3,510 results match your criteria Journal of Neuroendocrinology [Journal]


Role of the posterodorsal medial amygdala in predator odour stress induced puberty delay in female rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Apr 9:e12719. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Women and Children's Health, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, Guy's Campus, SE1 1UL, UK.

Puberty onset is influenced by various factors including psychosocial stress. The present study investigated cat-odour stress on puberty onset and oestrous cyclicity in rats. Female weanling rats were exposed to either soiled cat litter or fresh unused litter for 10 consecutive days. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jne.12719
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12719DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Stressing the importance of choice - validity of a preclinical free-choice high-caloric diet paradigm to model behavioral, physiological, and molecular adaptations during human diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Apr 8:e12718. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism & Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Humans have engineered a dietary environment that has driven the global prevalence of obesity and several other chronic metabolic diseases to pandemic levels. To prevent or treat obesity and associated comorbidities, it is crucial that we understand how our dietary environment, especially in combination with a sedentary lifestyle and daily-life stress, can dysregulate energy balance and promote the development of an obese state. Substantial mechanistic insight into the maladaptive adaptations underlying caloric overconsumption and excessive weight gain has been gained by analyzing brains from rodents that were eating prefabricated nutritionally-complete pellets of high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12718DOI Listing

MSG-obesity onset is associated with disruption of central control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 31:e12717. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Laboratory of Secretion Cell Biology, Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Cell Biology, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

Background/aims: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) exerts important catabolic peripheral effects and influences autonomic nervous system (ANS)-mediated processes. Impaired negative feedback control or reduced HPA axis sensitivity and altered ANS activity seem to be associated with the development and maintenance of obesity. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that the central HPA axis is dysregulated favoring ANS disbalance in monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced rat obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12717DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

High social motivation induces deficits in maternal behavior but not plasticity of the subventricular zone in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 29:e12716. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

INRA, UMR 85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements; CNRS, UMR 7247; Université F. Rabelais; IFCE, Nouzilly, France.

Maternal behavior develops differently depending on characteristics of the individual, such as age or emotional reactivity. Social motivation, defined as the propensity to establish social contact, has been little studied in relation to maternal behavior in birds. In addition, the transition to motherhood is a time of plasticity in the brain of the new mother in mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12716DOI Listing
March 2019
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Both neural and global androgen receptor overexpression affect sexual dimorphism in the mouse brain.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 28:e12715. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, Canada.

Testosterone is the main endocrine mechanism mediating sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain, but testosterone signaling is complex and important mechanistic questions remain. Notably, it is unclear the extent to which testosterone acts via androgen receptors (AR) in this process, nor is it clear where in the body testosterone acts to produce sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomy. To address these questions, we used a transgenic mouse model of Cre/loxP-driven AR overexpression in which AR was induced selectively in neural tissue (Nestin-cre) or in all tissues (CMV-cre). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12715DOI Listing

Maternal care activates the ventral tegmental area but not dopaminergic cells in the rat.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 26:e12713. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, México.

The ventral tegmental area (VTA), together with the preoptic area, is part of a neural circuit necessary for the expression of maternal behaviour (MB); destruction of either area disrupts MB in postpartum rats. Central to the proposal of VTA activation are dopaminergic cells, for which the cell bodies lie in the VTA and project to forebrain structures. This mesolimbic system is a motivational circuit involved in rewarding behaviours such as sex and MB. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jne.12713
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12713DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Age-dependent regulation by androgens of gene expression in the anterior hypothalamus and stress-induced release of adrenal hormones in adolescent and adult male rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 26:e12714. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Adolescents show greater and/or more prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stressors than adults, although the basis for such an age difference is not understood. We investigated developmental shifts in the regulation of HPA function by testosterone using androgen replacement in orchiectomised (OCX) pre-pubertal and post-pubertal adolescent rats and in adults, as well as using inhibitors of testosterone synthesis in non-operated rats. The expected dampening effect of testosterone in adult OCX rats did not meet statistical significance in all of the three experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12714DOI Listing

Maternal social environment affects offspring cognition through behavioural and immune pathways in rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 19:e12711. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachusetts.

The social environment of lactation is a key etiological factor for the occurrence of postpartum disorders affecting women and their children. Postpartum depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in new mothers and negatively affect offspring's cognitive development through mechanisms which are still unclear. Here, using a rat model, we manipulated the maternal social environment during lactation and explored the pathways through which social isolation (vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12711DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Kisspeptin and RFRP3 modulate body mass in Phodopus sungorus via two different neuroendocrine pathways.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 19:e12710. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences (INCI), Strasbourg, France.

