1,799 results match your criteria Journal of Thoracic Imaging [Journal]


Thoracic Manifestations of Genitourinary Neoplasms and Treatment-related Complications.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):W36-W48

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Genitourinary (GU) malignancies are a diverse group of common and uncommon neoplasms that may be associated with significant mortality. Metastases from GU neoplasms are frequently encountered in the chest, and virtually all thoracic structures can be involved. Although the most common imaging manifestations include hematogenous dissemination manifesting with peripheral predominant bilateral pulmonary nodules and lymphatic metastases manifesting with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, some GU malignancies exhibit unique features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000382DOI Listing

Machine Learning and Deep Neural Networks in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):192-201

Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego.

Advances in technology have always had the potential and opportunity to shape the practice of medicine, and in no medical specialty has technology been more rapidly embraced and adopted than radiology. Machine learning and deep neural networks promise to transform the practice of medicine, and, in particular, the practice of diagnostic radiology. These technologies are evolving at a rapid pace due to innovations in computational hardware and novel neural network architectures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000385DOI Listing

Overdiagnosis: "A Malformed Concept".

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):151-153

Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000408DOI Listing

Radiographic Manifestations of Diffuse Pulmonary Alveolar Derecruitment.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven.

Pulmonary alveolar derecruitment is a process of alveolar collapse that occurs in critically ill patients. While the entity and its physiological manifestations are described in the anesthesiology and critical care literature, the radiographic manifestations of alveolar derecruitment have not yet been thoroughly described. This phenomenon can have a similar appearance to pulmonary edema; however, patients often have severe intravascular volume depletion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000414DOI Listing

Dual-Source Computed Tomography of the Chest in Blunt Thoracic Trauma: Reduced Aortic Motion Using a Novel Temporal Resolution Optimization Method.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of temporal resolution optimization (TR-Opt), a computed tomography (CT) postprocessing technique, in reducing aortic motion artifacts in blunt thoracic trauma patients.

Materials And Methods: This was an IRB-approved study of 61 patients with blunt thoracic trauma carried out between February 18 and September 6, 2014; the patients had been imaged using a standardized dual-source high-pitch (DSHP) CT protocol. Image raw data were retrospectively postprocessed using the TR-Opt algorithm (DSHP-TR-Opt) and compared with conventional images (DSHP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000412DOI Listing

Tumor Volume Analysis as a Predictive Marker for Prolonged Survival in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-rearranged Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Crizotinib.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Departments of Radiology.

Purpose: Targeted inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been widely used for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ALK rearrangements. We performed tumor volume analysis of ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC treated with crizotinib to identify an early predictive marker for prolonged survival.

Materials And Methods: Cases of 42 patients with ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC (16 men, 26 women; median age: 55. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000413DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Extent of Intraprotocol and Intersite Variability of Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Acquisition Times at a Large Quaternary Institution: MR Technologist Insights as to Its Causes.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Institute for Technology Assessment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe Thoracic magnetic resonance (MR) acquisition time (AT) variability, associations, and technologist insights as to its causes at a large quaternary institution, by MR protocol and imaging site.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of our 2017 QI database of 1.5 T MR imaging ATs for adults 19 years and above at the main hospital and outpatient (OPT) satellites was performed for all 5 Thoracic MR protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000411DOI Listing

Identification of Nonaggressive Pulmonary Nodules Using an Optimized Scoring System.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):170-178

National Jewish Health, Denver, CO.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to define the optimal scoring method for identifying benign intrapulmonary lymph nodes.

Materials And Methods: Subjects for this study were selected from the COPDGene study, a large multicenter longitudinal observational cohort study. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed using identified nodules on a subset of 377 patients who demonstrated 765 pulmonary nodules on their baseline computed tomography (CT) study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000405DOI Listing

Current Controversies in Cardiothoracic Imaging: Low-dose Computerized Tomographic Overdiagnosis of Lung Cancer is Substantial; Its Consequences are Underappreciated-Point.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):154-156

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Portland State University, Portland, OR.

Lung cancer seems an ideal screening candidate because of its frequency and lethality, its well-known risk factors, and because it can often be identified at a curable stage with noninvasive procedures. The lethality of clinically diagnosed lung cancers rendered the possibility of material overdiagnosis (OD) (by means of screening) implausible in the judgment of experienced clinicians. Increased experience with lung cancer screening trials, which showed an excess of cases in screened versus control cohorts, led to broader acceptance of its existence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000406DOI Listing

Current Controversies in Cardiothoracic Imaging: Overdiagnosis at Lung Cancer Screening-Not So Bad After All-Counterpoint.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):157-159

City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA.

