234,707 results match your criteria Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination [Journal]


Immunogenicity characterization of genetically fused or chemically conjugated heat-stable toxin (STa) toxoids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in mice and pigs.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing type Ib heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea, thus STa needs to be targeted in ETEC vaccine development. However, since this 19-amino acid STa is poorly immunogenic, the effort to genetically fuse or chemically couple to carrier proteins has been made to enhance STa immunogenicity. In this study, we selected one genetic fusion and one chemical conjugate to comparatively evaluate STa immunogenicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz037DOI Listing
February 2019

VaccHemInf project: protocol for a prospective cohort study of efficacy, safety and characterisation of immune functional response to vaccinations in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e026093. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Département des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Introduction: Immune reconstitution after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a complex and dynamic process, varying from a state of nearly complete immunosuppression to an expected full immune recovery. Specific vaccination guidelines recommend reimmunisation after HSCT but data regarding vaccine efficacy in this unique population are scarce. New immune functional assays could enable prediction of vaccine response in the setting of HSCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026093DOI Listing
February 2019

Protection against fatal pneumonia through mucosal and subcutaneous immunization with the pneumococcal SP0148 protein.

Microb Pathog 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, 563003, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with very high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Vaccines are an effective measure for the reduction of S. pneumoniae infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.02.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Single-Cell Analysis of Diverse Pathogen Responses Defines a Molecular Roadmap for Generating Antigen-Specific Immunity.

Cell Syst 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

The immune system generates pathogen-tailored responses. The precise innate immune cell types and pathways that direct robust adaptive immune responses have not been fully characterized. By using fluorescent pathogens combined with massively parallel single-cell RNA-seq, we comprehensively characterized the initial 48 h of the innate immune response to diverse pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Development of a PPRV challenge model in goats and its use to assess the efficacy of a PPR vaccine.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe disease of small ruminants and has high economic impacts in developing countries. Endemic in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, the disease is currently progressing with occurrences reported in North Africa, Turkey and in Georgia, and now threatens Europe. Much remains unknown about the infection dynamics, the virulence of the different strains and species/breed susceptibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.057DOI Listing
February 2019

Age-related immunogenicity and reactogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

PaxVax, Inc., 555 Twin Dolphin Drive, Ste. 360, Redwood City, CA 94065 USA.

Aging is accompanied by a decline in immune function which can lead to decreased responses to vaccines. Attenuated recombinant Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits a rapid serum vibriocidal antibody (SVA) response and protects against cholera diarrhea in volunteer challenge studies but has not been studied in older adults. We evaluated CVD 103-HgR (PXVX0200) in adults age 46-64, compared them to previously studied adults age 18-45, and studied age-related immunogenicity across adults 18-64 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.077DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in an urban setting in southern India.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

Introduction: Haemophilus influenzae type b was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in infants and children below the age of two years prior to the introduction of H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. In December 2011, the Indian government introduced H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.080DOI Listing
February 2019

Optimization of a multivalent peptide vaccine for nicotine addiction.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

TRIA Bioscience Corp, Suite 260, 1616 Eastlake Ave East, Seattle, WA 98102 USA. Electronic address:

We have been optimizing the design of a conjugate vaccine for nicotine addiction that employs a peptide-based hapten carrier. This peptide, which is produced by solid-phase protein synthesis, contains B cell and T cell epitope domains and eliminates the non-relevant, but highly immunogenic sequences in microbial carriers. In this report, the amino acid sequences in the T cell domain were optimized for improved vaccine activity and multivalent formulations containing structurally distinct haptens were tested for the induction of additive antibody responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Acute pain responses in dairy calves undergoing cornual nerve blocks with or without topical anesthetic.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Animal Welfare, Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616. Electronic address:

Dairy calves are routinely administered medicines, vaccines, and anesthesia via injection. Although injections are painful, little is known about methods to alleviate this pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether lidocaine-prilocaine cream, a topical anesthetic, reduced calves' pain response to a subcutaneous injection around the cornual nerve. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15445DOI Listing
February 2019

A register-based study on associations between vaccination, antimicrobial use and productivity in conventional Danish finisher pig herds during 2011 to 2014.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Mar 18;164:33-40. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Grønnegårdsvej 8, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Agro Food Park 13, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in pigs is a priority to counteract development of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human pathogens. However, there is concern that Danish pig producers complying with official AMU restrictions might experience reduced herd health and productivity in the future, if alternative strategies are not available. Vaccination has been suggested as a strategy to prevent disease and minimise the need for antimicrobial treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.01.007DOI Listing

Human Papillomavirus Infection in Senegalese Female Sex Workers.