Many animals exhibit remarkable metabolic and reproductive adaptations to seasonal changes in their environment. When day length shortens, Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) reduce their body weight and inhibit their reproductive activity, whereas the opposite occurs in springtime. These physiological adaptations are considered to depend on photoperiodic changes in hypothalamic genes encoding the peptides kisspeptin (Kp) and RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3) for the control of reproduction, as well as pro-opiomelanocortin and somatostatin for metabolic regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12710DOI Listing
March 2019
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Oestradiol acts through its beta receptor to increase vasopressin neuronal activation and secretion induced by dehydration.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 18:e12712. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

Vasopressinergic neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei express oestrogen receptor (ER)β and receive afferent projections from osmosensitive neurones that express ERα. However, which subtype of these receptors mediates the effects of oestradiol on vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by hydromineral challenge has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. Moreover, AVP secretion induced by hyperosmolality is known to involve activation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid, member 1) in magnocellular neurones, although whether oestradiol modulates expression of this receptor is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12712DOI Listing

More than reproduction: Central gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism decreases maternal aggression in lactating rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 18:e12709. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neurobiology, Regensburg Center of Neuroscience, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a major regulator and activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of GnRH in reproduction and sexual behaviour. However, to date, only a single study shows an involvement of GnRH in maternal behaviour where a 30% reduction of GnRH neurones abolishes a mother's motivation to retrieve pups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12709DOI Listing

Mechanisms for the metabolic success of bariatric surgery.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 18:e12708. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

To date, bariatric surgery remains the most effective strategy for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. However, given the enormity of the obesity epidemic, and sometimes variable results, it is not a feasible strategy for the treatment of all obese patients. A simple PubMed search for 'bariatric surgery' reveals over 28 000 papers that have been published since the 1940s when the first bariatric surgeries were performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12708DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Partial withdrawal of levothyroxine treated disease leads to brain activations and effects on performance in a working memory task: A pilot study.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 15:e12707. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Hypothyroidism is associated with memory impairments. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of partial withdrawal of levothyroxine on working memory tasks and brain function. Fifteen subjects under long-term levothyroxine substitution as a result of complete hypothyroidism participated in the present study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12707DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Inter-individual maternal care received and genotype interactions affect dopaminergic phenotypes in female rat offspring.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 12:e12706. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Rat mothers exhibit natural variations in care and can shape offspring adult behaviour and their maternal care by affecting the dopaminergic system. We explored whether genotype and gene × environment interactions are involved in these processes in nulliparous female offspring. We assessed maternal licking/grooming toward individual female pups during the first week postpartum and dopamine-related behaviour of the offspring in adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12706DOI Listing

Ghrelin regulation of glucose metabolism.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 8:e12705. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are implicated in the regulation of glucose metabolism via direct actions in the pancreatic islet, as well as peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues and the brain. Although many studies have explored the role of ghrelin in glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, a complete mechanistic understanding remains to be clarified. This review highlights the local expression and function of ghrelin and GHSR1a in pancreatic islets and how this axis may modulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12705DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Editorial: Thirty years of Journal of Neuroendocrinology.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar;31(3):e12704

The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12704
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12704DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Whole body sodium depletion modifies AT1 mRNA expression and serotonin content in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 25:e12703. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Biophysics, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts on Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors located in the organum vasculosum and subfornical organ (SFO) of the lamina terminalis as a main facilitatory mechanism of sodium appetite. The brain serotonin (5-HT) system with soma located in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) provides a main inhibitory mechanism. In the present study, we first investigated the existence of Ang II AT1 receptors in serotonergic DRN neurones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12703DOI Listing
February 2019

Impaired hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in pseudopregnant rats treated with chronic prolactin to mimic pregnancy.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 25:e12702. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Pregnancy in rodents is associated with hyperphagia, increased fat deposition, elevated leptin concentrations and insensitivity to the satiety action of leptin. To investigate the hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of this state of pregnancy-induced leptin resistance, we have used a pseudopregnancy rat model. We have previously demonstrated that pseudopregnant rats have a normal feeding response to leptin, although, if pseudopregnancy is extended using chronic i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12702DOI Listing
February 2019
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Role of oxytocin in the control of stress and food intake.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 19;31(3):e12700. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Division of Brain and Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke-shi, Japan.

