249 results match your criteria Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology[Journal]


Assessing for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 23;26(1):e39-e55. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Canada FASD Research Network.

Background The recommended "gold standard" for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) assessment involves a multidisciplinary diagnostic team and comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to evaluate functioning across 10 brain domains. The current Canadian Guideline for diagnosis of FASD outlines a list of test measures for assessment; however, very little research exists to explore which specific tools are being used in clinical practice. Objectives The purpose of the current study was to gain a better understanding of the testing measures used by FASD clinicians in Alberta, Canada. Read More

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http://jptcp.com/index.php/jptcp/article/view/54
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.4DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Novel Measures of Benzodiazepine and Z-Drug Utilisation Trends in a Canadian Provincial Adult Population (2001-2016).

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e22-e38. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba.

Purpose:  1) To evaluate trends for benzodiazepines (BZD) and Z-Drugs over 15-years in a general Canadian adult population measured by: a) consumption b) pharmacologic exposure c) dose intensity and d) prevalence of use. 2) To demonstrate the utility of Diazepam Milligram Equivalence (DME) based measurements when used in conjunction with traditional standard measurements of drug utilization such as the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system.

Methods: Administrative data covering all prescriptions from April 2001-March 2016 for BZD and Z-Drugs for patients ≥18 years was used. Read More

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http://www.jptcp.com/index.php/jptcp/article/view/52
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.3DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Response to Letter to the Editor.

Authors:
Nigel S B Rawson

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e20-e21. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Eastlake Research Group, Oakville, Ontario; Canadian Health Policy Institute, Toronto; Ontario; Fraser Institute, Vancouver, British Columbi.

Author's response to comments from Dr Lexchin's Letter to the Editor regarding our article. Read More

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http://jptcp.com/index.php/jptcp/article/view/394
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.2DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction in a Large Antiretroviral Treatment Centre in Lagos, Nigeria.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 22;26(1):e1-e19. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

University of Lagos.

   Background: An important cause of treatment failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the potential interaction between the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and co-prescribed drugs used concomitantly for the treatment of opportunistic infections and co-morbid ailments in HIV-infected patients. Objectives: The study evaluated potential clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) occurring between recommended ART regimens and their co-prescribed non-antiretroviral drugs (CPD) Method: This study was carried out in a large HIV treatment centre (APIN clinic) in a Nigerian teaching hospital, in Lagos Nigeria, caring for over 20,000 registered patients. Electronic Medical Records (EMR) of 500 patients  who received treatment between 2005 and 2015, were selected using systematic random sampling, reviewed retrospectively, and evaluated for potential CSDIs using Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Database and other similar databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.26.1.1DOI Listing
January 2019

Ten-Year Statin Adherence in Survivors of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Nov 6;25(2):e63-e77. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Mcgill University.

  Background          Adherence to statins is often sub-optimal and declines over time. Direct costs incurred by patients are frequently cited as responsible for inadequate statin adherence. To determine whether survivors of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who benefit from low or no cost drug dispensation, have optimal long-term adherence to statins, we aimed to evaluate the ten-year adherence to statin of these patients. Read More

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http://jptcp.com/index.php/jptcp/article/view/28
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.2.5DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

CAPT / ACTP Annual Meeting 2018.

Authors:
Scott Bryant

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Oct 29;25(2):e33-e62. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

.

Abstracts from the CAPT / ACTP Annual Meeting 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.2.6DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Editorial.

Authors:
Joel Lexchin

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Sep 24;25(2):e31-e32. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

York University - Prof Emeritus.

Invited Editorial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.2.4DOI Listing
September 2018

Public Reimbursement of Prescription Drugs Used For Off-Label Indications in Ontario.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Sep 20;25(2):e23-e30. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Eastlake Research Group.

Background: A Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) therapeutic review concluded that bevacizumab and ranibizumab have similar efficacy and safety in treating retinal conditions and recommended bevacizumab be used as preferred initial therapy based on a cost-saving perspective. Such use would be off-label because bevacizumab is not approved for these conditions and has a serious safety warning (SSW) in its Product Monograph (PM) about intravitreal use.

Objective: To evaluate whether the Ontario Public Drug Programs (OPDP) reimbursement is provided only for off-label use for serious, life-threatening or severely debilitating conditions and not when the drug's PM contains a SSW against such use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.2.3DOI Listing
September 2018

Activities of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance: An Observational Analysis.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Aug 7;25(2):e12-e22. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Athena Research.