Initially introduced into the medical literature in research publications from "Special Project #1" of the Council for Tobacco Research, the concept of overdiagnosed lung cancer (OD LC) has consistently served to misinform and confuse the medical community, contributing to interminable delays in implementation of population lung cancer screening. Estimates of overdiagnosis vary enormously (9.5% to 75%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000407DOI Listing
May 2019
7 Reads

Diagnostic Accuracy of Single-shot 2-Dimensional Multisegment Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of single-shot 2-dimensional multislice late gadolinium enhancement (2D-MSLGE) compared with gold standard single-slice 2D inversion recovery segmented gradient echo (2D-SSLGE).

Materials And Methods: Sixty-seven patients prospectively underwent clinically indicated cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and were enrolled. The image quality was assessed using a 4-point scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000402DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Reducing Routine Chest Radiographs in the Intensive Care Unit.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Hospital Administration, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000410DOI Listing

Incidence of Pulmonary Embolism in Sickle Cell Anemia Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography in the Emergency Department.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Radiology and Radiologic Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000409DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Pulmonary Insufficiency: Advantage of Pulmonary Regurgitation Volume Versus Pulmonary Regurgitation Fraction in a Congenital Heart Disease Mixed Population.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the use of pulmonary regurgitation volume (PRV) or indexed PRV (PRVi) with that of pulmonary regurgitation fraction (PRF) in the assessment of patients with pulmonary regurgitation (PR) undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging.

Materials And Methods: CMR of 176 patients with PR were retrospectively evaluated. Their right ventricular diastolic (end-diastolic volume index [EDVi]) and systolic (end-systolic volume index) volume indexes, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were obtained from cine CMR sequences, whereas phase-contrast flow sequences were analyzed to obtain PRV, PRVi, and PRF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000400DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Added Value of Ultra-low-dose Computed Tomography, Dose Equivalent to Chest X-Ray Radiography, for Diagnosing Chest Pathology.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):179-186

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) compared with chest x-ray radiography (CXR) for diagnosing chest pathology.

Materials And Methods: A total of 200 patients referred for CXR by outpatient clinics or general practitioners were enrolled prospectively. They underwent CXR (posteroanterior and lateral) and ULDCT (120 kV, 3 mAs) on the same day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000404DOI Listing

Pulmonary Vascular Morphology Associated With Gas Exchange in Systemic Sclerosis Without Lung Fibrosis.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Departments of Radiology, Division of Image Processing.

Purpose: Gas exchange in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is known to be affected by fibrotic changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. However, SSc patients without detectable fibrosis can still have impaired gas transfer. We aim to investigate whether pulmonary vascular changes could partly explain a reduction in gas transfer of SSc patients without fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000395DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Computed Tomography Findings of Acute and Chronic Aortic Dissections and Intramural Hematomas.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of ancillary imaging findings in distinguishing acute from chronic aortic dissection (AD) and intramural hematoma (IMH) using computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Materials And Methods: Two radiologists specializing in cardiothoracic and vascular imaging reviewed paired CTAs of patients with AD or IMH who underwent CTA in the acute (within 24 h of presentation) and chronic settings. The radiologists were blinded to the temporal order of the CTAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000401DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Complications and Accuracy of Computed Tomography-guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy in Patients Over 80 Years of Age.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):187-191

Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) in patients aged 80 years and older.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive PTNB procedures performed in an academic institution between July 2009 and June 2013 were reviewed. Procedures were performed according to a standard protocol using conscious sedation and rapid on-site pathology evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000403DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

Noncontrast Chest Computed Tomographic Imaging of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: Part I Cardiovascular Findings.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):116-125

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

There are physiological consequences of overeating that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art in the non-cardiac-gated, noncontrast chest computed tomographic (NCCT) imaging biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome and their prognostic significance found in the lower neck and chest. NCCT imaging biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome in the chest include premature coronary artery calcification, acceleration of large vessel arterial and valvular calcifications associated with atherosclerosis, and pulmonary arterial enlargement from pulmonary hypertension associated with sleep apnea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000391DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads

Effect of Reconstruction Parameters on the Quantitative Analysis of Chest Computed Tomography.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):92-102

Edinburgh Imaging, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Quantitative features obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans are being explored for clinical applications. Various classes of quantitative features exist for chest CT including radiomics features, emphysema measurements, lung nodule volumetric measurements, dual energy quantification, and perfusion parameters. A number of research articles have shown promise in diagnosis and prognosis prediction of oncologic patients or those with diffuse lung diseases using these feature classes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000389DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads
1.489 Impact Factor

Performance of Deep Learning Model in Detecting Operable Lung Cancer With Chest Radiographs.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):86-91

Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a trained deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) model for detecting operable lung cancer with chest radiographs (CXRs).

