600 results match your criteria Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics[Journal]


Pediatric Pharmacists' Participation in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Events.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):502-506

The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) understands the dilemma and varying factors that many institutions face concerning the routine participation of pharmacists in emergency resuscitation events. Acknowledging these obstacles, the PPAG encourages all institutions to strongly consider creating, adopting, and upholding policies to address pharmacists' participation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as evidenced by the impact pharmacist participation has shown on the reduction of hospital medication error and mortality rates in children. The PPAG advocates that pharmacists be actively involved in the institution's CPR, medical emergency team committees, and preparation of emergency drug kits and resuscitation trays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336177PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

The Role of the Pediatric Pharmacist in Precision Medicine and Clinical Pharmacogenomics for Children.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):499-501

With the initiatives by the National Institutes of Health and the US Food and Drug Administration, pharmacogenomics is transitioning from the laboratory to patient care. Nearly 200 drug products now contain pharmacogenomic information as part of their labeling; many of these products are commonly used in the pediatric population. Because pharmacogenomic testing can provide patient-specific predictors for drug response, pharmacists are positioned to assume a leadership role in pharmacogenomic testing, clinical interpretation of results, and recommendations for individualization of drug therapy. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.499
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336182PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Tolvaptan Use to Treat SIADH in a Child.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):494-498

Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities encountered in the clinical setting in hospitalized patients. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the leading cause of hyponatremia in most of these cases. While fluid restriction, hypertonic saline infusion, diuretics, and the treatment of underlying conditions constitute the first line of treatment of SIADH, in refractory cases, and especially for pediatric patients, there seems not to be any other choice for treatment. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.494
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336180PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Ceftaroline Plus Daptomycin for Refractory Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in a Child.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):490-493

Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia can be difficult to treat, with growing adult literature supporting the combination of ceftaroline and daptomycin for these patients. Here, we report a pediatric patient with persistent MRSA bacteremia with associated cellulitis, fasciitis, myositis, and a deep venous thrombosis causing septic pulmonary emboli. After being unable to clear the bacteremia on vancomycin and then daptomycin monotherapy, the bacteremia cleared quickly with rapid clinical improvement after the addition of ceftaroline to daptomycin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336175PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Dexmedetomidine-Associated Fever in a Critically Ill Obese Child.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):486-489

Dexmedetomidine use in the pediatric intensive care unit has increased in recent years. Reports of dexmedetomidine-associated drug fever have been described in adult patients; however, this has not been reported in the pediatric population. We report a case of persistent fever that resolved with the discontinuation of dexmedetomidine and successful transition to clonidine. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.486
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336172PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Identification of Factors Associated With the Desire to Participate in a Pediatric Pharmacy Practice-Based Research Network.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):479-485

Objectives: To evaluate the practice-based research network (PBRN) potential within the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) membership and to identify characteristics associated with member willingness to join a PPAG PBRN.

Methods: In October 2016, a 21-question survey was sent by email to approximately 900 PPAG pharmacist members (excluding students) using contact information contained in the PPAG membership database. The survey elucidated information regarding training, clinical and research experience, practice site information, and willingness to participate in a PPAG PBRN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336176PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of the Cardiovascular Effects of Clonidine in Neonates Treated for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):473-478

Objectives: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is characterized by withdrawal symptoms in neonates exposed to legal or illegal substances , and it is often managed with medications such as opiates, phenobarbital, and clonidine. Clonidine use is increasing, but further safety data regarding its use in neonates are warranted. This study evaluated the effects of clonidine on heart rate and blood pressure in neonates treated for NAS at doses up to 24 mcg/kg/day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336178PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Association of Procalcitonin Value and Bacterial Coinfections in Pediatric Patients With Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):466-472

Objective: Our primary objective was to determine the utility of procalcitonin (PCT) in detection of bacterial coinfection in children < 5 years admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).

Methods: Electronic medical record review of children < 5 years admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a viral LRTI who also had at least 1 PCT concentration measurement.

