852 results match your criteria Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences[Journal]


Effects of Orotic Acid-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver on the Pharmacokinetics of Metoprolol and its Metabolites in Rats.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):98-111

College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea.

Purpose: Preliminary study results have shown that rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by 1% orotic acid-containing diet have decreased hepatic CYP2D activity. This study aims to evaluate the possible pharmacokinetic changes in NAFLD as a result of reduced metabolic activity of CYP2D.

Methods: The pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and its metabolites, O-desmethyl metoprolol (DMM) and α-hydroxy metoprolol (HM), was investigated in NAFLD and control rats following intravenous (1 mg/kg) and oral (2 mg/kg) administration of metoprolol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30268DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of the Fexofenadine on the expression of HRH-1 and HRH-4 receptor in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell isolated from children with diagnosed allergy - in vitro study Short communication.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):93-97

Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 1A Street, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.

Purpose: Fexofenadine (FXF) is the active metabolite of terfenadine with selective peripheral H1 receptor antagonist activity. FXF is a third-generation antihistamine, non-sedating, rapid and very long acting used in symptoms associated with allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma and dermatitis. The pleiotropic effects of histamine are mediated by four types of receptors that belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family: histamine H1 receptor (HRH-1), histamine H2 receptor, histamine H3 receptor, and histamine H4 receptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29971DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Evaluation of the Impact of an Inpatient Hyperglycemia Protocol on Glycemic Control.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):85-92

Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Louis College of Pharmacy / Mercy Hospital St. Louis Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose: Inpatient hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcomes. Existing research assessing inpatient hyperglycemia protocols has shown improvements in average blood glucose levels with inconsistent results regarding rates of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an inpatient hyperglycemia protocol on glycemic control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30180DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Prediction of Hepatic Clearance of Stereoselective Metabolism of Carvedilol in Liver Microsomes and Hepatocytes of Sprague-Dawley and Cytochrome P450 2D-Deficient Dark Agouti Rats.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):72-84

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan. Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Institute, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan. Antiaging Center, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan.

Hepatic clearance (CLh) of carvedilol (CAR), which is eliminated via stereoselective metabolism by the CYP2D subfamily of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), was predicted using liver microsomes and hepatocytes from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and CYP2D-deficient Dark Agouti (DA) rats to determine the usefulness of prediction method. Plasma concentrations of CAR following intravenous injection to DA rats were higher than those in SD rats. The volume of distribution at steady state and total clearance (CLtot) of S-CAR were approximately two times greater than those of R-CAR in both strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30237DOI Listing
January 2019

Antidepressant Use and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):57-71

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Studies provided conflicting results on whether antidepressant use increased the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our aim was to examine the association between antidepressant use and the risk of VTE.

Methods: Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to March 13, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30129DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Novel Approaches for Efficient Delivery of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):37-48

Department of Pharmaceutical biotechnology, Urmia University of medical sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) have potential to be considered as therapeutic target for cancer treatment especially in cancer patients with overexpression of EGFR. Cetuximab as a first monoclonal antibody and Imatinib as the first small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (SMTKI) were approved by FDA in 1998 and 2001. About 28 SMTKIs have been approved until 2015 and a large number of compound with kinase inhibitory activity are at the different phases of clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29891DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution 5.0% for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease: Overview of Clinical Trial Program.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):49-56

Department of Ophthalmology & Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Dry eye disease (DED) is a common inflammatory disorder of the ocular surface. Millions of people are affected by DED worldwide. Lifitegrast is a novel drug designed to inhibit DED-associated ocular inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29895DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Review of Beneficial Low-Intensity Exercises in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):22-27

Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Tyler.

The American Diabetic Association standards of medical care for diabetic patients recommends moderate intensity exercise to help manage diabetes; however, this recommendation may be unmanageable for patients who have become inactive or unable to reach this intensity. The purpose of this review is to determine if low-intensity exercises demonstrate improvement in diabetic peripheral neuropathy symptoms in order to utilize these exercises as a starting point for inactive patients. Studies in low-intensity exercises from 2013 to May 2018 were systematically searched in PubMed, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30151DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A Survey of the Regulatory Requirements for the Acceptance of Foreign Comparator Products by Participating Regulators and Organizations of the International Generic Drug Regulators Programme.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):28-36

Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS), C/ Campezo 1. Edificio 8. Madrid, 28022, Spain.

