleagues (2015). Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000527
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000527DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

The cognitive basis for the split-attention effect.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology, Education & Child Studies.

The split-attention effect entails that learning from spatially separated, but mutually referring information sources (e.g., text and picture), is less effective than learning from the equivalent spatially integrated sources. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000578
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000578DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

How information about what is "healthy" versus "unhealthy" impacts children's consumption of otherwise identical foods.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology, Cornell University.

Can brief messages about health influence children's consumption of identical foods? Across a series of studies, we manipulated children's consumption of identical foods (fruit sauces) by pairing those foods with brief messages about each food's health status. What initially appeared to be a preference for foods described as healthy among 5- to 6-year-old children (Studies 1-2) actually reflected a preference for alternatives to foods described as unhealthy (Studies 3-5), including comparison foods that were described with negative or neutral content. Although the 2 foods on each trial were identical, children consistently ate more of the alternative to a food described as unhealthy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000588DOI Listing

Is executive control related to working memory capacity and fluid intelligence?

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Cognitive Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich.

In the last two decades, individual-differences research has put forward 3 cognitive psychometric constructs: executive control (i.e., the ability to monitor and control ongoing thoughts and actions), working memory capacity (WMC, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000593DOI Listing

Causation without realism.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London.

Current theories of causality from visual input predict causal impressions only in the presence of realistic interactions, sequences of events that have been frequently encountered in the past of the individual or of the species. This strong requirement limits the capacity for 1-shot induction and, thus, does not sit well with our abilities for rapid creative causal learning, as illustrated, for example, by the effortless way we adapt to new technology. We present 4 experiments (N = 720) that reveal strong causal impressions upon first encounter with collision-like sequences that the literature typically labels "noncausal. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000602
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000602DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Integrating verbal fluency with executive functions: Evidence from twin studies in adolescence and middle age.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute for Behavioral Genetics.

The relationship of verbal fluency to executive functions (EFs) remains somewhat unclear. Verbal fluency is sometimes considered an EF ability, but is not often included in the same models as other well-studied EFs (inhibition, shifting, and working memory updating). We examined the associations between verbal fluency and EFs at 2 ages with the unity/diversity model, which includes common and domain-specific EF factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000589DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Building up and wearing down episodic memory: Mnemonic discrimination and relational binding.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology.

Our capacity to form and retrieve episodic memories improves over childhood but declines in old age. Understanding these changes requires decomposing episodic memory into its components. Two such components are (a) mnemonic discrimination of similar people, objects, and contexts, and (b) relational binding of these elements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000583DOI Listing

Hearing words changes color perception: Facilitation of color discrimination by verbal and visual cues.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychology.

As part of learning some languages, people learn to name colors using categorical labels such as "red," "yellow," and "green." Such labeling clearly facilitates communicating about colors, but does it also impact color perception? We demonstrate that simply hearing color words enhances categorical color perception, improving people's accuracy in discriminating between simultaneously presented colors in an untimed task. Immediately after hearing a color word participants were better able to distinguish between colors from the named category and colors from nearby categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000560DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Auditory frequency discrimination is correlated with linguistic skills, but its training does not improve them or other pitch discrimination tasks.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Brain-training, aimed at advancing and improving cognitive and perceptual abilities, is vastly studied because of its immense promise. Yet, there are major controversies regarding its main claim that intensive weeks' training on a single challenging task could improve performance in related untrained tasks. Ample training studies showing transfer were criticized for flawed design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000573DOI Listing

Progress in women's representation in top leadership weakens people's disturbance with gender inequality in other domains.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Organisational Behaviour.

Conventional wisdom suggests that progress for women in the domain of top leadership representation will naturally spread to other domains of gender inequality, whether in organizations or beyond. Extending social-cognitive theories of exemplar-based information processing to the study of social progress perceptions for stigmatized groups, we theorized that perceiving substantial female representation in top leadership may instead reduce people's concern with ongoing gender inequality in other domains. Study 1 (N = 331) finds that perceiving greater female representation in top corporate echelons decreases people's disturbance with the gender pay gap, but not with wealth inequality generally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000561DOI Listing

Is working memory storage intrinsically domain-specific?

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva.

