3,737 results match your criteria Journal of Vision [Journal]


Asymmetry of pictorial space: A cultural phenomenon.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):22

Université de Toulouse, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, Toulouse, France.

Art experts have argued that the mirror reversal of pictorial artworks produces an alteration of their spatial content. However, this putative asymmetry of the pictorial space remains to be empirically proved and causally explained. Here, we address these issues with the "corridor illusion," a size illusion triggered by the pictorial space of a receding corridor. Read More

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http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/19.4.22
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.22DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Variation in target and distractor heterogeneity impacts performance in the centroid task.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):21

Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

In a selective centroid task, the participant views a brief cloud of items of different types-some of which are targets, the others distractors-and strives to mouse-click the centroid of the target items, ignoring the distractors. Advantages of the centroid task are that multiple target types can appear in the same display and that influence functions, which estimate the weight of each stimulus type in the cloud on the perceived centroid for each participant, can be obtained easily and efficiently. Here we document the strong, negative impact on performance that results when the participant is instructed to attend to target dots that consist of two or more levels of a single feature dimension, even when those levels differ categorically from those of the distractor dots. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.21DOI Listing

Integration of prior knowledge during haptic exploration depends on information type.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):20

Department of General Psychology, Giessen University, Gießen, Germany.

When haptically exploring softness, humans use higher peak forces when indenting harder versus softer objects. Here, we investigated the influence of different channels and types of prior knowledge on initial peak forces. Participants explored two stimuli (hard vs. Read More

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http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/19.4.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.20DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Visual orientation uncertainty in the rod-and-frame illusion.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):19

Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Estimation of the orientation of the head relative to the earth's vertical is thought to rely on the integration of vestibular and visual cues. The role of visual cues can be tested using a rod-and-frame task in which a global visual scene, typically a square frame, is displayed at different orientations together with a rod whose perceived direction is a proxy for the head-in-space estimate. While it is known that the frame biases this percept, and hence the subjective visual vertical, the possible role of the rod itself in this processing has not been examined. Read More

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http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/19.4.19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.19DOI Listing
April 2019
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Predictive error processing distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant errors after visuomotor learning.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):18

Department of Psychology and Sport Science, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Error processing is an important aspect of learning. The detection and online correction of an error as well as error-based adaptation of subsequent movements enables humans to improve behavior. For this improvement, it is necessary to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant errors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.18DOI Listing

Gap effect and express saccades generation in amblyopia.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):17

Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental vision disorder that is associated with abnormal visual stimulation during early childhood. Although our knowledge regarding spatial vision deficits in amblyopic subjects is well established, the neural control of eye movements in amblyopia is yet to be explored. In the present study we have evaluated the gap effect, and for the first time (to our best knowledge), express saccades generation in amblyopic (strabismic as well as anisometropic) and age-matched control subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.17DOI Listing

Reinforcement reduces the size-latency phenomenon: A cost-benefit evaluation of saccade triggering.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):16

Université de Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, Lille, France.

Saccadic latencies are known to change as a function of target eccentricity and size. Recently, it has been shown that latencies consistently change according to the amplitude of the step in proportion to the size of the target (Madelain, Krauzlis, & Wallman, 2005; Harwood, Madelain, Krauzlis, & Wallman, 2008; De Vries, Azadi, & Harwood, 2016). This effect, called the size-latency phenomenon, might be seen as a function of a cost-benefit relationship: Longer latencies might be explained by the lower benefit of making a saccade while the target mostly remains within the attentional field. Read More

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http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/19.4.16
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.16DOI Listing
April 2019
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Getting "fumpered": Classifying objects by what has been done to them.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):15

Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, General Psychology, Gießen, Germany.