Papillomavirus Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Bacteriology-Virology Laboratory, CHU Aristide le Dantec, Dakar, Senegal.

Objectives: Several studies have documented the HPV genotypes in the Senegalese general population. The objective was to explore the HPV genotype distribution in Senegalese FSWs in order to assess the potential relevance of currently-available vaccines.

Methods: Vaginal swabs samples collected as part of the National Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey in 14 regions throughout the country were randomly selected for HPV testing using bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pvr.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Zika virus envelope protein.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The recent emergence of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, in the Americas has shed light on the severe neurological diseases associated with infection, notably congenital microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Despite the recent focus on Zika virus, there are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral therapies available to treat or prevent infection. In this study we established a competitive amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHAscreen) to identify small molecule inhibitors targeting the envelope protein of Zika virus (Zika E). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
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HTLV prevalence is no longer following the decreasing HIV prevalence - 20 years of retroviral surveillance in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

Acta Trop 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau; Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

Background: The HIV-2 and HTLV-1 prevalences in Bissau have followed similar trends in surveys from 1996 and 2006 with HTLV-1 prevalences of 3.6% and 2.3%, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of improved water, sanitation and hygiene on oral rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in Zimbabwean infants: sub-study of a cluster-randomized trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Zvitambo Institute for Maternal and Child Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Oral vaccines have lower efficacy in developing compared to developed countries. Poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may contribute to reduced oral vaccine immunogenicity.

Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized 2x2 factorial trial in rural Zimbabwe (NCT01824940). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz140DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Dose Finding Study of a Wild-Type Influenza A/H3N2 virus in a Healthy Volunteer Human Challenge Model.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

LID Clinical Studies Unit, Viral Pathogenesis and Evolution Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: The development of vaccines and therapeutics have relied on healthy volunteer influenza challenge studies. A validated human infection model with wild-type A(H1N1)pdm09 was reported previously.

Objective: To characterize a wild-type Influenza A/Bethesda/MM1/H3N2 challenge virus in healthy volunteers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz141DOI Listing
February 2019

Changes in otitis media episodes and pressure equalization tube insertions among young children following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: A birth-cohort based study.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Introduction: The impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction on the occurrence of first and subsequent otitis media (OM) episodes in early childhood is unclear. We compared the risk of OM episodes among children age <2 years before and after PCV13 introduction accounting for the dependence between OM episodes.

Methods: We identified consecutive annual (July-June) cohorts of Tennessee Medicaid-enrolled children (2006-2014) from birth through age two years. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz142DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

A Validation study of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test as an end-product endotoxin test for Polyvalent Horse Snake Antivenom.

PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Snake antivenoms are the only definitive management of snake envenoming's. Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs. A greater understanding of the nature of LAL-Test interferences and the use permissible dilutions has minimized enhancement problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5731/pdajpst.2018.009522DOI Listing
February 2019

Folate-targeted immunotherapies: Passive and active strategies for cancer.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA. Electronic address:

The glycoprotein FRα is a membrane-attached transport protein that is shielded from the immune system in healthy cells. However, it is upregulated in various malignancies, involved in cancer development and is also immunogenic. Furthermore, FRα is a tumor-associated antigen endowed with unique properties, thus rendering it a suitable target for immunotherapeutic development in cancer. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13596101193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Self-Amplifying RNA Vaccines for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induce Robust Protective Immunogenicity in Mice.

Mol Ther 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

GSK, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Electronic address:

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a known biological defense threat. A live-attenuated investigational vaccine, TC-83, is available, but it has a high non-response rate and can also cause severe reactogenicity. We generated two novel VEE vaccine candidates using self-amplifying mRNA (SAM). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15250016193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.12.013DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Immunogenicity and protective potential of Bordetella pertussis biofilm and its associated antigens in a murine model.