Results: Seventy-five patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and met the inclusion criteria for this investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336174PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Is Orally Administered Pentobarbital a Safe and Effective Alternative to Chloral Hydrate for Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):460-465

Objectives: Chloral hydrate had been extensively used for children undergoing sedation for imaging studies, but after the manufacturer discontinued production, pediatric sedation providers explored alternative sedation medications. Those medications needed to be at least as safe and as effective as chloral hydrate. In this study, we examined if pentobarbital is a suitable replacement for chloral hydrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336170PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Pharmacologic Management of Agitation and Aggression in a Pediatric Emergency Department - A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):455-459

Background: Benzodiazepine and antipsychotic use for acute management of agitation and aggression in the pediatric emergency department (ED) setting has not been well described.

Objectives: To describe medication utilization in the management of agitation and aggression in a pediatric ED and to assess the safety of their use.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336173PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Safety and Utility of Continuous Ketamine Infusion for Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Patients.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):447-454

Objectives: The selection of sedative medications for mechanically ventilated pediatric patients remains an ongoing clinical challenge. Although continuous ketamine infusion has been used in this population, support for its use remains largely anecdotal. This study describes a single institution's use of ketamine infusions as part of a sedation protocol in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336171PMC
January 2019

An Introduction to Pharmacotherapy for Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

Authors:
Aaron A Harthan

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):432-446

Inborn errors of metabolism comprise a wide array of diseases and complications in the pediatric patient. The rarity of these disorders limits the ability to conduct and review robust literature regarding the disease states, mechanisms of dysfunction, treatments, and outcomes. Often, treatment plans will be based on the pathophysiology associated with the disorder and theoretical agents that may be involved in the metabolic process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336179PMC
January 2019

Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation Formulas for Pediatric and Neonatal Use.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):424-431

Renal function assessment is of the utmost importance in predicting drug clearance and in ensuring safe and effective drug therapy in neonates. The challenges to making this prediction relate not only to the extreme vulnerability and rapid maturation of this pediatric subgroup but also to the choice of renal biomarker, covariates, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating formula. In order to avoid burdensome administration of exogenous markers and/or urine collection in vulnerable pediatric patients, estimation of GFR utilizing endogenous markers has become a useful tool in clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336181PMC
January 2019

Severe Neuropathic Pain With Concomitant Administration of Vincristine and Posaconazole.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):417-420

Vincristine is a chemotherapeutic agent with a potential toxicity of sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving chemotherapy are in an immunocompromised state and may require antifungal agents. Triazole antifungals are known inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213623PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Assessment of Outcomes With a Sedation Protocol During Laser Photocoagulation in Preterm Infants With Retinopathy of Prematurity.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):410-416

Objectives: To evaluate the success of a sedation protocol of fentanyl and midazolam infusions for infants undergoing laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity.

Methods: This retrospective study included infants receiving a sedation protocol for laser photocoagulation during a 4-year period. The primary objective was protocol success, defined as completion without interruption, absence of protocol dose deviations, and absence of interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213621PMC
November 2018

Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Preservation of Extemporaneous Diluted Simple Syrup Vehicles for Pediatrics.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):405-409

Objectives: Extemporaneous or magistral formulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients using traditional compounding techniques is a common practice when no commercial form is available for pediatrics. For this vulnerable group of patients, the formulation must be prepared with the minimum quantity and lowest proportion of excipients approved for pediatrics, avoiding the use of preservatives. Often the vehicles used for these preparations are dilutions of simple syrup with water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213630PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Use of Intravenous Acetaminophen in Children for Analgesia After Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):395-404

Objectives: Opioid pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of postoperative analgesia. Despite its effectiveness, it has a variety of potential adverse effects. Therefore, a multimodal approach with non-opioid analgesics would be optimal. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.395
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213625PMC
November 2018
14 Reads

Azithromycin Induces Migrating Motor Complexes in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Antroduodenal Motility Studies.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):390-394

Objective: Erythromycin (ERY) is used in the treatment of gastroparesis; however, this medication is associated with serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias and consequent cardiorespiratory arrest. Azithromycin (AZM) has been suggested as an alternative to ERY as a result of its improved safety profile. Intravenous ERY (1 mg/kg) is administered during antroduodenal motility studies to induce migrating motor complexes (MMCs), the presence or absence of which helps diagnose motility disorders like gastroparesis and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.390
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213627PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Relationship of Pulmonary Outcomes, Microbiology, and Serum Antibiotic Concentrations in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):379-389

Objectives: To determine the frequency of subtherapeutic exposure to intravenously administered β-lactam antibiotics in a cohort of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who were treated for a pulmonary exacerbation, and its impact on pulmonary function.