It has recently been claimed that working memory (WM) storage is intrinsically domain-specific because the concurrent maintenance of an auditory and a visuospatial memory set did not involve any dual-task cost (Fougnie, Zughni, Godwin, & Marois, 2015). Using the same paradigm, we asked participants to concurrently maintain verbal auditory memory sets of 2, 4, or 6 letters along with visuospatial memory sets of 1, 3, or 5 dots in spatial locations. Whereas using the probe-recognition procedure used by Fougnie, Zughni, Godwin, and Marois (2015) replicated the absence of dual-task cost, a recall procedure revealed systematic interference between auditory-verbal and visuospatial WM. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000566
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March 2019
3 Reads

Mitigating malicious envy: Why successful individuals should reveal their failures.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 4;148(4):667-687. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Harvard Business School, Harvard University.

People often feel malicious envy, a destructive interpersonal emotion, when they compare themselves to successful peers. Across 3 online experiments and a field experiment of entrepreneurs, we identify an interpersonal strategy that can mitigate feelings of malicious envy in observers: revealing one's failures. Despite a general reluctance to reveal one's failures-as they are happening and after they have occurred-across four experiments, we find that revealing both successes and failures encountered on the path to success (compared to revealing only successes) decreases observers' malicious envy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000538DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Moral essentialism and generosity among children and adults.

Authors:
Larisa Heiphetz

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Columbia University.

Children and adults view many characteristics in an essentialist way-as innate, immutable, and biological. Prior work has typically investigated essentialism regarding broad domains (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000587DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Adaptive constructive processes: An episodic specificity induction impacts false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology.

Numerous studies indicate that an episodic specificity induction (ESI)-brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience-enhances performance on subsequent tasks that rely on episodic retrieval, including autobiographical memory, imagination, problem solving, and creative thinking. In 5 experiments, we examined whether these benefits of the ESI extend to reducing susceptibility to false memory, or whether they are accompanied by a cost in the form of increased susceptibility to false memory. To assess how ESI impacts false memory generation, we used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a reliable procedure for generating false memories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000577DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Identifying the cognitive processes underpinning hippocampal-dependent tasks.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging.

Autobiographical memory, future thinking, and spatial navigation are critical cognitive functions that are thought to be related and are known to depend upon a brain structure called the hippocampus. Surprisingly, direct evidence for their interrelatedness is lacking, as is an understanding of why they might be related. There is debate about whether they are linked by an underlying memory-related process or, as has more recently been suggested, because they each require the endogenous construction of scene imagery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000582DOI Listing

Concurrent processing of optic flow and biological motion.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Institute for Psychology.

The concurrent processing of optic flow and biological motion is crucial for navigating to a destination without colliding with others. Neuroimaging studies and formal models have provided evidence for distinct neural mechanisms involved in processing the 2 types of motion. It may, therefore, be possible to process both types of motions independently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000568DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Observers fail to detect that behavior is the control of perception: A computer demonstration of unintended writing.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Psychology and Mental Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester.

Perceptual control theory (PCT) approaches the behavior of living systems as though it were a phenomenon of control and systematically assesses the variables that the individual controls using the test for the controlled variable (TCV). PCT may be supported by the minority because the majority of behavior scientists, like most people, can miss the phenomenon of control as it is occurring. An earlier paper reported three studies of a behavior that was known to be a process of control because it had been explicitly instructed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000590DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The second pugilist's plight: Why people believe they are above average but are not especially happy about it.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar;148(3):570-587

Department of Psychology, Cornell University.

People's tendency to rate themselves as above average is often taken as evidence of undue self-regard. Yet, everyday experience is occasioned with feelings of inadequacy and insecurity. How can these 2 experiences be reconciled? Across 12 studies (N = 2,474; including 4 preregistered studies) we argue that although people do indeed believe that they are above average they also hold themselves to standards of comparison that are well above average. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000580DOI Listing

The collective aggregation effect: Aggregating potential collective action increases prosocial behavior.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar;148(3):550-569

Fuqua School of Business, Duke University.