Background: The pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance (pCPA) was established in 2010 to negotiate confidential prices for drugs coming forward from Canada's centralized health technology assessment (HTA) agency reviews, on behalf of the participating public drug plans.

Objective:  To analyze the activities of the pCPA, to determine: alignment of HTA agency recommendations and pCPA negotiation decisions; the role of health economics in pCPA activities; and patterns of implicit prioritization.

Methods: The analysis was based on the archive of drugs handled through the pCPA, as posted on its website. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.2.2DOI Listing

Levetiracetam-Associated Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures; A Hidden Paradox.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jul 11;25(2):e1-e11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Dept of Neurology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad 500 082 India.

Objectives To study the clinical profile and outcome in patients with epilepsy who developed psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) associated with levetiracetam (LEV) use.   Methods In this prospective observational study, conducted over 1 year, 13 patients with epilepsy and PNES, documented by video electroencephalogram (VEEG) while on LEV, were included. Those with past history of psychiatric illnesses were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.2.1DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Reduced Out-of-Pocket Costs and Medication Adherence - A Population-Based Study.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jan 15;25(1):e1-e17. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

University of Saskatchewan.

Background: In 2007, a drug benefit plan for Seniors (SDP) was launched in Saskatchewan, Canada. SDP capped out-of-pocket costs at $15 per prescription for individuals aged 65 and older.

Objectives: To quantify the impact of the SDP on chronic medication adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.1.1DOI Listing
January 2018
29 Reads

Impact of Drug Exposure Definitions on Observed Associations in Pharmacoepidemiology Research.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Mar 20;25(1):e39-e52. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2B7.

BACKGROUND - A variety of methods are used to define exposure in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Although each method has known biases, the relative effect of these biases on an observed association has not been fully examined. OBJECTIVE - To explore the influence of different exposure definitions on estimates, using the association between metformin and all-cause mortality as a proto-typical model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.1.4DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

Prescribing Competency of Medical Students: National Survey of Medical Education Leaders.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Feb 2;25(1):e18-e24. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

.

Introduction Evidence suggests that newly licensed physicians are not adequately prepared to prescribe safely. There is currently no national pre-licensure prescribing competency assessment required in North America. This study's purpose was to survey Canadian medical school leaders for their interest in and perceived need for a nationwide prescribing assessment for final year medical students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.1.2DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Meta-Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes after Exposure to TNF-α Inhibitors During Pregnancy for the Treatment of Arthritic Diseases.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Apr 10;25(1):e53-e56. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

U of T.

Title: Pregnancy Outcomes after Exposure to TNF-α Inhibitors During Pregnancy for the Treatment of Arthritic Diseases: A Meta-Analysis   Authors: Mirdamadi K, Salinas T, Vali R, Papadimitripulous M, Piquette-Miller M Background: Auto-immune arthritic diseases affect many women of child-bearing age. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are currently used for the treatment of various immune-mediated diseases during pregnancy. However, there has been no evaluation of safety in the treatment of arthritic diseases during gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.1.5DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

Assessing motor skills to inform a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder diagnosis focusing on persons older than 12 years: A systematic review of the literature.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2018 Mar 1;25(1):e25-e38. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

.

Methods: A systematic review of current evidence using various electronic databases was conducted. Studies were appraised using a recognised clinical appraisal tool.

Results: Seven studies published between 1998 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.25.1.3DOI Listing
March 2018
1 Read

Anticounterfeiting Strategies of Local Drug Manufacturers in Lagos, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 12 4;24(3):e99-e120. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Isolo Lagos, Nigeria.

Background: Nigeria has been plagued by counterfeit and poor quality medicines with several studies indicating varying degree of prevalence. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the anticounterfeiting strategies employed by local drug manufacturers in Lagos-Nigeria.

Method: The first phase was a descriptive study which involves the use of a self-administered closed ended structured questionnaire to assess the anticounterfeiting strategies employed by local manufacturers in Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.3.7DOI Listing
December 2017
9 Reads

Development and Validation of an Index Score to Adjust for Healthy User Bias in Observational Studies.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 11 22;24(3):e79-e89. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

University of Alberta.

Background: Objectives: To develop a healthy user index to serve as a method of confounding adjustment in future observational studies of preventive therapies.

Methods: A large administrative database of patients with type 2 diabetes was split in half randomly, yielding derivation and validation cohorts. Influenza vaccination was used as a 'prototypical marker' of a healthy user. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.3.6DOI Listing
November 2017
7 Reads

What Does the New Ontario Pharmacare Plan offer Children and Young Adults with Rare Disorders?