Cell Immunol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia; Department of Microbiology, Pathwest Laboratory Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, Australia. Electronic address:

The resurgence of whooping cough reflects novel genetic variants of Bordetella pertussis and inadequate protection conferred by current acellular vaccines (aP). Biofilm is a source of novel vaccine candidates, including membrane protein assembly factor (BamB) and lipopolysaccharide assembly protein (LptD). Responses of BALB/c mice to candidate vaccines included IFN-γ and IL-17a production by spleen and lymph node cells, and serum IgG1 and IgG2a reactive with whole bacteria or aP. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00088749183046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Comparison of Immune Responses to Different Versions of VLP Associated Stabilized RSV Pre-Fusion F Protein.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Efforts to develop a vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have primarily focused on the RSV fusion protein. The pre-fusion conformation of this protein induces the most potent neutralizing antibodies and is the focus of recent efforts in vaccine development. Following the first identification of mutations in the RSV F protein (DS-Cav1 mutant protein) that stabilized the pre-fusion conformation, other mutant stabilized pre-fusion F proteins have been described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010021DOI Listing
February 2019

Adherence and Concordance of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination Coverage in Pregnant Women in Spain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Feb 14;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Unidad Mixta de Investigación para el Análisis de las Desigualdades en Salud y la Mortalidad FISABIO-UA, Departament of Community Health, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and Science's History, University of Alicante, Carretera de San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, 03690 Alicante, Spain.

: Pregnant women should receive two vaccines during pregnancy due to maternal-foetal complications and risks as well as the influenza and pertussis vaccinations. The goal was to evaluate vaccination coverage against influenza and pertussis in pregnant women, following midwife professional advice during the pregnancy follow-up; : Prospective cohort study of 1017 pregnancies during the vaccination campaign in 2015⁻2016. To estimate the degree of consistency between the coverage declared by mothers and that registered in the Nominal Vaccination Registry (NVR), we used the Cohen's kappa index (k); : 95. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040543DOI Listing
February 2019

Rapid assessment of enhanced safety surveillance for influenza vaccine.

Public Health 2019 Feb 12;168:137-141. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Dirección General de Salud Pública, Conselleria de Sanidad Universal y Salud Pública, Valencia, Spain.

Objectives: The enhanced safety surveillance for seasonal influenza vaccines established by the European Medicines Agency is required each season. Therefore, a registry capable of rapidly detecting and evaluating potential new safety concerns is needed. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vaccine information system of the Valencia region to make a rapid assessment of the influenza vaccine safety and describe the safety of the two vaccine types used in the 2017/2018 season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.12.013DOI Listing
February 2019

Peptide vaccines in early breast cancer.

Breast 2019 Feb 7;44:128-134. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan Italy; University of Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The immune system plays a dual role of host-protecting and tumor-promoting, as elegantly expressed by the 'cancer immunoediting' hypothesis. Although breast cancer has not been traditionally considered to be immunogenic, recently there is accumulating and solid evidence on the association between immune system and breast cancer. To mount an effective anti-tumor response, host immunosurveillance must recognize tumor-specific epitopes, thus defining the antigenicity of a tumor. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09609776193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

[Lectins and glycoconjugates in presentation of antigens and protection against patogens.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(10):619-625

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology & Microbiology, Moscow, Russia.

The current data on using lectin receptors and glycoconjugates (GC) in study of pathways of intercellular communications within innate immunity network coupled to adaptive immunity wеre overviewed and systematized. A superfamily of GC-specific C-type lectin receptors (CLR), as a constituent of pattern recognizing receptors (PRR), involves in immunity to produce redistribution of groups of cytokines, chemokines and specific antibodies. CLR on surface of multiple subpopulations of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and other cells of immunity are under consideration (monocyte derived macrophages, macrophages, immature and mature dendritic cells, other myeloid cells, neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2018-63-10-619-625DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Higher levels of B-cell mutation in the early germinal centres of an inefficient secondary antibody response to a variant Influenza Haemagglutinin.

Immunology 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.