Methods: Nineteen CF patients between the ages of 5 and 21 years treated at Children's National Health System for a pulmonary exacerbation were followed between March 2015 and August 2016 in a prospective, longitudinal study. Pharmacokinetic modeling and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the involved pathogens were used to determine therapeutic or subtherapeutic β-lactam antibiotic exposure based on the time the antibiotic concentration was above the MIC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213626PMC
November 2018

Pediatric Antiviral Stewardship: Defining the Potential Role of Ribavirin in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Lower Respiratory Illness.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):372-378

Objectives: Although no longer included in the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline, ribavirin was shown to be beneficial in a subset of adult patients with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated bronchiolitis. This study aimed to investigate risk factors for progression to severe acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized pediatric patients with RSV-associated bronchiolitis to identify which patients may benefit from inhaled ribavirin therapy, despite its substantial cost, diffcult administration, and potential complications.

Methods: Patients were identified by ICD-9 codes for RSV bronchiolitis and were only included if they had a confirmed positive result for RSV via polymerase chain reaction for detection and typing of respiratory viruses. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.372
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213624PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Poractant Alfa Versus Beractant for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Cost Analysis.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):367-371

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the average medication cost per patient of poractant alfa and beractant, and to compare the outcomes of treatment with these agents.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients who received surfactant, before and after an institutional formulary change from beractant to poractant alfa. The primary outcome was the average medication cost per case. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.367
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213622PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Assessing the Understanding of Pediatric-Oriented Medication Education Materials Versus Standard Available Education Materials.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):362-366

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine if education material targeting children would improve understanding of medication indication, administration, and common side effects in pediatric subjects.

Methods: This cross-sectional pilot study included students 7 to 11 years old from a suburban elementary school. Study participants were read either the US Food and Drug Administration-approved adult medication leaflet or a pediatric medication leaflet created at a first-grade reading level for levetiracetam (Keppra, UCB, Inc, Atlanta, GA). Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.362
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213628PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Evolving Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):351-361

Despite pharmacotherapeutic advancements in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus during the past several decades, patients struggle to achieve glycemic goals. Additionally, hypoglycemia, especially in extremes of age, decreases quality of life. The lack of optimal glycemic control and risk for hypoglycemia are multifactorial. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.351
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.5.351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213629PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Pediatric News.

Authors:

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):347

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117807PMC
September 2018

Position Paper: Pharmacists and Childhood Vaccines.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):343-346

Vaccination rates of children in the United States remain below the target coverage levels identified in the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Given the success of pharmacists in providing adult vaccinations and the accessibility of pharmacists to the public, expanding pharmacists' authority to vaccinate children may improve vaccination rates of children, particularly in key disease states. This article serves as a Position Statement of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG), who supports the expansion of pharmacists' authority to vaccinate children. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.343
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117813PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Intravenous Ribavirin for Parainfluenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in an Infant Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):337-342

Background: Viral bronchiolitis remains a significant cause of hospitalization as well as morbidity and mortality during the first year of life, with treatment options beyond supportive care being limited. In cases of severe illness, ribavirin may offer therapeutic benefit.

Objective: We report the use of intravenous (IV) ribavirin in an infant requiring concomitant venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) coinfection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117812PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

Impact of Two Educational Modules on Practitioner Knowledge of Pediatric Delirium.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):329-336

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of education modules in preparing staff before the implementation of a pediatric delirium screening protocol.

Methods: After consenting participants began phase 1 of the study, which covered general information on pediatric delirium. It comprised a 21-question assessment administered as a pretest followed by an education module and then the same 21-question assessment administered as a posttest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117815PMC
September 2018

Development of an Interprofessional Pharmacist-Nurse Navigation Pediatric Discharge Program.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):320-328

Objectives: Numerous challenges face clinically complex patients as they transition from hospital to home. The purpose of this project was to add pharmacy discharge services to an existing nurse-led discharge service (patient navigation program) to facilitate the transition of care process for clinically complex pediatric patients.