Authors:
Nigel Rawson

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 12 1;24(3):90-98. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Eastlake Research Group.

A publicly-funded pharmacare program (OHIP+) was announced in the 2017 Ontario budget for all children and young adults that will begin in January 2018 and cover drugs in the Ontario Public Drug Programs (OPDP) formulary. In this commentary, drugs indicated for rare disorders commonly occurring in childhood that were reviewed by the Common Drug Review (CDR) between 2004 and 2016 are examined to assess the Ontario reimbursement situation. OPDP reimburse few of these drugs and only about half of those covered are accessible with consistency and without onerous conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.3.8DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

The Role of Midodrine for Hypotension Outside of the Intensive Care Unit.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 08 23;24(3):e45-e50. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Canada.

Midodrine is an oral, peripherally acting alpha-adrenergic agonist. After gaining Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1996 for orthostatic hypotension, its use has evolved to target vasoplegic conditions such as intradialytic hypotension in the end-stage renal disease population, refractory ascites in cirrhotic patients to support diuresis, and in hepatorenal syndrome. Upon oral ingestion, the drug undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis to an active metabolite, desglymidodrine. Read More

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http://www.jptcp.com/abstract/the-role-of-midodrine-for-hypo
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.3.4DOI Listing
August 2017
84 Reads

Dose-Exposure Simulation for Piperacillin-Tazobactam Dosing Strategies in Infants and Young Children.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 08 21;24(3):e33-344. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Clinical Pharmacology Unit, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Extended piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) infusions have been associated with favourable outcomes. There are currently no pediatric dosing recommendations.

Objectives: To determine appropriate TZP dosing strategies in children 2 months - 6 years according to age and different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.3.3DOI Listing
August 2017
17 Reads

Increase in Psychoactive Drug Prescriptions in the Years Following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 08 18;24(3):e19-e32. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Psychoactive medications are commonly prescribed to autistic individuals, but little is known about how their use changes after diagnosis.

Objectives: This study describes the use of psychoactive drugs in children and young adults newly diagnosed with autism spectrum, between the year before and up to 5 years after diagnosis.

Methods: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use psychoactive drugs before the first diagnosis of autism spectrum condition (from 1998 to 2010), and the clinical and demographic characteristics, identified from public health care databases in Quebec. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.3.2DOI Listing
August 2017
17 Reads

Intelligence and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Review.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 Jan 8;24(3):e1-e18. Epub 2017 Jan 8.

Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Background: The studies on intelligence in individuals with fetal alcohol exposure are conflicting. Some have found a relevant impairment in this population, while others found results that were consistent with the population at large.

Objectives: Describe the results of studies on intelligence in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Read More

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http://www.jptcp.com/abstract/intelligence-and-fetal-alcohol
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.3.1DOI Listing
January 2017
14 Reads

A descriptive Study of a Community-Based Home-Visiting Program with Preschool Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 06 14;24(2):e61-e71. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.

Background: Research suggests that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) increases the risk of insecure caregiver-child attachment and related negative child emotional-behavioural outcomes. Research also shows positive effects of attachment-focused interventions in preventing disrupted caregiver-child attachment relationships; however, such interventions have not been specifically adapted for children with FASD.

Objectives: This paper describes the implementation, challenges, and results of a community home-based attachment intervention, Circle of Security® (COS), with preschool children affected by PAE/FASD in Manitoba, Canada. Read More

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http://www.jptcp.com/abstract/a-descriptive-study-of-a-commu
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.2.3DOI Listing
June 2017
16 Reads

Effect of an Institutional Medication Adherence Program for Long-Acting Injectable Risperidone on Adherence and Psychiatric Hospitalizations: Evidence from a Prospective Cohort Study.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 05 30;24(2):e61-e70. Epub 2017 May 30.

Analytica LASER, Paris, France.

Background: Long-acting injectable (LAI) atypical antipsychotics are associated with improved adherence and reduced relapse rates in schizophrenia but reminder-based interventions may further improve outcomes.

Objectives: To assess an institutional medication adherence program's (IMAP) effectiveness on adherence and psychiatric hospitalizations among schizophrenia patients taking risperidone LAI (RLAI).

Methods: Between 2009 and 2010, we recruited patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia treated with RLAI receiving outpatient care from psychiatric centres in France. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.2.7DOI Listing
May 2017
86 Reads

Non-severe Hypoglycemia Risk Difference between Sulfonylurea and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors (SGLT2-I) as an Add-On to Metformin in Randomized Controlled Trials.