Every object acquires its shape from some kind of generative process, such as manufacture, biological growth, or self-organization, in response to external forces. Inferring such generative processes from an observed shape is computationally challenging because a given process can lead to radically different shapes, and similar shapes can result from different generative processes. Here, we suggest that in some cases, generative processes endow objects with distinctive statistical features that observers can use to classify objects according to what has been done to them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.15DOI Listing

The boundaries of the self: The sense of agency across different sensorimotor aspects.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):14

Gonda Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

The sense of agency (SoA) is the sensation of control over our actions. SoA is thought to rely mainly upon the comparison of predictions regarding the sensory outcomes of one's actions and the actual sensory outcomes. Previous studies have shown that when a discrepancy is introduced between one's actions and the sensory feedback, the reported SoA is reduced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.14DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Ocular tracking of occluded ballistic trajectories: Effects of visual context and of target law of motion.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):13

Department of Systems Medicine, Neuroscience Section, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

In tracking a moving target, the visual context may provide cues for an observer to interpret the causal nature of the target motion and extract features to which the visual system is weakly sensitive, such as target acceleration. This information could be critical when vision of the target is temporarily impeded, requiring visual motion extrapolation processes. Here we investigated how visual context influences ocular tracking of motion either congruent or not with natural gravity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.13DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The time course of different surround suppression mechanisms.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):12

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

What we see depends on the spatial context in which it appears. Previous work has linked the suppression of perceived contrast by surrounding stimuli to reduced neural responses in early visual cortex. This surround suppression depends on at least two separable neural mechanisms, "low-level" and "higher level," which can be differentiated by their response characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464404PMC
April 2019
1 Read

A systematic approach to testing and predicting light-material interactions.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):11

Perceptual Intelligence Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.

Photographers and lighting designers set up lighting environments that best depict objects and human figures to convey key aspects of the visual appearance of various materials, following rules drawn from experience. Understanding which lighting environment is best adapted to convey which key aspects of materials is an important question in the field of human vision. The endless range of natural materials and lighting environments poses a major problem in this respect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.11DOI Listing

Music-reading expertise modulates the visual span for English letters but not Chinese characters.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):10

Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR.

Recent research has suggested that the visual span in stimulus identification can be enlarged through perceptual learning. Since both English and music reading involve left-to-right sequential symbol processing, music-reading experience may enhance symbol identification through perceptual learning particularly in the right visual field (RVF). In contrast, as Chinese can be read in all directions, and components of Chinese characters do not consistently form a left-right structure, this hypothesized RVF enhancement effect may be limited in Chinese character identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.10DOI Listing

Perception of 3D slant from textures with and without aligned spectral components.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

The image of a textured surface provides multiple potential cues that could be used to perceive its 3D structure. When a surface texture has oriented structure, perspective convergence of the oriented components provides a texture cue, in addition to texture scaling and compression. Some findings suggest that oriented spectral components aligned with the direction of slant are important for 3D perception from texture, but this has only been demonstrated in restricted situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.7DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Direction selective habituation of motion adaptation.

Authors:
Xue Dong Min Bao

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Both adaptation and perceptual learning can change how we perceive the visual environment, reflecting the plasticity of the visual system. Our previous work has investigated the interaction between the two aspects of visual plasticity. One of the main findings is that multiple days of repeated motion adaptation attenuates motion aftereffect, which is explained by habituation of motion adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.6DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Two paradigms of bistable plaid motion reveal independent mutual inhibition processes.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Perception is sometimes bistable, switching between two possible interpretations. Levelt developed several propositions to explain bistable perception in binocular rivalry, based on a model of competing neural populations connected through reciprocal inhibition. Here we test Levelt's laws with bistable plaid motion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of spatial attention on spatiotopic visual motion perception.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Department of Psychology, Japan Women's University, Kanagawa, Japan.

We almost never experience visual instability, despite retinal image instability induced by eye movements. How the stability of visual perception is maintained through spatiotopic representation remains a matter of debate. The discrepancies observed in the findings of existing neuroscience studies regarding spatiotopic representation partly originate from differences in regard to how attention is deployed to stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Binocular vision and fixational eye movements.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between binocular vision and fixation stability (FS). Across three experiments, we investigated (a) whether fixation was more stable during binocular versus monocular viewing across a range of stimulus contrasts in normal observers (n = 11), (b) whether binocular rivalry affected FS in normal observers (n = 14), and (c) whether FS was affected by interocular contrast differences in normal observers (n = 8) and patients with anisometropic amblyopia (n = 5). FS was quantified using global bivariate contour ellipse area, and microsaccades were detected using an unsupervised cluster-detection method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.9DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

A computational-observer model of spatial contrast sensitivity: Effects of wave-front-based optics, cone-mosaic structure, and inference engine.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