Oxytocin neurones in the hypothalamus are activated by stressful stimuli and food intake. The oxytocin receptor is located in various brain regions, including the sensory information-processing cerebral cortex; the cognitive information-processing prefrontal cortex; reward-related regions such as the ventral tegmental areas, nucleus accumbens and raphe nucleus; stress-related areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray; homeostasis-controlling hypothalamus; and the dorsal motor complex controlling intestinal functions. Oxytocin affects behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses and terminates food intake by acting on the metabolic or nutritional homeostasis system, modulating emotional processing, reducing reward values of food intake, and facilitating sensory and cognitive processing via multiple brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12700DOI Listing

Raising overlapping litters: Differential activation of rat maternal neural circuitry after interacting with newborn or juvenile pups.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 19:e12701. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Sección Biomatemática, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

The maternal behaviour of a rat dynamically changes during the postpartum period, adjusting to the characteristics and physiological needs of the pups. This adaptation has been attributed to functional modifications in the maternal circuitry. Maternal behaviour can also flexibly adapt according to different litter compositions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12701DOI Listing
February 2019

Ghrelin-mediated improvements in the metabolic phenotype in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 18:e12699. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by metabolic disturbances, along with cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Targeting metabolic HD dysfunction via the maintenance of body weight and fat mass and restoration of peripheral energy metabolism can improve the progression of neurological symptoms. In this respect, we focused on the therapeutic potential of the orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin, which plays an important role in promoting a positive energy balance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12699DOI Listing
February 2019
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Age-specific associations between oestradiol, cortico-amygdalar structural covariance, and verbal and spatial skills.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 18:e12698. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Brain Development Cooperative Group.

Oestradiol is known to play an important role in the developing human brain, although little is known about the entire network of potential regions that might be affected and how these effects may vary from childhood to early adulthood, which in turn can explain sexually differentiated behaviours. In the present study, we examined the relationships between oestradiol, cortico-amygdalar structural covariance, and cognitive or behavioural measures typically showing sex differences (verbal/spatial skills, anxious-depressed symptomatology) in 152 children and adolescents (aged 6-22 years). Cortico-amygdalar structural covariance shifted from positive to negative across the age range. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12698DOI Listing
February 2019
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Hyperthermia-induced seizures followed by repetitive stress are associated with age-dependent changes in specific aspects of the mouse stress system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 18:e12697. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Stress is among the most frequently self-reported factors provoking epileptic seizures in children and adults. It is still unclear, however, why some people display stress-sensitive seizures and others do not. Recently, we showed that young epilepsy patients with stress-sensitive seizures exhibit a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12697DOI Listing
February 2019

Tracking oxytocin functions in the rodent brain during the last 30 years: From push-pull perfusion to chemogenetic silencing.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 11;31(3):e12695. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

RIAgnosis, Sinzing, Germany.

A short overview is provided of the last 30 years of oxytocin (and vasopressin) research performed in our laboratories, starting with attempts to monitor the release of this nonapeptide in the rodent brain during physiological conditions such as suckling in the lactating animal. Using push-pull perfusion and microdialysis approaches, release patterns in hypothalamic and limbic brain regions could be characterised to occur from intact neuronal structures, to be independent of peripheral secretion into blood, and to respond differentially to various stimuli, particularly those related to reproduction and stress. Parallel efforts focused on the functional impact of central oxytocin release, including neuroendocrine and behavioural effects mediated by nonapeptide receptor interactions and subsequent intraneuronal signalling cascades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12695DOI Listing
March 2019
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Glucose availability regulates ghrelin-induced food intake in the ventral tegmental area.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 11:e12696. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Information about metabolic status arrives in the brain in the form of a complex milieu of circulating signalling factors, including glucose and fatty acids, ghrelin, leptin and insulin. The specific interactions between humoural factors, brain sites of action and how they influence behaviour are largely unknown. We have previously observed interactions between glucose availability and the actions of ghrelin mediated via the agouti-related peptide neurones of the hypothalamus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12696DOI Listing
February 2019
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A brief history of circannual time.

Authors:
Gerald Lincoln

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 4;31(3):e12694. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Innate circannual timing is an ancestral trait that first evolved in free-living eukaryotic cells some 2000 million years ago, with marine algae of the genus Allexandrium providing a living unicellular model. This species shows the primitive trait of 'alternation of generations', where the organism alternates between fast replicating vegetative cells in the summer and a dormant cystic cell over the winter. The resistant cysts sink into the cold ocean sediments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12694DOI Listing
March 2019
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Stress and obesity: The ghrelin connection.