Authors:
Pendar Farahani

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 05 23;24(2):e32-e40. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH), Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Non-severe hypoglycemia reduces well-being, lowers quality of life, reduces productivity and increases treatment costs. The non-severe hypoglycemia rate, attributable to sulfonylurea (SU) utilization compared with newer classes such as SGLT2-I, could be of clinical significance.

Objectives: To explore the non-severe hypoglycemia risk difference (RD) for SU use compared with SGLT2-I in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an add on to metformin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.2.6DOI Listing
May 2017
25 Reads

Emotional Understanding in School-Aged Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Promising Target for Intervention.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 05 13;24(2):e21-e31. Epub 2017 May 13.

University of Washington, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Seattle Children's Research Institute, Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for secondary conditions, including mental health difficulties. Data on both children with typical development and other clinical conditions suggest that limited emotional understanding (EU) raises risk for psychopathology, but little is known about EU in FASD.

Objectives: To determine if EU is a reasonable treatment target for children with FASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.2.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5627645PMC
May 2017
11 Reads

Comparison of Drug Benefits Provided by Veterans Affairs Canada and the Canadian Forces Health Services Group.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 05 23;24(2):e41-e49. Epub 2017 May 23.

Canadian Forces Health Services Group.

Background: Drug benefits are provided at public expense to all actively serving Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel, with ongoing drug coverage offered by Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) for selected conditions following termination of employment. Differences in drug coverage between these programs could introduce risks for treatment disruption.

Objectives: Work was undertaken to establish a process that would allow systematic comparison of the entire VAC and CAF formularies, and to identify and explain discordant listings in 14 therapeutic categories that pose risk of adverse outcomes with sudden treatment interruption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.2.4DOI Listing
May 2017
5 Reads

Does the Number of Pharmacies a Patient Frequents Affect Adherence to Statins?

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 May 6;24(2):e20-e50. Epub 2017 May 6.

Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON.

Background: We hypothesized that medication adherence is affected by the number of pharmacies a patient frequents.

Objectives: The objective was to estimate the strength of association between the number of pharmacies a patient frequents and adherence to statins.

Methods: Using administrative data from the Nova Scotia Seniors' Pharmacare program, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among subjects aged 65 years and older first dispensed statin between 1998 and 2008. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.23.1.1DOI Listing
May 2017
36 Reads

What Influences the Cost Effectiveness of Dabigatran versus Warfarin for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 May 2;24(2):e1-e20. Epub 2017 May 2.

Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH), The Research Institute of St. Joe's Hamilton, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON.

Objectives: The introduction of new oral anticoagulants for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) has changed the clinical management of AF. To inform decision making around dabigatran by identifying factors influencing cost-effectiveness results, we undertook a systematic review of economic evaluations of dabigatran versus warfarin for the prevention of stroke in AF patients.

Methods: A systematic literature search of Ovid Medline and Embase, Wiley's Cochrane Library, HEED, PubMed databases and grey literature was carried out for primary economic evaluations comparing dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with AF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.2.1DOI Listing
May 2017
24 Reads

Retrospective Analysis of Emerging Drugs Use in a Quebec Women's and Children's University Hospital and Perspectives for Safe and Optimal Drug Use.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 03 10;24(1):e56-e64. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Unité de recherche en Pratique Pharmaceutique, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Background: Only few medicines are licensed for children. The use of emerging drugs (unmarketed drug, off-label drug with poorly documented use, and/or costly drugs) might represent an essential alternative for pediatric patients.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess emerging drug uses rate and profile in our women's and children's centre to support the implementation of an appropriate policy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.7DOI Listing
March 2017
3 Reads

Adoption of the Nova Scotia (Canada) Community Pharmacy Medication Management Program, 1-Year Post-Initiation.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 02 1;24(1):e46-e55. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

College of Pharmacy, Dalhousie University.

Background: Pharmacists conduct medication reviews to optimize drug therapy. Each jurisdiction implements and funds these programs differently.

Objective: To describe the uptake of the first year of a community pharmacy medication review program reimbursed by the publically insured seniors' drug benefit program in Nova Scotia, Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/17106222.24.1.6DOI Listing
February 2017
10 Reads

Lactic Acidosis with Chloramphenicol Treatment in a Child with Cystic Fibrosis.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 01 30;24(1):40-45. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal.