The acceptance of foreign comparator products is the most limiting factor for the development and regulatory assessment of generic medicines marketed globally. Bioequivalence studies have to be repeated with the local comparator products of each jurisdiction because it is unknown if the comparators of the different countries are the same product, with the consequent duplication of efforts by regulators and industry alike. The regulatory requirements on the acceptability of foreign comparator products of oral dosage forms differ between countries participating in the Bioequivalence Working Group for Generics of the International Pharmaceutical Regulators Programme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30215DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

PAMAM-dendrimer Enhanced Antibacterial Effect of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;22(1):10-21

Department of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The antibacterial activity of some antibiotics is specific to either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.  There are different mechanisms behind such insensitivities like inability of antibiotics to permeate through some bacterial membranes, as is the case for vancomycin in Gram-negative bacteria. The present investigation tries to overcome this problem by dendrimers, in order to make Gram-negative bacteria responsive to vancomycin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29659DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Appropriateness of Ticagrelor Use at Initiation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019 ;22(1):1-9

Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada. Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec-Université Laval Research Centre, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Purpose: Ticagrelor is recommended following an acute coronary syndrome if used appropriately. Its use has not yet been well described in the context of ambulatory clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of ticagrelor new users who initiated this medication appropriately and explore associated factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29913DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Resveratrol Limits Lipogenesis and Enhance Mitochondrial Activity in HepG2 Cells.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):504-515

Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on de novo lipogenesis in HepG2 cells caused by high glucose concentrations. Increased lipogenesis in the liver is the main reason for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - currently one of the most common chronic liver diseases. In developed countries, this disease is mostly associated with nutritional disorders, resulting from the increasing consumption of monosaccharides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29994DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

The Use of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Cardiovascular Disease Detection.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):496-503

Fernando Pessoa Energy, Environment and Health Research Unit/Biomedical Research Center (FP-ENAS/CEBIMED), Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for a high mortality rate worldwide. One of the most common causes of CVDs is vascular inflammation associated to atherosclerosis. Inflammatory biomarkers are used to assist the detection of CVDs and monitor their evaluation, prognosis and therapy implementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29872DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Development, Characterization, and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a CRV431 Loaded Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):335s-348s

ContraVir Pharmaceuticals Inc. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) formulation for the oral delivery of CRV431, a non-immunosuppressive analogue of cyclosporine A. Relative to cyclosporine A, CRV431 is poorly soluble in lipid solvents and thusly presents a challenge for the development of a formulation of sufficient oral bioavailability for clinical use.

Methods: The solubility of CRV431, a cyclosporine derivative, was determined in a range of commonly used surfactants, oils and co-solvents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30245DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Drug Discovery - Building a Consensus on ADME Screening Tools and Clinical Pharmacology Strategies to Aid Candidate Development.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):481-495

Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849, USA. Johns Hopkins Drug Discovery, Johns Hopkins University, 855 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, 855 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Number of drugs with different mechanisms of actions is undergoing clinical trials for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the complexity of the disease with respect to pathophysiology in the liver and associated changes in the renal function, it becomes apparent that a clear ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) strategy needs to be put in place for a successful nomination of a drug candidate for NASH. This review discusses using in vitro and in vivo ADME screens to understand the properties of drugs and to establish whether or not the chosen drug(s) can overcome the challenges related hepatic and renal transporters covering both uptake and efflux mechanisms imposed by NASH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30022DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

STAT3 is involved in IL-6-Mediated Downregulation of Hepatic Transporters in Mice.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):325s-334s

Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Interleukin (IL)-6 decreases hepatic expression of numerous transporters. Although IL-6 signaling occurs through STAT3, the extent of the involvement of the STAT3 signaling pathway has not been elucidated.

Purpose: Our objective was to investigate whether IL-6-mediated effects occur through STAT3, and whether PXR plays a role in this regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30241DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Progress on Active Analgesic Components and Mechanisms of Commonly Used Traditional Chinese Medicines: A Comprehensive Review.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):437-480

Key Laboratory of Hui Medicine Modernization, Ningxia Medical University Pharmacy College, Yinchuan, P. R. China.

Many clinical diseases are accompanied by the symptoms of pain, and the degree of pain is closely related to the patients' suffering. Therefore, effectively relieving pain has become one of the vital concerns of clinical treatment and analgesic drug research. Non-opioid drugs are mainly used for the clinical treatment of mild to moderate pain, whereas opioid drugs are mainly used for treating moderate to severe pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30212DOI Listing
January 2018
14 Reads

The Controversies, Challenges and Complexities of Lyme Disease: A Narrative Review.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):429-436

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moore's University, Liverpool L32ET, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Lyme disease has become an increasingly important global public health concern.