We present a computational-observer model of the human spatial contrast-sensitivity function based on the Image Systems Engineering Toolbox for Biology (ISETBio) simulation framework. We demonstrate that ISETBio-derived contrast-sensitivity functions agree well with ones derived using traditional ideal-observer approaches, when the mosaic, optics, and inference engine are matched. Further simulations extend earlier work by considering more realistic cone mosaics, more recent measurements of human physiological optics, and the effect of varying the inference engine used to link visual representations to psychophysical performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Motion perception as a model for perceptual aging.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Research on functional changes across the adult lifespan has been dominated by studies related to cognitive processes. However, it has become evident that a more comprehensive approach to behavioral aging is needed. In particular, our understanding of age-related perceptual changes is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.3DOI Listing
April 2019
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The influence of retinal image motion on the perceptual grouping of temporally asynchronous stimuli.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Department of Optometry & Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Briefly presented stimuli can reveal the lower limit of retinal-based perceptual stabilization mechanisms. This is demonstrated in perceptual grouping of temporally asynchronous stimuli, in which alternate row or column elements of a regular grid are presented over two successive display frames with an imperceptible temporal offset. The grouping phenomenon results from a subtle shift between alternate grid elements due to incomplete compensation of small, fixational eye movements occurring between the two presentation frames. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450642PMC
April 2019
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Natural image clutter degrades overt search performance independently of set size.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Although studies of visual search have repeatedly demonstrated that visual clutter impairs search performance in natural scenes, these studies have not attempted to disentangle the effects of search set size from those of clutter per se. Here, we investigate the effect of natural image clutter on performance in an overt search for categorical targets when the search set size is controlled. Observers completed a search task that required detecting and localizing common objects in a set of natural images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.1DOI Listing

Reading with letter transpositions in central and peripheral vision.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):17

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

We used a letter transposition (LT) technique to investigate letter position coding during reading in central and peripheral vision. Eighteen subjects read aloud sentences in a rapid serial visual presentation task. The tests contained a baseline and three LT conditions with initial, internal, and final transpositions (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440549PMC

Discriminative control of saccade latencies.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):16

Université de Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, Lille, France.

Recent studies have demonstrated that saccadic reaction times (SRTs) are influenced by the temporal regularities of dynamic environments (Vullings & Madelain, 2018). Here, we ask whether discriminative control (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.16DOI Listing

Illumination discrimination for chromatically biased illuminations: Implications for color constancy.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):15

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

We measured discrimination thresholds for illumination changes along different chromatic directions starting from chromatically biased reference illuminations. Participants viewed a Mondrian-papered scene illuminated by LED lamps. The scene was first illuminated by a reference illumination, followed by two comparisons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440550PMC

Free-choice saccades and their underlying determinants: Explorations of high-level voluntary oculomotor control.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):14

Würzburg University, Würzburg, Germany.

Models of eye-movement control distinguish between different control levels, ranging from automatic (bottom-up, stimulus-driven selection) and automatized (based on well-learned routines) to voluntary (top-down, goal-driven selection, e.g., based on instructions). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.14DOI Listing

Directional biases for blink adaptation in voluntary and reflexive eye blinks.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):13

School of Social Sciences, Psychology Programme, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

The oculomotor system is subject to noise, and adaptive processes compensate for consistent errors in gaze targeting. Recent evidence suggests that positional errors induced by eye blinks are also corrected by an adaptive process: When a fixation target is displaced during repeated blinks, subsequent blinks are accompanied by an automatic compensating eye movement anticipating the updated target location after the blink. Here, we further tested the extent of this "blink adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.13DOI Listing

Pathway-specific light adaptation in human electroretinograms.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):12

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

The cellular origins of slow ERG changes during light adaptation following a dark-adapted state are still unclear. To study light adaptation, six healthy, normal trichromats were dark-adapted for 30 min prior to full-field ERG recordings to sinusoidal stimuli that isolate responses of the L- or M-cones or that stimulate luminance and chromatic mechanisms at 12 or 36 Hz. Recordings were performed for 16 min with 2-min intervals after onset of a constant background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.12DOI Listing

Reevaluating hMT+ and hV4 functional specialization for motion and static contrast using fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):11

McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Although visual areas hMT+ and hV4 are considered to have segregated functions for the processing of motion and form within dorsal and ventral streams, respectively, more recent evidence favors some functional overlap. Here we use fMRI-guided online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test two associated hypotheses: that area hV4 is causally involved in the perception of motion and hMT+ in the perception of static form. We use variations of a common global stimulus to test two dynamic motion-based tasks and two static form-based tasks in ipsilateral and contralateral visual fields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.11DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Reward expectation facilitates context learning and attentional guidance in visual search.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3):10

Cognitive Neuroscience of Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Modulations of visual attention due to expectation of reward were frequently reported in recent years. Recent studies revealed that reward can modulate the implicit learning of repeated context configurations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.10DOI Listing

Processing speed in perceptual visual crowding.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Vestibular and Ocular Motor Research Group, Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

In this study, a perceptual visual crowding paradigm was designed to quantitatively assess the detection speed of (un)crowded meaningful visual targets using eye-movement responses. This paradigm was tested in individuals with dyslexia and age-matched controls. Trials were shown on a monitor with an integrated eye tracker to 25 control and 11 dyslexic subjects without any known ocular problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.9DOI Listing

Recall of facial expressions and simple orientations reveals competition for resources at multiple levels of the visual hierarchy.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Many studies of visual working memory have tested humans' ability to reproduce primary visual features of simple objects, such as the orientation of a grating or the hue of a color patch, following a delay. A consistent finding of such studies is that precision of responses declines as the number of items in memory increases. Here we compared visual working memory for primary features and high-level objects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432740PMC

Understanding gloss perception through the lens of art: Combining perception, image analysis, and painting recipes of 17th century painted grapes.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Perceptual Intelligence Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.

To understand the key image features that we use to infer the glossiness of materials, we analyzed the pictorial shortcuts used by 17th century painters to imitate the optical phenomenon of specular reflections when depicting grapes. Gloss perception of painted grapes was determined via a rating experiment. We computed the contrast, blurriness, and coverage of the grapes' highlights in the paintings' images, inspired by Marlow and Anderson (2013). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.7DOI Listing

Corrections.

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J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.6DOI Listing

Perceptual reversals in binocular rivalry: Improved detection from OKN.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Institute of Biology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

When binocular rivalry is induced by opponent motion displays, perceptual reversals are often associated with changed oculomotor behavior (Frässle, Sommer, Jansen, Naber, & Einhäuser, 2014; Fujiwara et al., 2017). Specifically, the direction of smooth pursuit phases in optokinetic nystagmus typically corresponds to the direction of motion that dominates perceptual appearance at any given time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.5DOI Listing

Time dilation effect in an active observer and virtual environment requires apparent motion: No dilation for retinal- or world-motion alone.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

It is known that moving visual stimuli are perceived to last longer than stationary stimuli with the same physical duration (Kanai, Paffen, Hogendoorn, & Verstraten, 2006), and that motor actions (Tomassini & Morrone, 2016) and eye movements (Morrone, Ross, & Burr, 2005) can alter perceived duration. In the present work, we investigated the contributions of stimulus motion and self-motion to perceived duration while observers stood or walked in a virtual reality environment. Using a visual temporal reproduction task, we independently manipulated both the participants' motion (stationary or walking) and the stimulus motion (retinal stationary, real-world stationary and negative double velocity). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.4DOI Listing

How can observers use perceived size? Centroid versus mean-size judgments.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

statistical representations are aggregate properties of the environment that are presumed to be perceived automatically and preattentively. We investigated two tasks presumed to involve these representations: judgments of the centroid of a set of spatially arrayed items and judgments of the mean size of the items in the array. The question we ask is: When similar information is required for both tasks, do observers use it with equal postfilter efficiency (Sun, Chubb, Wright, & Sperling, 2016)? We find that, according to instructions, observers can either efficiently utilize item size in making centroid judgments or ignore it almost completely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.3DOI Listing

Contributions of binocular and monocular cues to motion-in-depth perception.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Intercepting and avoiding moving objects requires accurate motion-in-depth (MID) perception. Such motion can be estimated based on both binocular and monocular cues. Because previous studies largely characterized sensitivity to these cues individually, their relative contributions to MID perception remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402382PMC

Disentangling bottom-up versus top-down and low-level versus high-level influences on eye movements over time.