Materials And Methods: The institutional review board approved this study. A deep learning model (DLM) based on DCNN was trained with 17,211 CXRs (5700 CT-confirmed lung nodules in 3500 CXRs and 13,711 normal CXRs), finally augmented to 600,000 images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000388DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Deep Learning Applications in Chest Radiography and Computed Tomography: Current State of the Art.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):75-85

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center.

Deep learning is a genre of machine learning that allows computational models to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction using numerous processing layers. A distinctive feature of deep learning, compared with conventional machine learning methods, is that it can generate appropriate models for tasks directly from the raw data, removing the need for human-led feature extraction. Medical images are particularly suited for deep learning applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000387DOI Listing

Noncontrast Chest Computed Tomographic Imaging of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: Part I Cardiovascular Findings.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

There are physiological consequences of overeating that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art in the non-cardiac-gated, noncontrast chest computed tomographic (NCCT) imaging biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome and their prognostic significance found in the lower neck and chest. NCCT imaging biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome in the chest include premature coronary artery calcification, acceleration of large vessel arterial and valvular calcifications associated with atherosclerosis, and pulmonary arterial enlargement from pulmonary hypertension associated with sleep apnea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000391DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Postmortem Computed Tomography and Computed Tomography Angiography: Cardiothoracic Imaging Applications in Forensic Medicine.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Forensic Medicine, National Forensic Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

With the introduction of modern imaging technology into the forensic field, postmortem imaging, particularly postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), has gained increasing importance in forensic investigations of deaths. In recent years, PMCT, which aims to provide observer-independent, reproducible forensic assessment in a minimally invasive manner, has been incorporated into routine forensic practice in many medicolegal institutions worldwide as a complement to autopsy. To address questions with regard to vascular pathologies, postmortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) has been developed and has become a useful tool for exploring the vascular system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000398DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Does Reduction of Left Ventricular Mass Improve Functional Myocardial Parameters? A Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pilot Study.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen.

Objectives: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in resistant hypertensive patients is associated with a reduced intramyocardial perfusion. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic tone. We aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of RDN on functional myocardial parameters and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in patients with resistant hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000399DOI Listing
February 2019

Imaging Spectrum of Double-Outlet Right Ventricle on Multislice Computed Tomography.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Radiology and Endovascular Interventions, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Double-outlet right ventricle is a complex congenital heart disease that encompasses various common and rare subtypes. Surgical management of these patients needs to be individualized owing to extremely variable morphology and hemodynamics. Imaging plays a crucial role in determination and characterization of outflow tract morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000396DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

New Developments in Imaging Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis With Hyperpolarized Xenon Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):136-150

Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary disease that is ultimately fatal. Although the diagnosis of IPF has been revolutionized by high-resolution computed tomography, this imaging modality still exhibits significant limitations, particularly in assessing disease progression and therapy response. The need for noninvasive regional assessment has become more acute in light of recently introduced novel therapies and numerous others in the pipeline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6392051PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Introduction to the Special Issue on Advances in Chest Imaging From the International Workshop for Pulmonary Functional Imaging (IWPFI): Context is Everything.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):73-74

Edinburgh Imaging Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh Bioquarter, Edinburgh, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000386DOI Listing

Computed Tomography Appearance of Uncorrected Congenital Heart Disease in Adults.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):W13-W22

Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is about 4 to 10 per 1000 live births. While severe forms of CHD are usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood, milder and more survivable CHD may first manifest in the adult or may be discovered incidentally on imaging studies performed for other reasons. It is important to identify CHD in adults to implement appropriate treatment and prevent complications such as progression of pulmonary hypertension and development of heart failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000397DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Noncontrast Chest Computed Tomographic Imaging of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: Part II Noncardiovascular Findings.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):126-135

Departments of Radiology.

The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art for the noncardiovascular imaging biomarkers of metabolic syndrome found on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) of the chest and their prognostic significance. Routine chest NCCT includes quantitative information with regard to tissue density and organ volumes in the neck, chest, and upper abdomen. The specific imaging biomarkers that may be seen in association with metabolic syndrome include low thyroid iodine organification, hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia (muscle volume and density), demineralization of the thoracic and upper lumbar vertebral bodies, loss of axial skeletal muscle mass, premature lung inflammation, and an increased deposition of subcutaneous and visceral fat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000393DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Perinodular Vascularity Distinguishes Benign Intrapulmonary Lymph Nodes From Lung Cancer on Computed Tomography.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Radiology.