Method: A narrative review was conducted and designed to present a broad perspective on Lyme disease, and describe its history and development in terms of clinical care and public health implications. A structured literature search was conducted based on the question; what is currently known about Lyme disease?

Results: The narrative review is presented in chronological order in terms of a summary of the history of Lyme disease, the complexities of clinical diagnosis, the problematic interpretation of serologic testing, the conflicting guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and management of chronic Lyme, and benefits of antibiotic treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30254DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Treating Children with ASD: The Perspective of Caregivers.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):74s-87s

College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Purpose: Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is challenging. Parents/caregivers' perspective on the effectiveness of therapies and services available to their children is important but neglected in the literature on ASD.  This study investigated such perspective through questionnaire-guided interviews with a group of parents in the province of Manitoba (Canada). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29829DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Moving towards Universal Coverage of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapies for Hepatitis C Infection in Canada: An Environmental Scan of Canadian Provinces and International Jurisdictions.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):271s-308s

College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become the standard treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C infections because of their high cure rates and favourable side effect profiles; however, access to this new class of agents has been limited because of its high cost.  Public payers across Canada have implemented strict criteria for drug coverage in order to contain expenditures. Efforts have been made to improve access to medication for this high-burden condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30220DOI Listing
January 2018
6 Reads

The Antioxidant Activity of Recombinant Rat Hepatic Fatty Acid Binding Protein T94A Variant.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):309s-324s

College of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Analysis Laboratory, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Purpose: Liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) is a cytoplasmic polypeptide that transports substrates throughout the cytosol and functions as an antioxidant. A common polymorphic variant, FABP1 T94A has a minor allele frequency of 26-38%, 8.3±1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30246DOI Listing
January 2018
18 Reads

Revisiting FDA's 1995 Guidance on Bioequivalence Establishment of Topical Dermatologic Corticosteroids: New Research Based Recommendations.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):413-428

Faculté de pharmacie, Université de Montréal, Pavillon Jean Coutu, 2940 Chemin de la polytechnique, Montréal QC, Canada. Learn and Confirm Inc., 750 Marcel-Laurin, St-Laurent QC, Canada.

Purpose: As per the US FDA guidance issued on June 2, 1995, the establishment of bioequivalence for topical dermatologic corticosteroids is based on comparing the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of Test and Reference products at the dose duration corresponding to the population ED50, determined either by naïve pooled data or nonlinear mixed effect modeling (NLME). The guidance was introduced using a study case example where the expectation maximization (EM) NLME algorithm, as implemented in P-PHARM®, was used. Although EM methods are relatively common, other methods such as the First-Order Conditional Estimation (FOCE) as implemented in the NONMEM® software are even more common. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30021DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

Appropriateness of Ticagrelor Use at Initiation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):409-412

Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada. Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec-Université Laval Research Centre, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Purpose: Ticagrelor is recommended following an acute coronary syndrome if used appropriately. Its use has not yet been well described in the context of ambulatory clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of ticagrelor new users who initiated this medication appropriately and explore associated factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29913DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Nano-sized Droplets of Self-Emulsifying System for Enhancing Oral Bioavailability of Chemotherapeutic Agent VP-16 in Rats: A Nano Lipid Carrier for BCS Class IV Drugs.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):398-408

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of a self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) to enhance the oral bioavailability of a BCS class IV drug, etoposide (VP-16).

Method: A series of SNEDDS formulations with VP-16 were prepared consisting of medium chain triglycerides, polysorbate 80, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and propylene glycol monolaurate type-1.  Based on an obtained ternary phase diagram, an optimum formulation was selected and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, loading, morphology and in vitro drug release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30097DOI Listing
January 2018
12 Reads

Rh-endostatin Concomitant with Chemotherapy Versus Single Agent Chemotherapy for Treating Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):386-397

Pharmacy Department of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, P.R. China.

Objectives:  Endostar (recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin)), a 20-kDa proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, was approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, several studies have evaluated the efficacy of rh-endostatin combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess available evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30034DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Application of in Silico Tools in Clinical Practice using Ketoconazole as a Model Drug.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):242s-253s

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Cidade Universitária, 05508-000, Butantã, SP, Brazil. Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katz Centre for Pharmacy & Health Research, University of Alberta, Canada.