Designing improved vaccines against mutable viruses such as Dengue and Influenza would be helped by a better understanding of how the B-cell memory compartment responds to variant antigens. Towards this we have recently shown after secondary immunization of mice with a widely variant Dengue envelope protein, with only 63% amino-acid identity, that IgM+ memory B-cells with few mutations supported an efficient secondary germinal centre (GC) and serum response, superior to a primary response to the same protein. Here, further investigation of memory responses to variant proteins, using more closely related Influenza haemagglutinins (HA), that were 82% identical, produced a variant-induced boost response in the GC dominated by highly mutated B-cells that failed, not efficiently improving serum avidity even in the presence of extra adjuvant, and that was worse than a primary response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13052DOI Listing
February 2019

HPV vaccination in Japan: what is happening in Japan?

Expert Rev Vaccines 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

a Deptartent of Gynecology, Tama-Hokubu Medical Center , Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation , Higashimurayama, Tokyo , Japan.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14760584.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1584040DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The Content of CpG-DNA in Antigen-CpG Conjugate Vaccines Determines Their Cross-Presentation Activity.

Bioconjug Chem 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Cross-presentation, the process that facilitates display of exogenous antigens on MHC-I molecules, is a crucial step in the cascade of CD8 T cell activation. Potentiation of cross-presentation therefore represents an essential design criterion for development of subunit vaccines that target the induction of CD8 T cell immunity. Covalent conjugation of CpG-DNA to antigenic proteins has shown the potential to promote cross-presentation and has attracted great interest as a promising approach for vaccine development. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.9b00091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.9b00091DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A walk through tau therapeutic strategies.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 Feb 15;7(1):22. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

AXON Neuroscience R&D Services SE, Dvorakovo nabrezie 10, 811 02, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Tau neuronal and glial pathologies drive the clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease and related human tauopathies. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pathological tau species can travel from cell to cell and spread the pathology through the brain. Throughout the last decade, physiological and pathological tau have become attractive targets for AD therapies. Read More

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https://actaneurocomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0664-zDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Iatrogenic CNS demyelination in the era of modern biologics.

Mult Scler 2019 Feb 15:1352458519828601. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Program, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The number of reported cases of iatrogenic demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) is on the rise. This is, in part, related to the recent expansion in the use of biologics. Review of literature from the past decade suggests that in addition to vaccines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors are the most frequently cited inducers of central inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519828601DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Subunit-based mucosal vaccine delivery systems for pulmonary delivery - Are they feasible?

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2019 Feb 15:1-26. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

a School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of medicine , The University of Queensland , St Lucia , 4072 , Australia.

Pulmonary infections the most common cause of death globally. However, the development of mucosal vaccines that provide protective immunity against respiratory pathogens are limited. In contrast to needle-based vaccines, efficient vaccines that are delivered via non-invasive mucosal routes (such as via the lungs and nasal passage) produce both antigen-specific local mucosal IgA and systemic IgG protective antibodies. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03639045.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2019.1583758DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Introduction of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in Africa and Asia.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S27-S30

PATH, Seattle, Washington.

Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health concern, particularly in many low- and middle-income countries. The current threats of increasing antimicrobial resistance, urbanization, and climate change elevate the urgency for better prevention and control efforts for typhoid fever. In 2017, the results of ground-breaking research on typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), the World Health Organization prequalification of a TCV, and global policy and financing decisions have set the stage for the introduction of TCVs into routine immunization programs in endemic countries. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S27/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy878DOI Listing
February 2019
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Multidrug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Hotspots as Targets for Vaccine Use in Management of Infections in Endemic Settings.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S10-S15

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Salmonella infections cause a disproportionately high number of deaths in Africa, especially among poor urban populations. The increasing level of multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections is a major cause of concern in these settings where alternative effective treatment is unavailable. Other options for management of these infections must be sought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy898DOI Listing
February 2019

Overview of the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Pipeline: Current Status and Future Plans.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S22-S26

International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Typhoid fever remains a common and serious disease in populations that live in low- and middle-income countries. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug-resistant strains have been increasing in endemic countries, making treatment prolonged and costly. Improved sanitation and food hygiene have been effective in controlling the disease in the industrialized world, but these steps are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most of the affected areas. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S22/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy884DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Revised Global Typhoid Vaccination Policy.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S31-S33

Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Typhoid fever is a continuing public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries; however, routine vaccination as a recommended control strategy has not been implemented in the past in most countries. Greater understanding of the typhoid fever burden, the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance, and licensure of a new generation of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) were instrumental in paving the way for the World Health Organization (WHO) to issue a revised global policy on typhoid vaccines in March 2018. The new policy follows evidence-based recommendations by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization for routine and catch-up vaccination with TCVs and highlights considerations for universal, risk-based, or phased vaccination strategies in different settings. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S31/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy927DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Progress in Typhoid Fever Epidemiology.