Authors:
Alfonso Abizaid

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12693. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Ghrelin is a hormone associated with feeding and energy balance. Not surprisingly, this hormone is secreted in response to acute stressors and it is chronically elevated after exposure to chronic stress in tandem with a number of metabolic changes aimed at attaining homeostatic balance. In the present review, we propose that ghrelin plays a key role in these stress-induced homeostatic processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12693DOI Listing
February 2019

A role for taste receptors in (neuro)endocrinology?

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 19;31(3):e12691. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

The sense of taste is positioned at the forefront when it comes to the interaction of our body with foodborne chemicals. However, the role of our taste system, and in particular its associated taste receptors, is not limited to driving food preferences leading to ingestion or rejection before other organs take over responsibility for nutrient digestion, absorption and metabolic regulation. Taste sensory elements do much more. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12691DOI Listing

Short- and long-term responsiveness to low dose growth hormone (GH) in adult GH deficiency: Role of GH receptor polymorphism.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12692. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Pituitary Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

In patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD), low doses of recombinant human GH (rhGH) have a similar or better long-term clinical effect than higher doses. Pharmacogenetic studies suggest that GH receptor (GHR) polymorphism only influences some metabolic parameters. Nonetheless, there is no clear scientific evidence proving the effects of lower rhGH dose regimens on metabolic parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12692DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

NDP-MSH reduces oxidative damage induced by palmitic acid in primary astrocytes.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 20;31(2):e12673. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

INBIOMED - Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, UBA-CONICET, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Recent findings relate obesity to inflammation in key hypothalamic areas for body weight control. Hypothalamic inflammation has also been related to oxidative stress. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant free fatty acid found in food, and in vitro studies indicate that it triggers a pro-inflammatory response in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12673DOI Listing
February 2019

Tanycytes: A rich morphological history to underpin future molecular and physiological investigations.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 10;31(3):e12690. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Departamento de Anatomía e Histología Humanas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

Tanycytes are located at the base of the brain and retain characteristics from their developmental origins, such as radial glial cells, throughout their life span. With transport mechanisms and modulation of tight junction proteins, tanycytes form a bridge connecting the cerebrospinal fluid with the external limiting basement membrane. They also retain the powers of self-renewal and can differentiate to generate neurones and glia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12690DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

From sensory circumventricular organs to cerebral cortex: Neural pathways controlling thirst and hunger.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 14;31(3):e12689. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Much progress has been made during the past 30 years with respect to elucidating the neural and endocrine pathways by which bodily needs for water and energy are brought to conscious awareness through the generation of thirst and hunger. One way that circulating hormones influence thirst and hunger is by acting on neurones within sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs). This is possible because the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the sensory CVOs in the forebrain, and the area postrema in the hindbrain lack a normal blood-brain barrier such that neurones within them are exposed to blood-borne agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12689DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Double transcranial direct current stimulation of the brain increases cerebral energy levels and systemic glucose tolerance in men.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 19:e12688. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Section of Psychoneurobiology, Center of Brain, Behavior and Metabolism, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory method that has been tested experimentally and has already been used as an adjuvant therapeutic option to treat a number of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric diseases. Beyond its well known local effects within the brain, tDCS also transiently promotes systemic glucose uptake and reduces the activity of the neurohormonal stress axes. We aimed to test whether the effects of a single tDCS application could be replicated upon double stimulation to persistently improve systemic glucose tolerance and stress axes activity in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12688DOI Listing
January 2019
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Nitric oxide acutely modulates hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide production to control vasopressin, oxytocin and atrial natriuretic peptide release in rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 12;31(2):e12686. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Physiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Nitric oxide (NO) negatively modulates the secretion of vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) induced by the increase in extracellular osmolality, whereas carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H S) act to potentiate it; however, little information is available for the osmotic challenge model about whether and how such gaseous systems modulate each other. Therefore, using an acute ex vivo model of hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal explants (obtained from male 6/7-week-old Wistar rats) under conditions of extracellular iso- and hypertonicity, we determined the effects of NO (600 μmol L sodium nitroprusside), CO (100 μmol L tricarbonylchloro[glycinato]ruthenium [II]) and H S (10 mmol L sodium sulphide) donors and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (300 μmol L N -methyl-l-arginine [LNMMA]), haeme oxygenase (HO) (200 μmol L Zn(II) deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4-bis-ethylene glycol [ZnDPBG]) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) (100 μmol L aminooxyacetate [AOA]) inhibitors on the release of hypothalamic ANP and hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal AVP and OT, as well as on the activities of NOS, HO and CBS. LNMMA reversed hyperosmolality-induced NOS activity, and enhanced hormonal release by the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis, in addition to increasing CBS and hypothalamic HO activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12686DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