Hypochlorhydria is a condition where the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is decreased. As a result, the intragastric pH is elevated. This condition can be due to a series of causes, such as disease (gastric mucosal infection caused by Helicobacter pylori and is prominent in AIDS patients), ethnicity, age and also the use of antisecretory agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30227DOI Listing
January 2018
12 Reads

Lymphatic Drug Absorption via the Enterocytes: Pharmacokinetic Simulation, Modeling, and Considerations for Optimal Drug Development.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):254s-270s

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2142J Katz. Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Most orally administered drugs gain access to the systemic circulation by direct passage from the enterocyte layer of the intestinal tract to the mesenteric blood capillaries. Intestinal lymphatic absorption is another pathway that certain drugs may follow to gain access to the systemic circulation after oral administration. Once absorbed, drug diffuses into the intestinal enterocyte and while in transit may associate with fats as they are processed into chylomicrons within the cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30217DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Research on the Scientific Evolution of the Flavonoid Agathisflavone.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):376-385

Laboratory of Neurochemistry and Cell Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia.

Purpose: Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites of the polyphenols class present in several plant species. Among them, the biflavonoid agathisflavone is of interest since it bears several biological effects that include: antiviral, antitumoral, antiprotozoal and neurogenic actions. In this sense, this study aims to use the important tool of scientific prospecting to assess the level of research development concerning the flavonoid agathisflavone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30103DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Preparation and Characterization of Spray-Dried Inhalable Powders Containing Polymeric Micelles for Pulmonary Delivery of Paclitaxel in Lung Cancer.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):200s-214s

Department of Pharmaceutics and Novel Drug Delivery System Research Center , School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan.

Purpose: Local delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the lungs offers many advantages for lung cancer treatment compared to conventional systemic chemotherapy. In the present study, novel mixed polymeric micelles based on tocopheryl succinate-polyethylene glycol 1000 and 5000 Da (TPGS1K and TPGS5K) were synthesized and loaded with paclitaxel (PTX). Then, the optimized micelles were incorporated as colloidal drug delivery system into lactose carrier particles using a spray drying technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30048DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Cytotoxicity of Structurally Diverse Anthranoids and Correlation with Mechanism of Action and Side Effects.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):347-353

Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil.

The purpose of this contribution is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing ability of structurally diverse anthraquinones to establish a relationship between structure and toxicity. Besides the wide spread use of anthraquinones in pharmacological drugs for constipation and non-prescription dietary supplements for weight loss, extracts are still commercialized as crude extracts and long-term side effects are still relevant. In this work we developed a method to quantify the cascarosides isolated from Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara Sagrada) using LC-MS/MS and evaluated the effects of this extract and isolated compounds on cellular viability using NOK-SI, HeLa, and T98G cell lineages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30077DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Targeted Nanostructured Lipid Carrier for Brain Delivery of Artemisinin: Design, Preparation, Characterization, Optimization and Cell Toxicity.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):225s-241s

Department of Pharmaceutics and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

In the present study, a transferrin-conjugated nanostructured lipid carrier (TF-NLCs) for brain delivery of artemisinin (ART) was developed. ART-loaded NLCs (ART-NLCs) were prepared using solvent evaporation method and the impact of various formulation or process variables on the responses were assessed using a Taguchi design. Optimized ART-NLC was then coupled with transferrin as targeting ligand and its in vitro cytotoxicity was investigated against U-87MG brain cancer cell line. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30117DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Design and Evaluation of Gemini Surfactant-Based Lipoplexes Modified with Cell-Binding Peptide for Targeted Gene Therapy in Melanoma Model.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):363-375

Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose Achieving successful gene therapy requires delivery of a gene vector specifically to the targeted tissue with efficient expression and a good safety profile. The objective of this work was to develop, characterize and determine if a novel gemini surfactant-based lipoplex systems, modified with a cancer-targeting peptide p18-4, could serve this role. Methods The targeting peptide p18-4 was either chemically coupled to a gemini surfactant backbone or physically co-formulated with the lipoplexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30010DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Pharmacokinetic Variability in Pediatrics and Intensive Care: Toward a Personalized Dosing Approach.

Authors:
Amélie Marsot

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):354-362

Faculté de Pharmacie-Université de Montréal.