The authors investigated the effectiveness of aggregating over potential noncontingent collective action ("If X people all do Y action, then Z outcomes will be achieved") to increase prosocial behavior. They carried out 6 experiments encouraging 4 different prosocial activities and found that aggregating potential benefits over 1,000 people produced more prosocial intentions and actions than aggregating over 1 person did. The authors further showed that aggregating potential benefits over 1,000 people produced more prosocial intentions than aggregating benefits over 1,000 days did. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000563DOI Listing

People teach with rewards and punishments as communication, not reinforcements.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar;148(3):520-549

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Carrots and sticks motivate behavior, and people can teach new behaviors to other organisms, such as children or nonhuman animals, by tapping into their reward learning mechanisms. But how people teach with reward and punishment depends on their expectations about the learner. We examine how people teach using reward and punishment by contrasting two hypotheses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000569DOI Listing

The phonographic language network: Using network science to investigate the phonological and orthographic similarity structure of language.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar;148(3):475-500

Department of Psychology, University of Kansas.

Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition and phonological effects in visual word recognition have been observed in a variety of experimental tasks, strongly suggesting that a close interrelationship exists between phonology and orthography. However, the metrics used to investigate these effects, such as consistency and neighborhood size, fail to generalize to words of various lengths or syllable structures, and do not take into account the more global similarity structure that exists between phonological and orthographic representations in the language. To address these limitations, the tools of Network Science were used to simultaneously characterize the phonological as well as orthographic similarity structure of words in English. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000575DOI Listing

Ensemble statistics shape face adaptation and the cheerleader effect.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar;148(3):421-436

Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University.

When confronted with a scene of emotional faces, our brains automatically average the individual facial expressions together to create the gist of the collective emotion. Here, we tested whether this ensemble averaging could also occur for facial attractiveness, and in turn shape 2 related face perception phenomena: adaptation and the cheerleader effect. In our first 2 experiments, we showed that adaptation aftereffects could indeed be shaped by ensemble statistics; viewing an increasingly unattractive group of faces conversely increased attractiveness judgments for a subsequently presented face. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000564DOI Listing

Perspective taking failures in the valuation of mind and body.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Mar;148(3):407-420

Harvard Business School.

Accurately inferring the values and preferences of others is crucial for successful social interactions. Nevertheless, without direct access to others' minds, perspective taking errors are common. Across 5 studies, we demonstrate a systematic perspective taking failure: People believe they value their minds more than others do and often believe they value their bodies less than others do. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000571DOI Listing

Wise up: Clarifying the role of metacognition in the Dunning-Kruger effect.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.

The Dunning-Kruger effect (DKE) is the finding that, across a wide range of tasks, poor performers greatly overestimate their ability, whereas top performers make more accurate self-assessments. The original account of the DKE involves the idea that metacognitive insight requires the same skills as task performance, so that unskilled people perform poorly and lack insight. However, global measures of self-assessment are prone to statistical and other biases that could explain the same pattern. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000579DOI Listing
February 2019

Investigating attitudinal ambivalence via sequential priming: Evidence for the simultaneous and unintentional activation of opposite evaluations.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Psychology, Université Catholique de Louvain.

This research tested a central assumption of attitudinal ambivalence research: ambivalent attitude objects simultaneously trigger positive and negative evaluations. It further specifies at which stage this activation is likely to produce an evaluative conflict. Experiments 1 to 3 involved 2 evaluative priming paradigms, in which ambivalent stimuli served either as primes or as targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000572DOI Listing
February 2019

Emotion sensitivity across the lifespan: Mapping clinical risk periods to sensitivity to facial emotion intensity.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute for Technology in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Depression and Anxiety Disorders, McLean Hospital / Harvard Medical School.

Face emotion perception is important for social functioning and mental health. In addition to recognizing categories of face emotion, accurate emotion perception relies on the ability to detect subtle differences in emotion intensity. The primary aim of this study was to examine participants' ability to discriminate the intensity of facial emotions (emotion sensitivity: ES) in three psychometrically matched ES tasks (fear, anger, or happiness), to identify developmental changes in sensitivity to face emotion intensity across the lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000559DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

"It feels like it's in your body": How children in the United States think about nationality.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Psychology, New York University.

Concepts of national groups (e.g., Americans, Canadians) are an important source of identity and meaning in people's lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000567DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Common and specific loci of Stroop effects in vocal and manual tasks, revealed by event-related brain potentials and posthypnotic suggestions.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institut fur Psychologie.