Authors:
John A Crump

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S4-S9

Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever and a human host-restricted organism. Our understanding of the global burden of typhoid fever has improved in recent decades, with both an increase in the number and geographic representation of high-quality typhoid fever incidence studies, and greater sophistication of modeling approaches. The 2017 World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommendation for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines for infants and children aged >6 months in typhoid-endemic countries is likely to require further improvements in our understanding of typhoid burden at the global and national levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy846DOI Listing
February 2019

A Global Agenda for Typhoid Control-A Perspective from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S42-S45

Enteric and Diarrheal Diseases, Global Health, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington.

Recognizing that enteric fever disproportionately affects the poorest and the most vulnerable communities that have limited access to improved sanitation, safe water sources, and optimal medical care, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has funded efforts to augment global understanding of the disease since the foundation's inception. At the turn of the century, early efforts focused on characterizing the burden of disease in Asia and evaluating use of the available Vi-polysaccharide vaccines through the Diseases of the Most Impoverished projects at the International Vaccine Institute (IVI). More recent efforts have centered on supporting development of typhoid conjugate vaccines and expanding disease surveillance efforts into Africa, as well as generating a greater understanding of the clinical severity and sequelae of enteric fever in Africa, Asia, and India. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S42/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy928DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Towards a Strategy for Reducing Missed Opportunities for Vaccination in Malawi: Implications of a Qualitative Health Facility Assessment.

J Immunol Sci 2018 Jul;Suppl(7):46-54

WHO/AFRO, Brazzaville, Congo.

Background: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOVs), estimated to be about 32-47% of child healthcare clinic visits in various settings globally, contribute to unfulfilled childhood vaccination coverage targets in the African region.

Objective: We assessed the extent of MOVs, identify local drivers and test interventions to reduce MOVs in Malawi.

Methods: We conducted in-depth and key informant interviews with administrators of district hospitals and officers in charge of community health facilities. Read More

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Introduction of the Second Dose of Measles Containing Vaccine in the Childhood Vaccination Programs Within the WHO Africa Region - Lessons Learnt.

J Immunol Sci 2018 Jul;Suppl:113-121

WHO Inter-country Support Team for Western Africa. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Background: WHO recommends all countries to include a second routine dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV2) in their national routine vaccination schedules regardless of the level of coverage with the first routine dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV1). As of Dec 2016, 26 countries in the African Region have introduced MCV2.

Methods: We reviewed the WHO UNICEF coverage estimates for MCV1 and MCV2 in these countries, and the reports of the post introduction evaluation of MCV2 from 11 countries. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Different Life Cycle Stages of Induce Contrasting Responses in Dendritic Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 31;10:32. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Dendritic cells are key linkers of innate and adaptive immunity. Efficient dendritic cell activation is central to the acquisition of immunity and the efficacy of vaccines. Understanding how dendritic cells are affected by blood-stage parasites will help to understand how immunity is acquired and maintained, and how vaccine responses may be impacted by malaria infection or exposure. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365426PMC
January 2019
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Seventy Years of Vaccine Research - Limitations of the Past and Directions for the Future.

Front Microbiol 2019 31;10:70. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Genecology Research Centre, The University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia.

is a major bacterial pathogen that infects humans, as well as a wide range of animals, including marsupials, birds, cats, pigs, cattle, and sheep. Antibiotics are the only treatment currently available, however, with high rates of re-infection, there is mounting pressure to develop vaccines. In this review, we analyzed how vaccine trials have developed over the past 70 years and identified where future trials need to be focused. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00070
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365973PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Diversity within the adenovirus fiber knob hypervariable loops influences primary receptor interactions.

Nat Commun 2019 Feb 14;10(1):741. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK.

Adenovirus based vectors are of increasing importance for wide ranging therapeutic applications. As vaccines, vectors derived from human adenovirus species D serotypes 26 and 48 (HAdV-D26/48) are demonstrating promising efficacy as protective platforms against infectious diseases. Significant clinical progress has been made, yet definitive studies underpinning mechanisms of entry, infection, and receptor usage are currently lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08599-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Parallel adaptation of rabbit populations to myxoma virus.