J Vis 2019 Mar;19(3)

Neural Information Processing Group, Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Bottom-up and top-down as well as low-level and high-level factors influence where we fixate when viewing natural scenes. However, the importance of each of these factors and how they interact remains a matter of debate. Here, we disentangle these factors by analyzing their influence over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.3.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Adaptive allocation of human visual working memory capacity during statistical and categorical learning.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2):11

Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Human brains are finite, and thus have bounded capacity. An efficient strategy for a capacity-limited agent is to continuously adapt by dynamically reallocating capacity in a task-dependent manner. Here we study this strategy in the context of visual working memory (VWM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.11DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Statistics of natural images as a function of dynamic range.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2):13

Department of Information and Communications Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

The statistics of real world images have been extensively investigated, but in virtually all cases using only low dynamic range image databases. The few studies that have considered high dynamic range (HDR) images have performed statistical analyses categorizing images as HDR according to their creation technique, and not to the actual dynamic range of the underlying scene. In this study we demonstrate, using a recent HDR dataset of natural images, that the statistics of the image as received at the camera sensor change dramatically with dynamic range, with particularly strong correlations with dynamic range being observed for the median, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis, while the one over frequency relationship for the power spectrum breaks down for images with a very high dynamic range, in practice making HDR images not scale invariant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.13DOI Listing
February 2019

Corrections.

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J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2):12

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.12DOI Listing
February 2019

Corrections.

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J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2):10

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.10DOI Listing
February 2019

Predictions as a window into learning: Anticipatory fixation offsets carry more information about environmental statistics than reactive stimulus-responses.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Center for Mind/Brain Sciences (CIMeC), The University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

A core question underlying neurobiological and computational models of behavior is how individuals learn environmental statistics and use them to make predictions. Most investigations of this issue have relied on reactive paradigms, in which inferences about predictive processes are derived by modeling responses to stimuli that vary in likelihood. Here we deployed a novel anticipatory oculomotor metric to determine how input statistics impact anticipatory behavior that is decoupled from target-driven-response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.8DOI Listing
February 2019

The mixed-polarity benefit of stereopsis arises in early visual cortex.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Depth perception is better when observers view stimuli containing a mixture of bright and dark visual features. It is currently unclear where in the visual system sensory processing benefits from the availability of different contrast polarity. To address this question, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation to the visual cortex to modulate normal neural activity during processing of single- or mixed-polarity random-dot stereograms. Read More

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http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/19.2.9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380879PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Scotopic contour and shape discrimination using radial frequency patterns.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Radial frequency (RF) patterns are valuable tools for investigations of contour integration and shape discrimination. Under photopic conditions, healthy observers can detect deformations from circularity in RF patterns as small as 3 seconds of arc. Such fine discrimination may be facilitated by cortical curvature detectors or global shape-detecting mechanisms that favor a closed contour. Read More

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http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/19.2.7
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372011PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Scene categorization in the presence of a distractor.

Authors:
Jirí Lukavský

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Humans display a very good understanding of the content in briefly presented photographs. To achieve this understanding, humans rely on information from both high-acuity central vision and peripheral vision. Previous studies have investigated the relative contribution of central and peripheral vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.6DOI Listing
February 2019

Decoding go/no-go decisions from eye movements.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Neural activity in brain areas involved in the planning and execution of eye movements predicts the outcome of an upcoming perceptual decision. Many real-world decisions, such as whether to swing at a baseball pitch, are accompanied by characteristic eye-movement behavior. Here we ask whether human eye-movement kinematics can sensitively predict decision outcomes in a go/no-go task requiring rapid interceptive hand movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.5DOI Listing
February 2019

Visual communication of how fabrics feel.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Department of Psychology, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Although product photos and movies are abundantly present in online shopping environments, little is known about how much of the real product experience they capture. While previous studies have shown that movies or interactive imagery give users the impression that these communication forms are more effective, there are no studies addressing this issue quantitatively. We used nine different samples of jeans, because in general fabrics represent a large and interesting product category and specifically because jeans can visually be rather similar while haptically be rather different. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.4DOI Listing
February 2019

When predictions fail: Correction for extrapolation in the flash-grab effect.

J Vis 2019 Feb;19(2)

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Motion-induced position shifts constitute a broad class of visual illusions in which motion and position signals interact in the human visual pathway. In such illusions, the presence of visual motion distorts the perceived positions of objects in nearby space. Predictive mechanisms, which could contribute to compensating for processing delays due to neural transmission, have been given as an explanation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.2.3DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read