Methods: For select patients referred to the service, a pharmacist resolved medication discrepancies, provided discharge counseling, and conducted follow-up telephone encounters on days 1, 7, and 14 post discharge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117806PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Effect of Exogenous Antithrombin Administration on Anti-Xa Levels in Infants Treated With Enoxaparin.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):315-319

Objectives: Determine the effect of exogenous antithrombin III administration on low molecular weight heparin anti-Xa levels in the context of enoxaparin dosing in infants.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of infants receiving concomitant antithrombin III and enoxaparin. The primary objective of this study was to determine the median change in anti-Xa level with antithrombin III supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117808PMC
September 2018

Sterility Duration of Preprimed Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuits.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):311-314

Objectives: There is a lack of standardization and supporting data regarding the duration preassembled and preprimed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuits are expected to be sterile. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether preassembled and preprimed ECMO circuits could maintain sterility for a period up to 65 days.

Design: Four ECMO circuits (2 neonatal/pediatric¼" and 2 adolescent/adult ⅜ ") were assembled and primed under sterile conditions and maintained at room temperature. Read More

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http://www.jppt.org/doi/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.311
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117816PMC
September 2018
10 Reads

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Pediatric Patients With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):305-310

Objectives: Determine pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and optimal dosage of vancomycin for children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

Methods: Retrospective PK study of vancomycin in pediatric patients on ECMO who received IV vancomycin 40 to 60 mg/kg/day every 6 hours. Patients were analyzed according to the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117811PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

A Report of an Asthma Pathway Leading to Improved Resource Use.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):298-304

Objectives: Asthma pathways have been shown to improve resource use and decrease length of stay (LOS). A tertiary care hospital implemented an asthma pathway in May 2015 to standardize inpatient care. We predicted that the pathway would increase the use of albuterol metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and steroids; decrease use of albuterol nebulizer, antibiotics, chest radiograph (CXR), and respiratory viral panel (RVP); and decrease LOS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117809PMC
September 2018

Pharmacist and Pediatrician Knowledge of Codeine Use in Children.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):293-297

Objectives: In 2011, approximately 1.7 million pediatric patients had a codeine-containing prescription filled at a US retail pharmacy. Numerous cases involving serious adverse effects or fatalities have been reported in children who have been prescribed codeine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117814PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

A Clinician's Guide to Oral Extended-Release Drug Delivery Systems in Epilepsy.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):277-292

Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurologic disorders that affects individuals of all ages. It is primarily managed with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with the goal of maintaining complete seizure control combined with minimal or no adverse effects. Oral administration is the mainstay of AED delivery for patients with chronic epilepsy and consists essentially of immediate-release (IR) and modified-release (delayed-release and extended-release [ER]) dosage formulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.4.277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117810PMC
September 2018
14 Reads

Pediatric News.

Authors:

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 May-Jun;23(3):271-273

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.3.271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027973PMC
July 2018
1 Read

Angioedema Associated With Nebulized Recombinant Human DNase in a Preterm Infant: Case Report.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 May-Jun;23(3):219-222

Pulmonary atelectasis leads to difficulties in weaning of the neonates from mechanical ventilation. The management of persistent atelectasis in neonates constitutes a common challenge for physicians. Several reports suggested Recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) as a beneficial therapy for neonates with persistent atelectasis by reducing mucous viscosity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.3.219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027972PMC
July 2018
19 Reads

General Anesthesia With Dexmedetomidine and Remifentanil in a Neonate During Oracotomy and Resection of a Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 May-Jun;23(3):215-218

Based on animal data, concern has been expressed regarding the potential deleterious neurocognitive effects of general anesthesia during infancy and early life. Although there are no definitive data to prove this effect, the neonatal period has been suggested to be the most vulnerable period. While various inhaled and intravenous anesthetic agents have been implicated, dexmedetomidine and the opioids may be devoid of such effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.3.215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027977PMC
July 2018
8 Reads

Characterization of the Clinical Outcomes With Cefepime in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 May-Jun;23(3):209-214

Objectives: The objective of this study was to characterize clinical outcomes when cefepime was used in a neonatal intensive care population.

Methods: Data were extracted from the medical records of all full-term (40 weeks gestational age) patients up to 2 months of age and preterm patients up to 48 weeks postmenstrual age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at a freestanding children's hospital between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, who received at least 48 hours of cefepime. The primary outcome measure was a positive clinical response as defined by a normalization of white blood cell count and/or culture clearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.3.209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027976PMC
July 2018
15 Reads

Effect of Nursing Education on Optimization of Medication Reconciliation in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 May-Jun;23(3):203-208

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of education on optimizing medication histories in a single-center pediatric emergency department.

Methods: This was a prospective, 2-phase study of 200 patients ages 21 years and younger who presented to the pediatric emergency department in January and February 2017. In phase I of the study, 100 patients were interviewed by both a nurse and a pharmacist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.3.203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027975PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Pain Management in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 May-Jun;23(3):192-202

Pain is a common problem in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, limited data exist regarding its management. Although most pain is managed pharmacologically, in some instances non-pharmacologic management can aid in safely ameliorating discomfort. Because of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, many common pain medications have adverse effects on kidney function or altered pharmacokinetics in the setting of CKD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.3.192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027978PMC
July 2018
17 Reads

PEDIATRIC NEWS.

Authors:

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):172-173

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916448PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Disulfiram-like Reaction Involving Ceftriaxone in a Pediatric Patient.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):168-171

Several medications have been shown to cause disulfiram-like reactions in patients concomitantly exposed to ethanol, including specific cephalosporin antibiotics that possess a methylthiotetrazole substituent. Within the cephalosporin class, there are few reports of disulfiram-like reactions with ceftriaxone. This case report is the first to involve a pediatric patient, and it describes a mild but likely disulfiram-like reaction manifesting as facial flushing in an 8-year-old male upon receiving a ceftriaxone infusion preceded by a dose of prednisolone elixir (5% ethanol by volume) for presumed community-acquired pneumonia thought to be complicated by an asthma exacerbation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916447PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

A Unique Preparation and Delivery Method for Acitretin for Neonatal Harlequin Ichthyosis.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):164-167

Harlequin ichthyosis is a rare form of congenital ichthyosis with a distinct phenotypic appearance. We describe a case of a newborn baby with harlequin ichthyosis who was treated with an oral formulation of acitretin. The treatment resulted in a satisfactory improvement in the skin condition of the patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916446PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Extended Interval Tobramycin Pharmacokinetics in a Pediatric Patient With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Presenting With an Acute Respiratory Exacerbation.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):159-163

The pharmacokinetics of tobramycin in patients with ciliary dyskinesia have not been previously reported. A 10-year-old female patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia was admitted to the general pediatrics floor with an acute respiratory exacerbation after several months of worsening lung function that was unresponsive to oral antibiotics. Extrapolating from cystic fibrosis dosing regimens, she was given intravenous tobramycin 320 mg (10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916445PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Safety of Extended Interval Tobramycin in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Less an 6 Years Old.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):152-158

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to assess the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity risks of extended interval tobramycin in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who are <6 years old. A secondary objective included analyzing pharmacokinetic parameters in this age group.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with CF who were <6 years old, admitted for an acute pulmonary exacerbation from January 1, 2003, to January 1, 2014, and treated with intravenous tobramycin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916444PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Comparison of the Pharmacoeconomics of Calfactant and Poractant Alfa in Surfactant Replacement erapy.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):146-151

Objective: To compare the pharmacy costs of calfactant (Infasurf, ONY, Inc.) and poractant alfa (Curosurf, Chiesi USA, Inc., Cary, NC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916443PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

Evaluation of Timing and Dosing of Caffeine Citrate in Preterm Neonates for the Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):139-145

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the timing and dosing of caffeine therapy in relation to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study comparing early (days of life 0-2) to late (day of life 3 or greater) caffeine initiation in extremely low birth weight neonates, with a secondary analysis of large (10 mg/kg/day) to small dose (5 mg/kg/day) caffeine.

Results: There were 138 patients in the primary timing analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916442PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Resource Use Evaluation of Tobramycin Formulations in a State Medicaid Program.

Authors:
Shellie L Keast

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Mar-Apr;23(2):132-138

Objective: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer from chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For patients with CF, 6 years of age and older, with P aeruginosa persistently present in cultures of the airways, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends the chronic use of inhaled tobramycin to reduce exacerbations. To ease treatment burden, a new dry powder formulation was developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-23.2.132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916441PMC
May 2018
4 Reads