In the Stroop task color words are shown in various print colors. When print colors are named or classified with button presses, interference occurs if word meaning is color-incongruent and facilitation if it is congruent. Although the Stroop effects in vocal and manual task versions are similar, it is unclear whether the underlying mechanisms are equivalent. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000574
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000574DOI Listing
February 2019
17 Reads

Lay beliefs about the controllability of everyday mental states.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania.

Prominent accounts of folk theory of mind posit that people judge others' mental states to be uncontrollable, unintentional, or otherwise involuntary. Yet, this claim has little empirical support: few studies have investigated lay judgments about mental state control, and those that have done so yield conflicting conclusions. We address this shortcoming across six studies, which show that, in fact, lay people attribute to others a high degree of intentional control over their mental states, including their emotions, desires, beliefs, and evaluative attitudes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000547DOI Listing
February 2019

Visual illusions help reveal the primitives of number perception.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology.

The human perceptual system is responsive to numerical information within visual and auditory scenes. For example, when shown 2 displays of dots, observers can instantly, albeit approximately, identify the set that is more numerous. Theories in perceptual and cognitive psychology have focused on 2 mechanisms for how vision accomplishes such a feat: Under the domain-specific encoding theory, number is represented as a primary visual feature of perception, much like motion or color, while under the domain-general theory, the visual system represents number indirectly, through a complex combination of features such as the size of the dots, their total cluster, and so forth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000553DOI Listing
February 2019

Interattribute evaluation theory.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell SC Johnson College of Business, Cornell University.

In this article we advance a theory that describes how people evaluate attribute values. We propose that evaluations involve a target and a reference value. Evaluators first seek a reference value on the target attribute (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000552DOI Listing
February 2019

Age similarities and differences in spontaneous use of emotion regulation tactics across five laboratory tasks.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Psychology, Northeastern University.

Theories of emotional aging have proposed that age differences in emotion regulation may partly explain why older adults report high levels of emotional well-being despite declines in other domains. The current research examined age differences and similarities in emotion regulatory tactic preferences across 5 laboratory tasks designed to measure the strategies within the process model of emotion regulation (situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation). An adult life span sample (ages 20-78, N = 225) completed tasks offering opportunities to use tactics that decrease negative, increase positive, or engage with negative aspects of the situation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000556DOI Listing
February 2019
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The power of pupil size in establishing trust and reciprocity.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institute of Psychology.

The eyes are extremely important in communication and can send a multitude of different messages. Someone's pupil size carries significant social information and can reflect different cognitive and affective states that within a social interaction can prove to be particularly meaningful. In 3 studies we investigated the impact of a person's pupil size on how others evaluate that person. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000508DOI Listing
February 2019

Wise reasoning benefits from emodiversity, irrespective of emotional intensity.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.

The role of emotions in wise reasoning is not well understood. On the one hand, work on emotional regulation suggests that downregulating intense emotions may lead to wiser reasoning. On the other hand, emerging work suggests that recognizing and balancing emotions provides critical insights into life experiences, suggesting an alternative path to wiser reasoning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000543DOI Listing
January 2019

Robust color-shape binding representations for multiple objects in visual working memory.

Authors:
Jun Saiki

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Kyoto University.

The nature of feature-bound object representations in visual working memory (VWM) remains unclear. Many studies claim that they are held by a resource-limited system and are fragile. Using a novel paradigm called the redundant feature reviewing task, the current study showed that color-shape binding representations for multiple objects are maintained and matched with perceptual representation in a robust fashion in VWM. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xge0000562
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000562DOI Listing
January 2019
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Perception in dynamic scenes: What is your Heider capacity?

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Feb;148(2):252-271

Visual Attention Lab, Harvard Medical School/Brigham & Women's Hospital.

The classic animation experiment by Heider and Simmel (1944) revealed that humans have a strong tendency to impose narrative even on displays showing interactions between simple geometric shapes. In their most famous animation with three simple shapes, observers almost inevitably interpreted them as rational agents with intentions, desires, and beliefs ("That nasty big triangle!"). Much work on dynamic scenes has identified basic visual properties that can make shapes seem animate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396302PMC
February 2019

Visual search within working memory.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, New York University Abu Dhabi.

Attention and working memory are 2 key pillars of cognition. Despite much research, there are important aspects about the relationship between the 2 constructs that are not well understood. Here we explore the similarity in the mechanisms that select and update working memory to those that guide attention during perception, such as in visual search. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000555DOI Listing
January 2019
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