RANK deletion in neuropeptide Y neurones attenuates oestrogen deficiency-related bone loss.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 1;31(2):e12687. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

The RANKL pathway is known to be an important aspect of the pathogenesis of oestrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. RANK deletion specifically in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones has been shown to enhance the ability of the skeleton to match increases in body weight caused by high-fat diet feeding, likely via the modulation of NPY levels. In the present study, we used ovariectomy in female mice to show that RANK deletion in NPY neurones attenuates bone loss caused by long-term oestrogen deficiency, particularly in the vertebral compartment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12687DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

PI3K signalling in leptin receptor cells: Role in growth and reproduction.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 8:e12685. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Nutrition and growth are important signals for pubertal development, although how they are perceived and integrated in brain circuits has not been well defined. Growth hormones and metabolic cues both recruit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling in hypothalamic sites, although whether they converge into the same neuronal population(s) is also not known. In this review, we discuss recent findings from our laboratory showing the role of PI3K subunits in cells directly responsive to the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin in the coordination of growth, pubertal development and fertility. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12685
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12685DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The role of the gut microbiota in development, function and disorders of the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 7:e12684. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Before obtaining its own microbiota, eutherian foetuses are exposed to products and metabolites from the maternal microbiota. At birth, the infants are colonised by microorganisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12684DOI Listing
January 2019
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Aberrant intra and inter network resting state functional connectivity in thyrotoxicosis.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 28;31(2):e12683. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), DRDO, New Delhi, India.

Thyroid hormones epigenetically play an important role in the regularisation of neural networks and in neural differentiation during brain development. The present study aimed to explore the intra and inter network resting state functional connectivity changes underlying the neurobehavioural symptoms in thyrotoxicosis. To understand the pathophysiological changes, we investigated the correlation between functional connectivity and clinical and behavioural measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12683DOI Listing
February 2019
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Sex-specific contribution of DHEA-cortisol ratio to prefrontal-hippocampal structural development, cognitive abilities and personality traits.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 28;31(2):e12682. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Although dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may exert neuroprotective effects in the developing brain, prolonged or excessive elevations in cortisol may exert neurotoxic effects. The ratio between DHEA and cortisol (DC ratio) has been linked to internalising and externalising disorders, as well as cognitive performance, supporting the clinical relevance of this hormonal ratio during development. However, the brain mechanisms by which these effects may be mediated have not yet been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394408PMC
February 2019
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Maternal photoperiodic programming enlightens the internal regulation of thyroid-hormone deiodinases in tanycytes.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 17;31(1):e12679. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institute for Cellular and Integrative Neuroscience, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Seasonal rhythms in physiology are widespread among mammals living in temperate zones. These rhythms rely on the external photoperiodic signal being entrained to the seasons, although they persist under constant conditions, revealing their endogenous origin. Internal long-term timing (circannual cycles) can be revealed in the laboratory as photoperiodic history-dependent responses, comprising the ability to respond differently to similar photoperiodic cues based on prior photoperiodic experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12679DOI Listing
January 2019
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Steroid profiles in quail brain and serum: Sex and regional differences and effects of castration with steroid replacement.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 1;31(2):e12681. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Both systemic and local production contribute to the concentration of steroids measured in the brain. This idea was originally based on rodent studies and was later extended to other species, including humans and birds. In quail, a widely used model in behavioural neuroendocrinology, it was demonstrated that all enzymes needed to produce sex steroids from cholesterol are expressed and active in the brain, although the actual concentrations of steroids produced were never investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412023PMC
February 2019
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A unifying hypothesis for control of body weight and reproduction in seasonally breeding mammals.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 12;31(3):e12680. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Animals have evolved diverse seasonal variations in physiology and reproduction to accommodate yearly changes in environmental and climatic conditions. These changes in physiology are initiated by changes in photoperiod (daylength) and are mediated through melatonin, which relays photoperiodic information to the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Melatonin drives thyroid-stimulating hormone transcription and synthesis in the pars tuberalis, which, in turn, regulates thyroid hormone and retinoic acid synthesis in the tanycytes lining the third ventricle of the hypothalamus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12680DOI Listing
March 2019
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Prenatal programming of stress responsiveness and behaviours: Progress and perspectives.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 1;31(3):e12674. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Departments of Physiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Parental exposure to stress or glucocorticoids either before or during pregnancy can have profound influences on neurodevelopment, neuroendocrine function and behaviours in offspring. Specific outcomes are dependent on the nature, intensity and timing of the exposure, as well as species, sex and age of the subject. Most recently, it has become evident that outcomes are not confined to first-generation offspring and that there may be intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of effects. Read More