Children with cystic fibrosis are commonly colonized with multi-resistant bacteria. In such patients, infectious exacerbation may require salvage therapy with uncommonly used antimicrobials, including chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol is rarely used nowadays because of the associated severe adverse events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.5DOI Listing
January 2017
19 Reads

Fetal Alcohol Research Caring for Patients with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Needs Assessment.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 Jan 27;24(1):e25-e39. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas School of Medicine, San Antonio, Texas.

Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the United States' most common preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).

Objectives: This study was designed to identify gaps in pediatric providers' knowledge and practices regarding FASD patient identification, diagnosis, management and referral, and to inform needs-based FASD resource development.

Methods: Pediatric providers (pediatricians, trainees, nurse practitioners) were exposed to survey links embedded in newsletters electronically distributed to the membership of two national professional societies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.4DOI Listing
January 2017
35 Reads

A Practical Methodology for Disaggregating the Drivers of Drug Costs Using Administrative Data.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 09 1;24(1):16-24. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Background: Prescription drug expenditures represent a significant component of health care costs in Canada, with estimates of $28.8 billion spent in 2014. Identifying the major cost drivers and the effect they have on prescription drug expenditures allows policy makers and researchers to interpret current cost pressures and anticipate future expenditure levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.3DOI Listing
September 2017
4 Reads

Use of Continuous Exposure Variables when Examining Dose-Dependent Pharmacological Effects - Application to the Association between Exposure to Higher Statin Doses and the Incidence of Diabetes.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 01 1;24(1):5-15. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

Pharmacoeconomic and Pharmacoepidemiology unit, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Many observational studies have found an association between the exposure to statins and the increased risk of diabetes, mostly through the use of intent-to-treat (ITT) like exposure measure (EM). ITT like EM may not adequately reflect the mechanism of action by which statins could cause diabetes.

Objectives: To determine if continuous EMs can more accurately reflect the mechanism of action by which statins and incidence of diabetes would be associated than ITT like EM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.1DOI Listing
January 2017
12 Reads

Lack of Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient-Centred Outcome Measures in Randomized Controlled Trials Conducted for Diabetes Pharmacotherapy: SGLT-2 Receptor Inhibitors as An Example.

Authors:
Pendar Farahani

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2017 01 9;24(1):e1-e14. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.

Background: Use of SGLT-2 receptor inhibitors has been associated with weight loss and a low rate of hypoglycemia in comparison to sulfonylureas. These factors may improve health-related quality of life for patients with diabetes.

Objectives: To systematically explore randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving SGLT-2 receptor inhibitors that reported health-related quality of life changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.24.1.2DOI Listing
January 2017
4 Reads

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Integrated Care Pathway Project: Evaluation of Patient Outcomes and System Efficiencies.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 09 13;23(3):e169-e182. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

CHI Evaluation Platform Division Quality & System Performance Winnipeg Regional Health Authority.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.23.1.1DOI Listing
September 2016
17 Reads

Cancer Patients? Willingness to Routinely Complete the EQ-5D Instrument at Clinic Visits.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 09 13;23(3):e196-e204. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic (HOPE) Research Centre, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON.

Background: Health utility (HU) scores play an essential role in pharmacoeconomic analyses. Routine clinical administration of the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) can allow for HU and health related quality of life (HRQOL) assessments in the real-world setting.

Objectives: The primary goals of this study were to evaluate whether patients were willing to complete the EQ-5D instrument on a routine basis and which clinical or demographic factors influence this willingness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.23.1.1DOI Listing
September 2016
42 Reads

Sulfonylurea and the Heart: Theoretically a Compounded Question from a Pathophysiological Perspective.

Authors:
Pendar Farahani

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 09 13;23(3):e193-e195. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.

Evidence from literature illustrates that from a pathophysiological perspective, sulfonylureas (SU) may impact the heart three ways: directly by intrinsic properties from a pharmacological receptor perspective, indirectly by adverse effects related to hypoglycemia, and obesity. From a pharmacologlogical receptor perspective, SU can bind to ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cardiomyocytes. Channel binding by SU in cardiac tissue may prevent ischemia myocardial protective mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.23.1.1DOI Listing
September 2016
5 Reads

Impact of Azithromycin on Pregnancy Prolongation in Women at Risk of Preterm Labor: A Time-to-Event Analysis.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 09 13;23(3):e183-e192. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Sainte-Justine UHC.

Background: Since 2006, the empiric use of azithromycin in women at risk of premature birth has become prevalent in our institution without any evidence of its efficacy. Although antibiotics can prolong pregnancy in preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, no published data are available for women with intact membranes.

Objectives: To describe the purpose of adding azithromycin to the usual treatments (cerclage, tocolysis, rest, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22374/1710-6222.23.1.1DOI Listing
September 2016
23 Reads

Cost-effectiveness of Canagliflozin versus Sitagliptin When Added to Metformin and Sulfonylurea in Type 2 Diabetes in Canada.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 15;23(2):e151-68. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

BackgroundCanagliflozin, an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is approved as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Canada. Canagliflozin offers greater glycemic control, as well as important additional benefits such as weight loss and blood pressure reductions, versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin.  ObjectiveThis analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg and canagliflozin 100 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin plus sulfonylurea from the perspective of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Read More

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August 2017
68 Reads

Alcohol: A Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Point of View During Lactation.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 15;23(2):e145-50. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

BackgroundA safe amount of alcohol that can be ingested by suckling infants is not known. As a result, alcohol consumption by lactating mothers during this crucial time can potentially harm infants. ObjectiveThis article provides an overview of alcohol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in breast milk. Read More

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August 2017
10 Reads

Double-peaked Acetaminophen Concentration Secondary to Intestinal Trauma.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 15;23(2):e142-4. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

BackgroundReduced gastrointestinal motility can alter the toxicokinetics of acetaminophen poisoning. We report a case of altered acetaminophen toxicokinetics due to delayed gastrointestinal absorption, likely secondary to intestinal trauma/surgery.  Case ReportA 37-year-old woman ingested an unknown amount of acetaminophen and ethanol then stabbed herself in the abdomen. Read More

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August 2017
12 Reads

Comparison of Information Available in the Medication Profile of an Electronic Health Record and the Inpatient Best Possible Medication History in a Mother and Child Teaching Hospital Center.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 15;23(2):e131-41. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

BackgroundMedication reconciliation (MedRec) can improve patient safety. In Canada, most provinces are implementing electronic health records (EHR). The Quebec Health Record (QHR) can theoretically be used for medication reconciliation. Read More

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August 2017
5 Reads

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Challenges Faced by Caregivers: Clinicians' Perspectives.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 15;23(2):e114-30. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

BackgroundThere is a notable absence of evidence based early interventions for young children with FASD.  ObjectiveThis study examines clinicians' perspectives regarding the needs of caregivers of children with FASD and how such perspectives informed the development of a family-centered early intervention for young children with prenatal alcohol exposure.  Method19 professionals who work with children with prenatal alcohol exposure and / or in out-of-home care were recruited to participate in focus groups. Read More

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August 2017
7 Reads

Canadian cost analysis comparing maintenance therapy with bortezomib versus lenalidomide for patients with multiple myeloma post autologous stem cell transplant.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 7;23(1):e103-13. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer caused by malignant plasma cells that accumulate mostly in the bone marrow. In Canada, the most common maintenance therapy options after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) are bortezomib and lenalidomide.

Objective: To determine the incremental cost between bortezomib and lenalidomide maintenance therapies for patients with MM post ASCT. Read More

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January 2017
4 Reads

Development of a Typology of Antidepressant Users: The Role of Mental Health Disorders and Substance Use.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 22;23(1):e90-102. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Background/objectives: Antidepressants constitute one of the most consumed classes of psychotropic medication. This study aims to identify a typology of users based on their individual characteristics, such as presence of a mental disorder and use of other psychotropic medication during the last year.

Methods: Antidepressant use for residents in the epidemiological zone of South-West Montreal aged 15 years and older was documented in 2009, 2011, and 2013. Read More

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January 2017
5 Reads

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Using Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Justice Professionals to Support their Educational Needs.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 22;23(1):e77-89. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Background: People with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can be involved in high risk, socially unacceptable and harmful behaviours and are at high risk of engaging with the justice system.

Objective: To obtain baseline data on Western Australian justice professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice relating to FASD to inform the development of FASD resources.

Methods: Cross sectional study using on-line survey methods, descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis methods for qualitative data. Read More

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January 2017
8 Reads

Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 22;23(1):e60-76. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Background: In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD.

Objectives: To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability.

Methods: A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Read More

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January 2017
50 Reads

Life Expectancy of People with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2016 9;23(1):e53-9. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Objectives: To estimate the life expectancy and specify the causes of death among people with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).

Methods: Included were all patients recorded in Alberta provincial databases of inpatients, outpatients, or practitioner claims from 2003 to 2012. People with FAS were identified by ICD-9 code 760. Read More

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January 2017
263 Reads