Purpose: A common diagnostic dilemma in the assessment of small pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) is in distinguishing benign intrapulmonary lymph nodes (IPLNs) from small primary pulmonary malignancies. Several CT features have been described of IPLNs, including attachment to a pleural surface. We had observed that IPLNs were often connected to a pulmonary vein and sought to evaluate the utility of this sign in discriminating IPLNs from lung adenocarcinomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000394DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Measurement Variability in Treatment Response Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Improvements Using Radiomics.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Mar;34(2):103-115

Departments of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science.

Multimodality imaging measurements of treatment response are critical for clinical practice, oncology trials, and the evaluation of new treatment modalities. The current standard for determining treatment response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on tumor size using the RECIST criteria. Molecular targeted agents and immunotherapies often cause morphological change without reduction of tumor size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000390DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Magnetic Resonance-based Assessment of Myocardial 2-Dimensional Strain Using Feature Tracking: Association With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Population-based Cohort Free of Cardiovascular Disease.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Myocardial strain analysis is a promising tool for the detection of subtle but relevant alterations of left ventricular function, also in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, we determined the feasibility of cardiac magnetic resonance-based 2D global strain analysis using feature tracking and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a sample from the general population.

Materials And Methods: Subjects without a history of cardiocerebrovascular disease were enrolled in a substudy of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000380DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Evaluation of Vascular Parameters in Patients With Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease Using Dual-energy Computed Tomography.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Section of Thoracic Imaging, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patterns of vascular and lung parenchymal enhancement in patients with suspected chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and in those with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and compare those two groups.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively studied 186 thoracic DECT studies referred for evaluation of CTEPH or pulmonary hypertension. A total of 80 of these patients had a negative scan (control group), 13 had acute PE, and 53 had chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED)/CTEPH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000383DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads
1.489 Impact Factor

Errors in Interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Thymic Lesions.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Purpose: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of thymic lesions and to review those features that may result in diagnostic uncertainty or error.

Materials And Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included patients with pathologically proven thymic epithelial neoplasms (TEN) and thymic cysts who underwent preoperative MRI. Clinical reports were evaluated for the radiologist's first-choice diagnosis, if not already known before the MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000384DOI Listing
December 2018

The Value of Imaging-The Case for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):2-3

Department of Medical Imaging and Division of Cardiology, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000381DOI Listing
January 2019

Computed Tomography Imaging for Novel Therapies of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):202-213

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg.

Novel therapeutic options in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require delicate patient selection and thus demand for expert radiologists visually and quantitatively evaluating high-resolution computed tomography (CT) with additional functional acquisitions such as paired inspiratory-expiratory scans or dynamic airway CT. The differentiation between emphysema-dominant and airway-dominant COPD phenotypes by imaging has immediate clinical value for patient management. Assessment of emphysema severity, distribution patterns, and fissure integrity are essential for stratifying patients for different surgical and endoscopic lung volume reduction procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000378DOI Listing

Screening for Early Lung Cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease (the Big-3) Using Low-dose Chest Computed Tomography: Current Evidence and Technical Considerations.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):160-169

Center for Medical Imaging North-East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen.

Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent in the general population and expected to cause most deaths by 2050. For these "Big-3," treatment might cure, delay, or stop the progression of disease at a very early stage. Lung nodule growth rate (a biomarker for lung cancer), emphysema/air trapping (a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and coronary artery calcification (a biomarker for cardiovascular disease) are imaging biomarkers of early stages of the Big-3 that can be acquired with low-dose computed tomography (CT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000379DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

3-Dimensional Quantification of Composite Pleural Plaque Volume in Patients Exposed to Asbestos Using High-resolution Computed Tomography: A Validation Study.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Cardio-thoracic Research Center of Bordeaux, U1045, CIC 1401.

Rationale: As pleural plaque has been reported as a risk factor in the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma, a reproducible and precise method of measurement of pleural plaque volume (PPV) is needed to further describe these relationships. The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetric analysis of PPV in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos.

Material And Methods: A total of 28 patients were retrospectively randomly selected from the multicenter APEXS (Asbestos Post Exposure Survey) study, which was held between 2003 and 2005. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000377DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Detection of Calcified Aortic Plaques in an Apolipoprotein E Animal Model Using a Human Computed Tomography System for Ultra-High-resolution Imaging: A Feasibility Study.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):41-47

Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of detecting calcified aortic plaques in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) mice using a state-of-the-art human computed tomography (CT) system.