Science 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK.

In the 1950s the myxoma virus was released into European rabbit populations in Australia and Europe, decimating populations and resulting in the rapid evolution of resistance. We investigated the genetic basis of resistance by comparing the exomes of rabbits collected before and after the pandemic. We found a strong pattern of parallel evolution, with selection on standing genetic variation favoring the same alleles in Australia, France and the United Kingdom. Read More

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http://www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aau7285
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aau7285DOI Listing
February 2019
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Protection against varicella with two doses of combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine or one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine: 10-year follow-up of a phase 3 multicentre, observer-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

University of Defence, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Department of Social Medicine, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Background: The duration of protection provided by varicella vaccines is unclear. We assessed the 10-year vaccine efficacy of two doses of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV), one live attenuated varicella vaccine (V) dose given after one measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) dose (MMR + V), versus two MMR doses (control vaccine) for the prevention of confirmed varicella.

Methods: This was a phase 3b follow-up of an observer-blinded, randomised, controlled trial. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14733099183071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30716-3DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Early disappearance of maternal anti-measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella antibodies in Indian infants.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed To Be University), Pune, India. Electronic address:

Background: Immunization of children with vaccines against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) is practiced globally with varied recommendations. In India, measles vaccine is administered alone or as MMR at 9 months age. Varicella vaccine is not routinely used. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.043DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Factors affecting parental intention to vaccinate kindergarten children against influenza: A cross-sectional survey in China.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China; Key Laboratory of Health Technology Assessment of Fujian Province, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, China. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of influenza in children under 5 can be severe and fatal. However, the influenza vaccination uptake in China remains suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to investigate parents' perceptions on influenza vaccination and to assess vaccination promotional factors. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.071DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Inactivated or damaged? Comparing the effect of inactivation methods on influenza virions to optimize vaccine production.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The vast majority of commercially available inactivated influenza vaccines are produced from egg-grown or cell-grown live influenza virus. The first step in the production process is virus inactivation with β-propiolactone (BPL) or formaldehyde (FA). Recommendations for production of inactivated vaccines merely define the maximal concentration for both reagents, leaving the optimization of the process to the manufacturers. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.086DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Poly-specific neoantigen-targeted cancer vaccines delay patient derived tumor growth.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2019 Feb 14;38(1):78. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Takis, Rome, Italy.

Background: Personalized cancer vaccines based on neoantigens have reached the clinical trial stage in melanoma. Different vaccination protocols showed efficacy in preclinical models without a clear indication of the quality and the number of neoantigens required for an effective cancer vaccine.

Methods: In an effort to develop potent and efficacious neoantigen-based vaccines, we have developed different neoantigen minigene (NAM) vaccine vectors to determine the rules for a successful neoantigen cancer vaccine (NCV) delivered by plasmid DNA and electroporation. Read More

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https://jeccr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13046-019-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-019-1084-4DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Comparison of influenza disease burden in older populations of Hong Kong and Brisbane: the impact of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14;19(1):162. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in the older population aged 65 years or over of Hong Kong dramatically increased since the 2003 SARS outbreak. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of increased coverage of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines by comparing the change of disease burden in the older population of Hong Kong, with the burden in the older population of Brisbane with relatively high vaccine coverage in the past fifteen years.

Methods: Time series segmented regression models were applied to weekly numbers of cause-specific mortality or hospitalization of Hong Kong and Brisbane. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3735-7DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
2.613 Impact Factor

Effective Immunotherapy of Glioblastoma in an Adolescent with Constitutional Mismatch Repair-Deficiency Syndrome.

Klin Onkol 2019 ;32(1):70-74

Background: Individuals with constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D) are characterised by early occurrence of colon cancer, haematological malignancies, and brain tumors (malignant gliomas, high-grade gliomas) in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. High mutational tumor burden is typical of glioblastoma in CMMR-D patients and could be a reason why this type of glioblastoma responds well to immunotherapies, including those that employ checkpoint inhibitors.

Observation: We describe a case of an adolescent with CMMR-D that had been genetically proven by whole exome sequencing (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14735/amko201970DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read