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March 2019
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Brain accessibility delineates the central effects of circulating ghrelin.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 23:e12677. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Laboratorio de Neurofisiología del Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de Argentina, Universidad Nacional de La Plata y Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas-Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract that acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. In the central nervous system, ghrelin signalling is able to recruit different neuronal targets that regulate the behavioural, neuroendocrine, metabolic and autonomic effects of the hormone. Notably, several studies using radioactive or fluorescent variants of ghrelin have found that the accessibility of circulating ghrelin into the mouse brain is both strikingly low and restricted to some specific brain areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12677DOI Listing
December 2018
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Tumour necrosis factor α induces neuroinflammation and insulin resistance in immortalised hypothalamic neurones through independent pathways.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 20;31(1):e12678. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The links between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, which are all key characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are yet to be delineated in the brain. One of the key neuroinflammatory proteins detected in the hypothalamus with over-nutrition is tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α. Using immortalised embryonic rat and mouse hypothalamic cell lines (rHypoE-7 and mHypoE-46) that express orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, we investigated changes in insulin signalling and inflammatory gene marker mRNA expression after TNFα exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12678DOI Listing
January 2019
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Activation of the rat hypothalamic supramammillary nucleus by food anticipation, food restriction or ghrelin administration.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 23:e12676. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The circulating orexigenic hormone ghrelin targets many brain areas involved in feeding control and signals via a dedicated receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A. One unexplored target area for ghrelin is the supramammillary nucleus (SuM), a hypothalamic area involved in motivation and reinforcement and also recently linked to metabolic control. Given that ghrelin binds to the SuM, we explored whether SuM cells respond to ghrelin and/or are activated when endogenous ghrelin levels are elevated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12676DOI Listing
December 2018
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Top-down and bottom-up control of stress-coping.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 1;31(3):e12675. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

In this 30th anniversary issue review, we focus on the glucocorticoid modulation of limbic-prefrontocortical circuitry during stress-coping. This action of the stress hormone is mediated by mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) that are co-expressed abundantly in these higher brain regions. Via both receptor types, the glucocorticoids demonstrate, in various contexts, rapid nongenomic and slower genomic actions that coordinate consecutive stages of information processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12675DOI Listing
March 2019
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Late onset obesity in mice with targeted deletion of potassium inward rectifier Kir7.1 from cells expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 20;31(1):e12670. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Energy stores in fat tissue are determined in part by the activity of hypothalamic neurones expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). Even a partial reduction in MC4R expression levels in mice, rats or humans produces hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the molecular basis of neuromodulation by the MC4R. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12670
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12670DOI Listing
January 2019
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Physiological and pathophysiological roles of hypothalamic astrocytes in metabolism.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 17:e12671. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Instituto Pluridisciplinar UCM y Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacognosia y Botánica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

The role of glial cells, including astrocytes, in metabolic control has received increasing attention in recent years. Although the original interest in these macroglial cells was a result of astrogliosis being observed in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese subjects, studies have also focused on how they participate in the physiological control of appetite and energy expenditure. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones, growth factors and neuropeptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12671DOI Listing
December 2018
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30 years after: CNS actions of prolactin: Sources, mechanisms and physiological significance.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Mar 9;31(3):e12669. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

Our understanding of the neural actions of prolactin (PRL) and its biochemical basis has expanded greatly over the past three decades. During this time, major progress has been made, including clarification of how PRL accesses the brain, identification of the PRL receptor and the sites where it is expressed within the brain, determination of the neurochemical mechanism of action of PRL and its effect on genomic expression in neurones, identification of the neural sites where PRL acts to stimulate maternal behaviour and related affective states, and exploration of how life experiences impact neural PRL receptor activity and actions. The next 30 years promise to reveal a myriad of basic and clinical findings regarding new roles for PRL and a greater indepth understanding of how and where PRL affects physiological and behavioural processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12669DOI Listing
March 2019
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