Providing a safe and efficacious drug therapy for large and often heterogeneous populations is a challenging objective in clinical drug development and routine clinical practice. It has been known for years that the optimum dose required for many therapeutic agents among individuals is quite variable. A wide interindividual pharmacokinetic variability was described in clinically relevant populations such as pediatrics and critically ill patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30082DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Gorlin Syndrome Presentation and the Importance of Differential Diagnosis of Skin Cancer: A Case Report.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):222s-224s

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

In a busy community practice, clinical skin findings can often be misinterpreted. Skin cancers can sometimes mimic rashes like psoriasis, eczema or prurigo nodularis in both appearance and symptoms. Gorlin syndrome is one such genetic syndrome, characterized by the eruption of multiple and early onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), which can be mistaken for a rash. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30150DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Identification of Mechanism and Pathway of the Interaction between the African Traditional Medicine, Sutherlandia Frutescens, and the Antiretroviral Protease Inhibitor, Atazanavir, in Human Subjects Using Population Pharmacokinetic (PK) Analysis.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):215s-221s

Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Although the use of the indigenous Southern African plant, Sutherlandia frutescens (SF) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS has previously been described, the risk which it may pose to the safety and efficacy of ARVs and the potential mechanisms which underlie such effects may have clinical significance and relevance. The protease inhibitor (PI), atazanavir (ATV) is a substrate of the efflux transporter, P-gp which modulates absorption in the small intestine, as well as CYP3A4 and CYP3A5enzymes which facilitate metabolism in the small intestine and liver. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of SF on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atazanavir (ATV) and to use a population PK analysis to fit and explain plasma concentration vs. Read More

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https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/jpps/index.php/JPPS/art
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30068DOI Listing
January 2018
8 Reads

Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-block-Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Micelles of Cyclosporine A in Rats: Comparison with Neoral®.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):192s-199s

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micellar formulation of cyclosporine A (CyA) following oral administration in rats making comparisons with its commercial microemulsion formulation, Neoral®.

Methods: PEO-b-PCL copolymer was synthesized and used to form micelles encapsulating CyA. The release of CyA from Neoral® and PEO-b-PCL as well as PEO-b-PCL degradation were assessed in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps28987DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

A Case for Alpha-Lipoic Acid as an Alternative Treatment for Diabetic Polyneuropathy.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):177s-191s

Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, Texas.

Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate current evidence of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) regarding efficacy, safety, and cost to accurately compare it with other diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) treatments. The intention is to provide recommendations on future research and to promote utilization of ALA in the United States (US).

Methods: A literature search was conducted on three databases: Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30100DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Levetiracetam in Select Populations.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):149s-176s

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Purpose: Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) that has a more favorable side effect profile compared to older AEDs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of LEV is generally unnecessary given its linear and predictable dose-serum concentration relationship, lack of drug-drug interactions, and broad therapeutic window. However, there is growing evidence showing that alteration of LEV pharmacokinetics (PK) may occur in special populations calling for the need for TDM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30081DOI Listing
January 2018
14 Reads

Calcium Signal Pathway is Involved in Prostaglandin E2 Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in Cardiac Fibroblasts.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):326-339

Department of Pharmacy, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the arachidonic acid metabolites synthetized from arachidonic acid through cyclooxygenase (COX) catalysis, demonstrates multiple physiological and pathological actions through different subtypes of EP receptors.

Purpose: The present study was designed to explore the effects of PGE2 on cardiac fibrosis and the involved mechanism.

Methods: We used western blot analysis, real-time quantitative PCR and immunostaining etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29322DOI Listing
January 2018
16 Reads

Polymorphisms of Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT) Gene in Vulnerability to Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):340-346

Purpose: Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder, is usually treated with Levodopa (L-DOPA). The use of this drug, however, is severely limited by the development of side effects of the motor system: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between seven COMT gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development of LID in patients with PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29903DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Icariside II Attenuates Chronic Hydrocephalus in an Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Rat Model.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):318-325

Hebei General Hospital, No. 348 Heping West Road, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei Province, China.

Purpose To investigate the role of ICA II in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-  related chronic hydrocephalus. Methods A two hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague Dawley rats (6-8 weeks). A total of 125 rats were randomly assigned into five groups: Sham group, SAH group, SAH+ ICA II (1 mg/kg) group, SAH + ICA II (5 mg/kg) group, and SAH + ICA II (10 mg/kg) group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29811DOI Listing
January 2018
5 Reads

in vitro- and in vivo Evaluation of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydrogel Nanoparticles Intended to Treat Primary CNS Lymphoma via Intranasal Administration.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):305-317

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Purpose: Although it passes through blood-brain barrier (BBB) very poorly, methotrexate (MTX) is an important therapeutic in the treatment of many central nervous system malignancies. Accordingly, intranasal (IN) administration accompanied with a muco-adhesive chitosan-based nanoformulation is expected to overcome this problem.