Materials And Methods: Eleven ApoE-KO and 9 wild-type mice, all male, were examined in this study. After intraperitoneal injection of 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000375DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Axillary Chest Wall Hibernoma With Intrathoracic Extension Presenting as Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):W10-W12

Departments of Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Hibernomas are rare benign soft tissue tumors derived from brown fat. This case report describes an axillary hibernoma with intrathoracic extension, presenting as a thoracic outlet syndrome. A multimodality imaging series illustrates the classic radiologic features of hibernoma as well as its highly unusual pattern of growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000376DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Prognostic Value of Vascular Calcifications and Regional Fat Depots Derived From Conventional Chest Computed Tomography.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):33-40

Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, Diagnóstico Maipú, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Purpose: The prognostic value of vascular calcifications as well as of regional fat depots has been reported separately, in population-based studies, and using gated-computed tomography (CT) examinations. We, therefore, explored the interplay and prognostic value of vascular calcifications and adipose tissue depots assessed during conventional nongated chest CT.

Materials And Methods: We enrolled a consecutive series of 1250 patients aged between 35 and 74 years who underwent clinically indicated chest CT scans. Read More

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January 2019
8 Reads

Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiovascular Anomalies Associated With Turner Syndrome.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 May;34(3):W23-W35

Departments of Radiology.

Cardiovascular imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease in patients with Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular defects in this population may affect a single component of the cardiovascular system or exist in combination with other anomalies, and, they may present early in life or remain occult into adulthood. Careful screening and surveillance imaging are necessary for the early detection and management of cardiovascular defects, especially in cases wherein early intervention may be necessary to prevent a serious cardiovascular outcome. Read More

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May 2019
2 Reads

Current Evidence in Cardiothoracic Imaging: Computed Tomography-derived Fractional Flow Reserve in Stable Chest Pain.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):12-17

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark.

High-accuracy diagnostic imaging is needed to diagnose and manage coronary artery disease as well as to allow risk stratification for future events. Advancements in multidetector computed tomography and image postprocessing allow for routine computed tomography coronary angiography to provide anatomic luminal assessment similar to invasive coronary angiography, and, similarly, computational fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomography facilitates determination of hemodynamically relevant stenosis comparable to invasive fractional flow reserve. In this review article, we describe the diagnostic performance and the potential impact of fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomography in clinical practice. Read More

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January 2019
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Evaluation of Incidental Cardiac Masses on Computed Tomography Imaging: An Algorithmic Approach.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):W1-W9

The Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY.

Cardiac masses encountered on imaging may present a diagnostic dilemma when discovered incidentally, or even when they serve as the principal reason for the examination. In this review, we present an algorithmic approach for assessing cardiac masses by integrating clinical information with radiologic findings to reach a specific diagnosis or a narrow differential diagnosis. Read More

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January 2019
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Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):56-64

Division of Thoracic/Cardiac Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville.

Proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery (PIPA) is an uncommon developmental anomaly resulting in underdevelopment of the proximal portion of the pulmonary artery with preservation of the intrapulmonary segments. Clinical presentation ranges between an asymptomatic incidental finding to massive hemoptysis. When findings suggestive of PIPA are present radiographically, the diagnosis of PIPA can be definitively diagnosed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read
1.490 Impact Factor

The Launch of "Controversies in Cardiothoracic Imaging".

Authors:
Charles S White

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Nov;33(6):345

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

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November 2018
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An Update on the European Lung Cancer Screening Trials and Comparison of Lung Cancer Screening Recommendations in Europe.

J Thorac Imaging 2019 Jan;34(1):65-71

University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, University of Groningen.

While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published recommendations for lung cancer screening using computed tomography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000367DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The Added Value of Computer-aided Detection of Small Pulmonary Nodules and Missed Lung Cancers.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Nov;33(6):390-395

Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Lung cancer at its earliest stage is typically manifested on computed tomography as a pulmonary nodule, which could be detected by low-dose multidetector computed tomography technology and the use of thinner collimation. Within the last 2 decades, computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules has been developed to meet the increasing demand for lung cancer screening computed tomography with a larger set of images per scan. This review introduced the basic techniques and then summarized the up-to-date applications of CAD systems in clinical and research programs and in the low-dose lung cancer screening trials, especially in the detection of small pulmonary nodules and missed lung cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000362DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads