20,660 results match your criteria Journal of Nutrition[Journal]


Inclusion of Dietary Defatted Microalgae Dose-Dependently Enriches ω-3 Fatty Acids in Egg Yolk and Tissues of Laying Hens.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Background: The potential for dietary microalgae to enrich eggs of laying hens with ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and the mechanisms involved, are unclear.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects and molecular regulation of a defatted Nannochloropsis oceanica microalgae (DNOM) biomass on the enrichment of the eggs and tissues of laying hens with ω-3 fatty acids.

Methods: Fifty Shaver-White Leghorn hens (46 wk of age, body weight: 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz032DOI Listing

Repeated Exposure to Low-Sodium Cereal Affects Acceptance but Does not Shift Taste Preferences or Detection Thresholds of Children in a Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Although salt taste preference is malleable in adults, no research to date has focused on children, whose dietary sodium intake exceeds recommended intake and whose salt taste preferences are elevated.

Objective: This proof-of-principle trial determined whether 8-wk exposure to low-sodium cereal (LSC) increased children's acceptance of its taste and changed their salty and sweet taste preferences.

Methods: Children (n = 39; ages 6-14 y; 67% female) were randomly assigned to ingest LSC or regular-sodium cereal (RSC) 4 times/wk for 8 wk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz014DOI Listing

Supplemental Vitamin B-12 Enhances the Neural Response to Sensory Stimulation in the Barrel Cortex of Healthy Rats but Does Not Affect Spontaneous Neural Activity.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Sciences.

Background: Although vitamin B-12 (B-12) is known to contribute to the structural and functional development of the brain, it is unclear if B-12 supplementation has any beneficial effect in healthy populations in terms of enhanced neurologic status of the brain or improved cognitive function.

Objectives: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of B-12 on the cortical neural activity of well-nourished young adult rats and tested the hypothesis that B-12 supplementation in healthy rats may reduce sensory-evoked neural activity due to enhanced inhibition.

Methods: Female Lister Hooded rats weighing 190-265 g (2-4 mo old) were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz011DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neonatal Vitamin A Supplementation and Vitamin A Status Are Associated with Gut Microbiome Composition in Bangladeshi Infants in Early Infancy and at 2 Years of Age.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Nutrition Department.

Background: Infancy is a crucial period for establishing the intestinal microbiome. This process may be influenced by vitamin A (VA) status because VA affects intestinal immunity and epithelial integrity, factors that can, in turn, modulate microbiome development.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if neonatal VA supplementation (VAS) affected the abundance of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial commensal, or of Proteobacteria, a phylum containing enteric pathogens, in early (6-15 wk) or late (2 y) infancy. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz034DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

School-Age Children Can Recall Some Foods and Beverages Consumed the Prior Day Using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) without Assistance.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Background: Technological innovations allow for collection of 24-h recalls (24HRs) in a broader range of studies than previously possible. The web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) has been shown to be feasible and to perform well in capturing true intake among adults. However, data to inform use with children are limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz013DOI Listing

A Meta-Analysis of 46 Studies Identified by the FDA Demonstrates that Soy Protein Decreases Circulating LDL and Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Adults.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials.

Objective: We performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz020DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Inflammation and Stress Biomarkers Mediate the Association between Household Food Insecurity and Insulin Resistance among Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT.

Background: Household food insecurity (HFI) is a stressor that is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, little is known about HFI and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying T2D, and the mechanisms involved.

Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between HFI and IR among low-income Latinos with T2D and tested whether inflammation and stress hormones mediated this association. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz021DOI Listing

Intermittent Energy Restriction Is a Feasible, Effective, and Acceptable Intervention to Treat Adolescents with Obesity.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School.

Background: Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an effective obesity management strategy in adults.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility, effectiveness, and acceptability of IER in adolescents (aged 12-17 y) with obesity [adult equivalent body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥30].

Methods: During weeks 1-12 participants followed an IER dietary plan consisting of a very-low-energy diet (VLED) 3 d/wk (500-600 kcal/d) and an eating plan consistent with national dietary guidelines 4 d/wk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz049DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Antenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Compared to Iron-Folic Acid Affects Micronutrient Status but Does Not Eliminate Deficiencies in a Randomized Controlled Trial among Pregnant Women of Rural Bangladesh.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Antenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth outcomes relative to iron-folic acid (IFA) in developing countries, but limited data exist on its impact on pregnancy micronutrient status.

Objective: We assessed the efficacy of a daily MM (15 nutrients) compared with IFA supplement, each providing approximately 1 RDA of nutrients and given beginning at pregnancy ascertainment, on late pregnancy micronutrient status of women in rural Bangladesh. Secondarily, we explored other contributors to pregnancy micronutrient status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz046DOI Listing

Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Lower Non-HDL Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed a Diet Rich in Saturated Fat and Act on Genes Involved in Cholesterol Homeostasis.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Food Science and Technology.

Background: Pinto beans contain multiple active agents such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and saponins, and have been shown to lower cholesterol, but the mechanisms involved in this effect have not been explored.

Objective: This study was to investigate the changes in cholesterol metabolism in response to whole pinto beans (wPB) and their hulls (hPB) supplemented into a diet rich in saturated fat and the molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for these effects in hamsters.

Methods: Forty-four 9-wk-old male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to 4 diet groups (n = 11), including a 5% (wt:wt) fat diet [normal-fat diet (NF)], a 15% (wt:wt) fat diet [diet rich in saturated fat (HSF), saturated fatty acids accounted for 70% of total fatty acids], or HSF supplemented with 5% (wt:wt) wPB or 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz044DOI Listing

Supplementation with Sodium Butyrate Modulates the Composition of the Gut Microbiota and Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to ameliorate obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of butyrate, an SCFA, in the regulation of obesity, low-grade chronic inflammation, and alterations of microbiota composition in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy324DOI Listing

Long-Term Change in both Dietary Insulinemic and Inflammatory Potential Is Associated with Weight Gain in Adult Women and Men.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Background: The influence of long-term dietary patterns on weight gain and the underlying potential biological mechanisms are not fully understood.

Objective: We prospectively examined the association of changes in 2 empirical hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns (insulinemic and inflammatory) and weight gain over 24 y at 4-y intervals.

Methods: We followed 54,397 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 33,043 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), and computed the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) scores from food frequency questionnaires administered every 4 y. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy319DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Consumption of Galacto-Oligosaccharides Increases Iron Absorption from Ferrous Fumarate: A Stable Iron Isotope Study in Iron-Depleted Young Women.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Animal studies suggest prebiotics can increase iron absorption, but results from human studies are equivocal.

Objectives: In iron-depleted women, before (baseline) and after daily consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) for 4 wk, we sought to assess fractional iron absorption (FIA) from an iron supplement given with and without single doses of GOS in test meals or water.

Methods: In all women (n = 34; median serum ferritin concentration = 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy327DOI Listing

High Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate-Fortified Bouillon Cubes in Meals is Not Increased by Sodium Pyrophosphate: a Stable Iron Isotope Study in Young Nigerian Women.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, South Holland, The Netherlands.

Background: It is challenging to find an iron compound that combines good bioavailability with minimal sensory changes when added to seasonings or condiments. Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is currently used to fortify bouillon cubes, but its bioavailability is generally low. Previously, the addition of a stabilizer, sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP), improved iron bioavailability from a bouillon drink. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz003DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Zinc Absorption From Agronomically Biofortified Wheat Is Similar to Post-Harvest Fortified Wheat and Is a Substantial Source of Bioavailable Zinc in Humans.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Limited data exist on human zinc absorption from wheat biofortified via foliar (FBW) or root (hydroponically fortified wheat, HBW) zinc application. Stable isotope labels added at point of consumption (extrinsic labeling) might not reflect absorption from native zinc obtained by intrinsic labeling.

Objectives: We measured fractional and total zinc absorption (FAZ, TAZ) in FBW and HBW wheat, compared with control wheat (CW) and fortified wheat (FW). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy328DOI Listing

Using Food to Soothe in Infancy is Prospectively Associated with Childhood BMI in a Population-Based Cohort.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Feeding practices have been implicated in childhood overweight, but the long-term effects of using food to comfort a distressed child remain unknown.

Objective: This study examined whether the use of food to soothe in infancy was associated with later body composition, and whether children's eating behaviors mediate this relation.

Methods: Participants were 3960 children of Generation R, a population-based birth cohort in the Netherlands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy277DOI Listing

A High-Fiber Diet Decreases Postabsorptive Protein Turnover but Does Not Alter Insulin Sensitivity in Men with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):596-604

Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolic Diseases, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, Padova, Italy.

Background: High-fiber diets (HFDs) are recommended in the diet of persons with diabetes, yet such diets can impair macronutrient digestion and/or absorption, modify insulin sensitivity, and reset metabolism.

Objectives: We studied the effects of a HFD on the kinetics of whole-body protein, a macronutrient that could be affected by dietary fiber, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), under both basal-low insulinemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions.

Methods: Eight men with T1DM (body mass index range: 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy300DOI Listing

Percent Fat Mass Increases with Recovery, But Does Not Vary According to Dietary Therapy in Young Malian Children Treated for Moderate Acute Malnutrition.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA.

Background: Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects 34.1 million children globally. Treatment effectiveness is generally determined by the amount and rate of weight gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz037DOI Listing

Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause Mortality among a Prospective Cohort of Chinese Adults Aged ≥80 Years.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: High concentrations of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of circulating vitamin D, have been associated with a lower risk of mortality in epidemiologic studies of multiple populations, but the association for Chinese adults aged ≥80 y (oldest old) remains unclear.

Objective: We investigated the association between plasma [25(OH)D] concentration and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults aged ≥80 y.

Design: The present study is a prospective cohort study of 2185 Chinese older adults (median age: 93 y). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz041DOI Listing

Lower Plasma Vitamin B-6 is Associated with 2-Year Cognitive Decline in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):635-641

Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, Zuckerberg College of Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA.

Background: Despite its important role in cognitive development and regulation of nervous system function, vitamin B-6 has been under-studied in relation to cognitive aging.

Objective: We investigated whether plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B-6) concentrations were associated with cognitive function and subsequent cognitive decline.

Methods: In a longitudinal study of 949 participants (aged 45-75 y at baseline; 70% women) from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study cohort, we examined the association between baseline plasma PLP and baseline cognitive function and 2-y cognitive decline. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461717PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Insect Protein: A Sustainable and Healthy Alternative to Animal Protein?

Authors:
Andrew M Salter

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):545-546

School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy315DOI Listing

Redox Systems Biology of Nutrition and Oxidative Stress.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):553-565

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Diet and nutrition contribute to both beneficial and harmful aspects of oxidative processes. The harmful processes, termed oxidative stress, occur with many human diseases. Major advances in understanding oxidative stress and nutrition have occurred with broad characterization of dietary oxidants and antioxidants, and with mechanistic studies showing antioxidant efficacy. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461723PMC
April 2019
16 Reads

Consumption of Alcoholic and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is Associated with Increased Liver Fat Content in Middle-Aged Men and Women.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):649-658

Departments of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Fatty liver is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Besides alcohol consumption, energy-containing nonalcoholic beverages may contribute to liver fat accumulation.

Objective: We aimed to study the consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and their mutual replacement in relation to hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy313DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Garlic Supplementation Reduces Circulating C-reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor, and Interleukin-6 in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):605-618

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran, IR.

Background: Conflicting findings on the effects of garlic supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers have been observed in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize study results regarding the effects of garlic supplementation on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adults.

Methods: We searched Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane library databases for relevant papers published until April 2018, using keywords such as "garlic" and "inflammatory biomarker. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy310DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Plant-Based Diet Quality is Associated with Changes in Plasma Adiposity Biomarker Concentrations in Women.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):551-552

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy317DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

ω-3 Fatty Acids in Pregnancy: Time for Action.

Authors:
Maria Makrides

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):549-550

Healthy Mothers, Babies and Children, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy309DOI Listing

Change in Plant-Based Diet Quality Is Associated with Changes in Plasma Adiposity-Associated Biomarker Concentrations in Women.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):676-686

Departments of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Background: A healthful plant-based diet is associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether such benefits are due to its favorable effects on adiposity-associated biomarkers.

Objective: We investigated the associations between biomarkers and 3 plant-based diet indices: an overall plant-based diet index (PDI); a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI); and an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461739PMC
April 2019
1 Read

School Feeding Reduces Anemia Prevalence in Adolescent Girls and Other Vulnerable Household Members in a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Uganda.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):659-666

International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

Background: Food for education (FFE) programs that include school meals are widely used to improve school participation and performance, but evidence on nutritional benefits is limited.

Objective: This study tested whether food fortified with multiple micronutrients provided in FFE programs reduced anemia prevalence of primary-school-age adolescent girls, adult women, and preschool children.

Methods: Through the use of a cluster randomized controlled trial with individual-level repeated cross-sectional data, we measured impacts on anemia prevalence from 2 FFE programs, a school feeding program (SFP) providing multiple-micronutrient-fortified meals and a nutritionally equivalent take-home ration (THR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461720PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Episodic Dietary DHA for Support of Tissue DHA.

Authors:
J Thomas Brenna

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):547-548

Dell Pediatric Research Institute, Departments of Chemistry, of Pediatrics, and of Nutrition, Dell Medical School and the College of Natural Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy314DOI Listing

Changes in Iron Status Are Related to Changes in Brain Activity and Behavior in Rwandan Female University Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial Involving Iron-Biofortified Beans.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):687-697

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Background: Evidence suggests that iron deficiency (ID) affects cognitive performance, as measured in behavior. Although such effects must be mediated by changes in the brain, very few studies have included measures of brain activity to assess this relation.

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that provision of iron-biofortified beans would result in improvements in measures of iron status, brain dynamics, and behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461719PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Green Tea Catechin Extract Supplementation Does Not Influence Circulating Sex Hormones and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis Proteins in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Postmenopausal Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):619-627

Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Consumption of green tea has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Hormonal modulation has been suggested as one of the potential underlying mechanisms; however, it has yet to be fully elucidated in large, long-term human clinical trials.

Objective: We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) on circulating sex hormones and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461722PMC
April 2019
1 Read

The Serum Metabolome Identifies Biomarkers of Dietary Acid Load in 2 Studies of Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):578-585

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Dietary acid load is a clinically important aspect of the diet that reflects the balance between acid-producing foods, for example, meat and cheese, and base-producing foods, for example, fruits and vegetables.

Methods: We used metabolomics to identify blood biomarkers of dietary acid load in 2 independent studies of chronic kidney disease patients: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK, n = 689) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, n = 356) study. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the cross-sectional association between serum metabolites whose identity was known (outcome) and dietary acid load (exposure), estimated with net endogenous acid production (NEAP) based on 24-h urine urea nitrogen and potassium, and adjusted for age, sex, race, randomization group, measured glomerular filtration rate, log-transformed urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, history of cardiovascular disease, BMI, and smoking status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461721PMC

A Green-Mediterranean Diet, Supplemented with Mankai Duckweed, Preserves Iron-Homeostasis in Humans and Is Efficient in Reversal of Anemia in Rats.

J Nutr 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Background: Decreased dietary meat may deplete iron stores, as plant-derived iron bioavailability is typically limited.

Objectives: We explored the effect of a low-meat Mediterranean (green-MED) diet, supplemented with Wolffia globosa duckweed (Mankai: rich in protein and iron) as a food source for humans, on iron status. We further examined the iron bioavailability of Mankai in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy321DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Children's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Predict Lower Diet Quality but Not Vice Versa: Results from Bidirectional Analyses in a Population-Based Cohort.

J Nutr 2019 Apr;149(4):642-648

Departments of Epidemiology, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: As an adjuvant for medication, dietary changes focused on specific nutrients have been proposed to prevent or reduce attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, whether an overall healthy dietary pattern is associated with ADHD symptom severity during childhood remains unclear. Furthermore, it is not clear what the direction of this association is. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy273DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
3.875 Impact Factor

Energy Drinks Induce Acute Cardiovascular and Metabolic Changes Pointing to Potential Risks for Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):441-450

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Nutritional Medicine, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Case reports suggest a link between energy drinks (EDs) and adverse events, including deaths.

Objectives: We examined cardiovascular and metabolic effects of EDs and mixtures providing relevant ingredients of EDs compared to a similarly composed control product (CP) without these components.

Methods: This randomized, crossover trial comprised 38 adults (19 women, mean BMI 23 kg/m2, mean age 22 y). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy303DOI Listing
March 2019
97 Reads

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in β-Carotene Oxygenase 1 are Associated with Plasma Lycopene Responses to a Tomato-Soy Juice Intervention in Men with Prostate Cancer.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):381-397

Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Background: Human plasma and tissue lycopene concentrations are heterogeneous even when consuming controlled amounts of tomato or lycopene.

Objectives: Our objective is to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near known or putative carotenoid metabolism genes [β-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase 1 (BCO1), scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), apolipoprotein B-48, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 2 (ELOVL2), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), and an intergenic superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial-associated SNP] are predictive of plasma lycopene responses to steady state tomato juice consumption.

Methods: Secondary linear regression analyses of data from a dose-escalation study of prostate cancer patients [n = 47; mean ± SEM age: 60 ± 1 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 32 ± 1] consuming 0, 1, or 2 cans of tomato-soy juice/d (163 mL/can; 20. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398392PMC
March 2019
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Methyl Donor Nutrients in Chronic Kidney Disease: Impact on the Epigenetic Landscape.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):372-380

Wolfson Wohl Translational Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden, Glasgow, UK.

Epigenetic alterations, such as those linked to DNA methylation, may potentially provide molecular explanations for complications associated with altered gene expression in illnesses, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although both DNA hypo- and hypermethylation have been observed in the uremic milieu, this remains only a single aspect of the epigenetic landscape and, thus, of any biochemical dysregulation associated with CKD. Nevertheless, the role of uremia-promoting alterations on the epigenetic landscape regulating gene expression is still a novel and scarcely studied field. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy289DOI Listing
March 2019
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New Evidence Should Inform WHO Guidelines on Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation in Pregnancy.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):359-361

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Recent data from an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of 17 randomized control trials including >100,000 women living in low- and middle-income countries found that multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy reduced the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth, and being born small for gestational age. Further, MMS reduced the risk of neonatal and infant mortality for females, and there was no evidence of increased risk among the 26 subgroups examined. The 2016 WHO antenatal care guidelines, which were released before the IPD meta-analysis, did not universally recommend MMS, noting: "There is some evidence of additional benefit … but there is also some evidence of risk. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398379PMC
March 2019
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Diets Enriched with Conventional or High-Oleic Acid Canola Oils Lower Atherogenic Lipids and Lipoproteins Compared to a Diet with a Western Fatty Acid Profile in Adults with Central Adiposity.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):471-478

Departments of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Background: Novel oils high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are an alternative to partially hydrogenated oils high in trans-unsaturated fatty acids. There is widespread use of high-MUFA oils across the food industry; however, limited knowledge of their cardiovascular impact exists.

Objectives: We investigated the effects of diets containing canola oil, high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO), and a control oil blend (diet formulated to emulate a Western fat profile) on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins (apos), as secondary outcomes of the trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398388PMC
March 2019
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Docosahexaenoic Acid at 0.4% of Dietary Weight Enhances Lean Mass in Young Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):479-487

School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is an n-3 (ω-3) fatty acid known for beneficial effects on body composition.

Objective: The objective of the study was to test the dose response of lean and fat mass to DHA in healthy growing female rats.

Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (7 wk at baseline; n = 12/diet) were randomly assigned to receive a control (AIN-93M; 60 g soybean oil/kg diet) or experimental diet for 10 wk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy266DOI Listing
March 2019
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Umbilical Cord Serum Ferritin Concentration is Inversely Associated with Umbilical Cord Hemoglobin in Neonates Born to Adolescents Carrying Singletons and Women Carrying Multiples.

J Nutr 2019 Mar;149(3):406-415

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Background: It has been proposed that the fetus prioritizes iron for hemoglobin production over delivery to tissues. However, few studies have evaluated the interrelations between hemoglobin and multiple iron status biomarkers in umbilical cord blood. A full understanding is needed of how these parameters influence each other within cord blood to fully interpret iron and hematologic status at birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398393PMC
March 2019
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