Methods: Nanogel containing MTX was prepared through an ionic gelation method and then characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, zeta potential, drug loading and drug release behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29496DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Clearance Concepts: Fundamentals and Application to Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Drugs.

Authors:
Reza Mehvar

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):88s-102s

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA.

Clearance concepts were introduced into the pharmacokinetics discipline in the 1970s and since then have played a major role in characterization of the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs. These concepts are based on the relationship between organ extraction ratio or clearance and physiologic parameters such as the organ blood flow and the intrinsic capability of the eliminating organ to remove the free (unbound) drug from the body. Several theoretical models have been developed, which define these relationships and may be used to predict the effects of changes in the physiological parameters on various pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs, such as drug clearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29896DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Mast Cells Stimulated with Peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus Augment the Development of Th1 Cells.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):296-304

Department of Clinical Immunology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is superficially colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. We have previously found that percutaneous permeation of peptidoglycan (PEG) from S. aureus increases the number of mast cells in the dermis, as seen in skin lesions of AD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29951DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Assessing the Physicochemical Stability of a Compounded Neonatal Trace Element Solution.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):103s-116s

University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Purpose: Alberta Health Services (AHS) recommends the adoption of a new neonatal multi-trace element formulation containing zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, selenious acid and sodium iodide to be compounded internally in appropriate AHS pharmacies. The objective of this study was to assess the physicochemical stability of this formulation under commonly used storage conditions.

Method:   Three batches of trace element solution were compounded by University of Alberta Hospital pharmacy staff using sterile compounding procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29975DOI Listing
January 2018
6 Reads

Endotoxin Modulates the Expression of Renal Drug Transporters in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):117s-129s

Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpuse: Bacterial co-infections and low grade endotoxemia are common in HIV patients. Inflammation due to endotoxin or HIV may influence the expression and activity of transporters. Kidney transporters influence renal drug clearances including many antiretroviral agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30017DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Understanding the Monoclonal Antibody Disposition after Subcutaneous Administration using a Minimal Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Model.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1s):130s-148s

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA.

Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are commonly administered by subcutaneous (SC) route. However, bioavailability is often reduced after SC administration. In addition, the sequential transfer of mAbs through the SC tissue and lymphatic system is not completely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30028DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Factors Affecting Opioid Treatment in Cancer Patients.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):256-267

Pain Relief and Palliative Care Unit, Department of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

Purpose: Pain is prevalent in cancer patients, appearing to be moderate to severe in more than one third of them. Despite the fact that fentanyl is widely used with effective analgesic results, some patients do not correspond to treatment, resulting in opioid change.

Methods: This is a cohort study, performed in Greek patients with cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29396DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

A Combined Computer-Aided Approach to Drive the Identification of Potential Epitopes in Protein Therapeutics.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):268-285

Molecular Biology Laboratory - Unit of Innovation and Development, Butantan Institute and Centre of Excellence in New Target Discovery - CENTD, Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The identification of fragment sequences, or motifs, within a therapeutic protein that may elicit an immune response when processed by T-cells can be provided by computer-aided approaches. Immunogenicity is a significant problem associated with protein therapeutics and should be investigated in the early stage of protein-based drug development to avoid treatment resistance and potentially life-threatening immune responses.

Purpose: To provide a combined computer-aided protocol for investigating the immunogenic profile of a recombinant Kunitz-type inhibitor, which has been reported as promising antitumor agent by our research group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29800DOI Listing
January 2018
23 Reads

Purchasing Over The Counter (OTC) Medicinal Products Containing Codeine - Easy Access, Advertising, Misuse and Perceptions of Medicinal Risk.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;21(1):30049

School of Health Sciences, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland.

Purpose: Codeine containing medicines can carry a number of health risks associated with the increase in reported misuse and dependence, however they are still readily available over the counter (OTC) in many countries. The aim of this novel study was to report on the results of a survey of customers purchasing OTC codeine containing medicinal products at pharmacies in Ireland, South Africa and England; exploring use, sources of knowledge and perception of risks.

Methods: The study design was an exploratory cross sectional survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps30049DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads