3,461 results match your criteria Journal of Neuroendocrinology [Journal]


30 Years After: CNS Actions of Prolactin: Source, Mechanism and Physiological Significance.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 14:e12669. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, University, Of Otago Medical School,, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Our understanding of the neural actions of prolactin (PRL) and its biochemical basis has expanded greatly over the past three decades. During this time, major progress has been made that includes the elucidation of how PRL accesses the brain, identification of the PRL receptor and the sites where it is expressed within the brain, determination of the neurochemical mechanism of action of PRL and its effect on genomic expression in neurons, identification of the neural sites where PRL acts to stimulate maternal behavior and related affective states, and exploration of how life experiences impact neural PRL receptor activity and actions. The next 30 years promise to reveal a myriad of basic and clinical findings regarding new roles for PRL and a greater in depth understanding of how and where PRL affects physiological and behavioral processes. Read More

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December 2018

Ghrelin's effects on food motivation in rats are not limited to palatable foods.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 7:e12665. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physiology/Endocrine, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, is powerfully orexigenic. Even in the absence of hunger, ghrelin delivery to rats increases consumption of chow as well as palatable foods and increases motivated behaviour for palatable food rewards. Inspired by the finding that ghrelin increases the selection of chow in rats offered a choice diet (lard, sucrose or chow) and even in rats bingeing on a high fat diet, we sought to explore whether ghrelin's effects on motivation extend to regular chow. Read More

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December 2018

Isolation and identification of endogenous RFRP1 and RFRP3 in the mouse hypothalamus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12668. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biological Functions of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.

Although RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) preproprotein sequence is known in mice, until now the molecular structure of the mature, functional peptides processed from the target precursor molecule has not been determined. In the present study we purified endogenous RFRP1 and RFRP3 peptides from mouse hypothalamic tissue extracts using immunoaffinity column conjugated with specific antibodies against the mouse C-terminus of RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. Employing liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) we demonstrated, that RFRP1 consists of 15 and RFRP3 of 10 amino acid residues (ANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH and SHFPSLPQRF-NH , respectively). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Electrophysiological Properties of Identified Oxytocin and Vasopressin Neurons.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12666. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

To understand the contribution of intrinsic membrane properties to the different firing patterns of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in vivo, in vitro studies are needed, where stable intracellular recordings can be made. Combining immunochemistry for OT and VP and intracellular dye injections allows characterization of identified OT and VP neurons, and several differences between the two cell types have emerged. These include a greater transient K current that delays spiking to stimulus onset, and a higher Na current density leading to greater spike amplitude and a more stable spike threshold, in VP neurons. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Intracerebroventricular administration of sulfated CCK octapeptide induces anxiety-like behavior in goldfish.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12667. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-8555, Japan.

Sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8s) is involved in feeding regulation as an anorexigenic neuropeptide in vertebrates. In rodents, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CCK-8s has been shown to affect not only feeding behavior, but also psychomotor activity. However, there is still no information regarding the psychophysiological effects of CCK-8s in goldfish. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Cracking the Combination: Gut Hormones for the Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 22:e12664. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, 6th Floor, Commonwealth Building, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0HS.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are a veritable global pandemic. There is an imperative to develop new therapies for these conditions that can be delivered at scale to patients, which deliver effective and titratable weight loss, amelioration of diabetes, prevention of diabetic complications and improvements in cardiovascular health. Although agents based on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are now in routine use for diabetes and obesity, the limited efficacy of such drugs means that newer agents are required. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Ghrelin receptor deletion reduces binge-like alcohol drinking in rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 20:e12663. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that has been implicated in the neurobiology of alcohol drinking. We have recently developed a ghrelin receptor (GHSR) knockout (KO) rat model, which exhibits reduced food consumption and body weight. In addition, recent preliminary work suggests that the gut-microbiome, which appears to interact with the ghrelin system, may modulate alcohol drinking. Read More

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November 2018
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The osmoresponsiveness of oxytocin and vasopressin neurones: mechanisms, allostasis and evolution.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 19:e12662. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, UK.

In the rat supraoptic nucleus, every oxytocin cell projects to the posterior pituitary, and is involved in both reflex milk ejection during lactation, and in regulating uterine contractions during parturition. All are also osmosensitive, regulating natriuresis. All are also regulated by signals that control appetite, including neural and hormonal signals that arise from the gut after food intake and from the sites of energy storage. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Menopause is associated with decreased postprandial ghrelin, while a history of anorexia nervosa is associated with increased total ghrelin.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 17:e12661. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

University of Zurich, Institute of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Binzmuehlestrasse 14 / Box 26, 8050, Zurich, Switzerland.

Introduction: Middle age has been linked with various dysfunctional eating patterns in women. The hormone ghrelin is related to food intake, with plasma levels rising before eating and decreasing immediately afterwards. Animal research has shown that estradiol is an antagonist of ghrelin. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Sex- and sub region-dependent modulation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons by vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 13:e12660. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand.

A population of kisspeptin neurons located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARN) very likely represent the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator responsible for driving pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in mammals. As such, it has become important to understand the neural inputs that modulate the activity of ARN kisspeptin (ARN ) neurons. Using a transgenic GCaMP6 mouse model allowing the intracellular calcium levels (i[Ca ]) of individual ARN neurons to be assessed simultaneously, we examined whether the circadian neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) modulated the activity of ARN neurons directly. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

A novel GNRHR gene mutation causing Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (CHH) in a Brazilian Kindred.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 11:e12658. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Laboratory of Molecular and Translational Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (CHH) is a challenging inherited endocrine disorder characterized by absent or incomplete pubertal development and infertility due to low action/secretion of the hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Given a growing list of gene mutations accounting for CHH, application of massively parallel sequencing has become an excellent molecular diagnosis approach since it has enabled simultaneous evaluation of many genes. The study proposes the use of Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) to identify causative and modifying mutations based on a phenotype-genotype CHH analysis by in-house exome pipeline. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Interplay of central and peripheral circadian clocks in energy metabolism regulation.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 11:e12659. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany.

Metabolic health founds on a homeostatic balance that has to integrate the daily changes of rest/activity and feeding/fasting cycles. A network of endogenous 24-hour circadian clocks helps to anticipate daily recurring events and adjust physiology and behavioural functions accordingly. Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators based on a set of clock genes/proteins organised in interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Mapping GABA and glutamate inputs to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones in male and female mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 11:e12657. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone function is dependent upon gonadal steroid hormone feedback, which is communicated in large part through an afferent neuronal network. The classical neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate are important regulators of GnRH neurone activity and are implicated in mediating feedback signals. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether GABAergic or glutamatergic input to GnRH neurones differs between males and females and/or exhibits morphological plasticity in response to steroid hormone feedback in females. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Peptide mimetic of N-terminal ghrelin enhances ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion and c-Fos expression in mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 5:e12656. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Chair of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Orexigenic peptide ghrelin and its receptor have been extensively investigated as potential therapeutic targets, primarily because of their role in feeding initiation and growth hormone (GH) release. However, no specific ghrelin targeting anti-obesity or cachexia therapeutics are available for clinical use thus far and further efforts in this direction are warranted. The present study aimed to find new peptide drug leads modulating ghrelin signal transduction. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Grey matter differences associated with age and sex hormone levels between premenopausal and perimenopausal women: A voxel-based morphometry study.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 29:e12655. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Medical Engineering and Technical Center, Taishan Medcial University, Taian, China.

The present study aimed to explore brain morphological alterations associated with age and sex hormone levels between premenopausal and perimenopausal women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T -weighted structural images. Thirty-two premenopausal women aged (mean ± SD) 47.75 ± 1. Read More

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October 2018
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Interaction between angiotensin II and glucose sensing at the subfornical organ.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 26:e12654. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Centre for Neurosciences Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

The subfornical organ (SFO) lacks the normal blood-brain barrier and senses the concentrations of many different circulating signals, including glucose and angiotensin II (ANG II). ANG II has recently been implicated in the control of food intake and body weight gain. The present study assessed whether single SFO neurones sense changes in glucose and ANG II, and also whether changes in glucose concentration alter the responsiveness of these neurones to ANG II. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Thirty years of neuroendocrinology: Technological advances pave the way for molecular discovery.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 26:e12653. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Since the 1950s, the systems level interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary and end organs such as the adrenal, thyroid and gonads have been well known; however, it is only over the last three decades that advances in molecular biology and information technology have provided a tremendous expansion of knowledge at the molecular level. Neuroendocrinology has benefitted from developments in molecular genetics, epigenetics and epigenomics, and most recently optogenetics and pharmacogenetics. This has enabled a new understanding of gene regulation, transcription, translation and post-translational regulation, which should help direct the development of drugs to treat neuroendocrine-related diseases. Read More

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October 2018
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High-fat diet and type 2 diabetes induced disruption of the oestrous cycle and alteration of hormonal profiles, but did not affect subpopulations of KNDy neurones in female rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 7;30(11):e12651. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Laboratory of Neurobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Apart from the primary metabolic symptoms of obesity and/or diabetes, there are numerous secondary problems, including disruptions of the reproductive system. The KNDy neurones, which express kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin A and are located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions are highly influenced by metabolic and hormonal status. Read More

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November 2018
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Differential effects of chronic 17β-oestradiol treatment on rat behaviours relevant to depression.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 13;30(11):e12652. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Sex differences are a prominent feature of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, which affects women at a higher incidence than men. Research suggests that the most potent endogenous oestrogen, 17β-oestradiol, may have therapeutic potential in treating depression. However, preclinical studies have produced mixed results, likely as a result of various methodological factors such as treatment duration. Read More

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November 2018

From organotypic culture to body-on-a-chip: A neuroendocrine perspective.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 11:e12650. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

The methods used to study neuroendocrinology have been as diverse as the discoveries to come out of the field. Maintaining live neurones outside of a body in vitro was important from the beginning, building on methods that dated back to at least the first decade of the 20th Century. Neurosecretion defines an essential foundation of neuroendocrinology based on work that began in the 1920s and 1930s. Read More

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October 2018

Changes in neurosteroidogenesis during demyelination and remyelination in cuprizone-treated mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 31;30(11):e12649. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Biochemistry, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental and National Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Changes of neurosteroids may be involved in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study investigated whether changes of neurosteroidogenesis also occurred in the grey and white matter regions of the brain in mice subjected to cuprizone-induced demyelination. Accordingly, we compared the expression of neurosteroidogenic proteins, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), as well as neurosteroidogenic enzymes, including the side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase and 5α-reductase (5α-R), during the demyelination and remyelination periods. Read More

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November 2018
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Neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, stress, inflammation and energy homeostasis.

Authors:
Shaila K Mani

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct;30(10):e12648

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

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October 2018

Oestradiol and leptin have separate but additive anorexigenic effects and differentially target fat mass in rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov;30(11):e12646

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

We recently showed that male rats exhibit lower hypophagia and body weight loss compared to female rats following central leptin delivery, suggesting a role for oestradiol in leptin responsiveness. Accordingly, we delivered Ob (leptin) or GFP (control) gene into the brain of male rats that were simultaneously treated with oestradiol or vehicle. In a reciprocal approach, we compared oestradiol-deficient (OVX) with intact females (sham) that received leptin or control vector. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251747PMC
November 2018
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Molecular cloning and characterisation of an isotocin paralogue ([V8] isotocin) in catfishes (superorder Ostariophysi): Origin traced likely to the fish-specific whole genome duplication.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 9;30(11):e12647. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, India.

The present study reports the molecular cloning of a previously uncharacterised neurohypophyseal nonapeptide precursor cDNA in two catfish species: Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus. The deduced nonapeptide is CYISNCPVG ([V8] isotocin), which has not been reported in any vertebrate till date. Phylogenetic and conserved synteny analyses showed the gene to have originated from the isotocin precursor (pro-it) gene by fish-specific whole genome duplication (3R). Read More

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November 2018

Variability of the cortisol awakening response and morning salivary oxytocin in late adolescence.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 7;30(11):e12645. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Adelaide Medical School, Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Exogenously administered oxytocin interacts with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to modulate endogenous cortisol levels, suggesting a synergistic role for these two hormones in the response to stress, cognitive performance and the development of psycho-behavioural disorders. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is considered a reliable measure of HPA axis function in humans. However, the CAR appears to vary considerably from day to day and may be strongly influenced by the anticipated demands of the day ahead. Read More

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November 2018
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The role of the vagus nerve in appetite control: Implications for the pathogenesis of obesity.

Authors:
Simon C Cork

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 7;30(11):e12643. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Section of Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The communication between the gut and the brain is important for the control of energy homeostasis. In response to food intake, enteroendocrine cells secrete gut hormones, which ultimately suppress appetite through centrally-mediated processes. Increasing evidence implicates the vagus nerve as an important conduit in transmitting these signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain. Read More

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November 2018
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Sex-dependent changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations in the rat brain following acute swim stress.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 7;30(11):e12644. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Sex differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity are well established in rodents. In addition to glucocorticoids, stress also stimulates the secretion of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) from the adrenal gland. Neuroactive steroid metabolites of these precursors can modulate HPA axis function; however, it is not known whether levels of these steroids differ between male and females following stress. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221110PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

The glutamine-glutamate cycle regulates synaptic glutamate release in the ventrolateral ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of perinatal female rats.

Authors:
Shu-Ling Liang

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 7;30(11):e12642. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

The astrocytic glutamine (Gln)-glutamate (Glu) cycle (GGC) supplies Gln for the regulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GST) in the adult hippocampus. Increased synaptic Glu release in the perinatal ventrolateral ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (vlVMH) modulates sexual differentiation, however, whether GGC regulates GST in the perinatal vlVMH has not been determined. Sex differences in oestradiol (E ) levels exist in the neonatal hypothalamus, and E increases levels of glutamine synthetase and glutaminase, two key enzymes involved in the GGC. Read More

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November 2018
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Factors promoting vulnerability to dysregulated stress reactivity and stress-related disease.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 7;30(10):e12641. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Developmental Exposure Alcohol Research Center (DEARC), Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York.

Effective coordination of the biological stress response is integral for the behavioural well-being of an organism. Stress reactivity is coordinated by an interplay of the neuroendocrine system and the sympathetic nervous system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in orchestrating the bodily responses to stress, and the activity of the axis can be modified by a wide range of experiential events. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181794PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

High salt loading increases brain derived neurotrophic factor in supraoptic vasopressin neurones.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 14;30(11):e12639. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Department of Physiology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas.

High salt loading (SL) is associated with inappropriate arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and increased mean arterial pressure. Previous work has shown that chronic high salt intake impairs baroreceptor inhibition of rat AVP neurones through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) dependent activation of tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) and down-regulation of K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2. This mechanism diminishes the GABA inhibition of AVP neurones in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) by increasing intracellular chloride. Read More

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November 2018

Photoperiod and thyroid hormone regulate expression of l-dopachrome tautomerase (Dct), a melanocyte stem-cell marker, in tanycytes of the ovine hypothalamus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 18;30(9):e12640. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

PRC, INRA, CNRS, IFCE, Université de Tours, Nouzilly, France.

The pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary is central to the control of seasonal breeding. In mammals, the PT translates the photoperiodic message carried by melatonin into an endocrine thyroid-stimulating hormone output, which controls local thyroid hormone (TH) signalling in tanycytes of the neighbouring hypothalamus. In the present study, we identify l-dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) as a novel marker of ovine tanycytes and show that Dct displays marked seasonal variations in expression, with higher levels during spring and summer. Read More

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September 2018

Prostaglandin E depresses GABA release onto parvocellular neuroendocrine neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via presynaptic receptors.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 14;30(11):e12638. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Inflammation-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the ensuing release of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids are critical for the fine-tuning of the inflammatory response. This immune-induced neuroendocrine response is in large part mediated by prostaglandin E (PGE ), the central actions of which ultimately translate into the excitation of parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which PGE excites PNCs remain incompletely understood. Read More

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November 2018

12th World Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - July 26th-29th, 2017.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Jul 28:e12636. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

University of Edinburgh, UK.

This Special Issue of Journal of Neuroendocrinology comprises six reviews and eight original research articles describing recent advances in the field of Vasopressin and Oxytocin hormone research based on presentations given at the 12th World Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones held in July 2017, in Brazil. We, the Chair of the Local Organising Committee and Guest Editor (Maria José A. Rocha) and Guest/Senior Editors for this issue (Celia Sladek and Mike Ludwig), would like to thank the contributors for their excellent reviews and original research articles, the colleagues who reviewed these articles and the Editorial Board of Journal of Neuroendocrinology for their enthusiastic support of the Special Issue. Read More

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Central apelin administration and restraint stress induce hypothalamic cholecystokinin release via the APJ receptor.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 30;30(9):e12635. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

Exposure to an acute stressor induces up-regulation of apelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is the key brain centre integrating the stress-induced alterations in neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioural functions. We tested the hypothesis that the release of CCK from the PVN is increased by centrally administered or stress-induced up-regulated endogenous apelin via the APJ receptor. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic CCK on autonomic outflow was investigated under basal and stressed conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12635DOI Listing
September 2018
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Analysis of prolactin receptor expression in the murine brain using a novel prolactin receptor reporter mouse.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 23;30(9):e12634. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Prolactin influences a wide range of physiological functions via actions within the central nervous system, as well as in peripheral tissues. A significant limitation in studies investigating these functions is the difficulty in identifying prolactin receptor (Prlr) expression, particularly in the brain. We have developed a novel mouse line using homologous recombination within mouse embryonic stem cells to produce a mouse in which an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) followed by Cre recombinase cDNA is inserted immediately after exon 10 in the Prlr gene, thereby targeting the long isoform of the Prlr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12634DOI Listing
September 2018
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Role of AMPA and NMDA receptors on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion induced by hypertonic extracellular volume expansion.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Jul 12:e12633. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) are essential for the control of extracellular fluid osmolality and volume. Secretion of these hormones is modulated by several mechanisms, including NMDA and AMPA L-glutamate receptors in magnocellular cells of paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei. Thus, to better understand the participation of L-glutamate on the neuroendocrine control of AVP and OT, this work evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists on plasma AVP and OT levels induced by extracellular volume expansion (EVE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12633DOI Listing
July 2018
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Neuroendocrine correlates of the critical day length response in the Soay sheep.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 7;30(9):e12631. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

PRC, INRA, CNRS, IFCE, Université de Tours, Nouzilly, France.

In mammals, melatonin is the hormone responsible for synchronisation of seasonal physiological cycles of physiology to the solar year. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland with a profile reflecting the duration of the night and acts via melatonin-responsive cells in the pituitary pars tuberalis (PT), which in turn modulate hypothalamic thyroid hormone status. Recent models suggest that the actions of melatonin in the PT depend critically on day length-dependent changes in the expression of eyes absent 3 (Eya3), which is a coactivator for thyrotrophin β-subunit (Tshβ) gene transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12631DOI Listing
September 2018
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Developmental programming of the female neuroendocrine system by steroids.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 7;30(10):e12632. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Laboratorio de Neuroquímica y Neurofarmacología, Centro de Neurobiología y Fisiopatología Integrativa, Instituto de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

Developmental programming refers to processes that occur during early life that may have long-term consequences, modulating adult health and disease. Complex diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease, have a high prevalence in different populations, are multifactorial, and may have a strong environmental component. The environment interacts with organisms, affecting their behaviour, morphology and physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12632DOI Listing
October 2018
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Modulation of synaptic inputs in magnocellular neurones in a rat model of cancer cachexia.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep;30(9):e12630

Cancer Pathophysiology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

In cancer cachexia, abnormal metabolism and neuroendocrine dysfunction cause anorexia, tissue damage and atrophy, which can in turn alter body fluid balance. Arginine vasopressin, which regulates fluid homeostasis, is secreted by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus. Arginine vasopressin secretion by MNCs is regulated by both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity, alterations in plasma osmolarity and various peptides, including angiotensin II. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12630DOI Listing
September 2018

Gene expression profiling in human corticotroph tumours reveals distinct, neuroendocrine profiles.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 7;30(9):e12628. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Cusano Milanino, Italy.

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas give rise to a severe endocrinological disorder, comprising Cushing's disease, with multifaceted clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Experimental studies suggest that the disease variability is inherent to the pituitary tumour, thus indicating the need for further studies into tumour biology. The present study evaluated transcriptome expression pattern in a large series of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma specimens in order to identify molecular signatures of these tumours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175113PMC
September 2018

Effect of 17β-oestradiol on T-type calcium channels in the lateral habenula.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 7;30(9):e12629. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Neuroscience Research Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

T-type calcium channels (T-channels) are critical for regulating neuronal excitability. Oestrogen alters neuronal excitability by modulating the expression of T-channels. The lateral habenula (LHb), as a link between the limbic system and midbrain structures, expresses T-channels and ERs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12629DOI Listing
September 2018
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Scotostimulation of reproductive neural pathways and gonadal maturation are not correlated with hypothalamic expression of deiodinases in subtropical spotted munia.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 6;30(9):e12627. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

IndoUS Center for Biological Timing, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Circannual rhythm regulates the annual timing of reproduction in spotted munia, with sex differences in its relationship with the external photoperiod environment. Interestingly, munia show an atypical photosensitivity and exhibit gonadal maturation when acutely exposed to an unnatural short photoperiod (eg 3 hours of light per day; ie a long scotoperiod). The proximate mechanisms regulating scotoperiod-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) activation are unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12627DOI Listing
September 2018
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Participation of membrane progesterone receptor α in the inhibitory effect of progesterone on prolactin secretion.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 7;30(9):e12614. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, mPRβ, mPRγ, mPRδ and mPRε) are known to mediate rapid nongenomic progesterone functions in different cell types. However, the functions of these receptors in the pituitary have not been reported to date. In the present study, we show that the expression of mPRα was the highest among the mPRs in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12614DOI Listing
September 2018
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The subfornical organ: A novel site for prolactin action.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Sep 7;30(9):e12613. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone that performs over 300 biological functions, including those that require binding to prolactin receptor (PRL-R) in neurones within the central nervous system (CNS). To enter the CNS, circulating PRL must overcome the blood-brain barrier. Accordingly, areas of the brain that do not possess a blood-brain barrier, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), are optimally positioned to interact with systemic PRL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12613DOI Listing
September 2018

Introduction to the PANS special issue.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Jul;30(7):e12612

Colorado State University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12612DOI Listing

Effects of alcohol and psychostimulants on the vasopressin system: behavioral implications.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 May 26:e12611. Epub 2018 May 26.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica y Aplicada (CIBAP), Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by a compulsion to seek drugs, a loss of control with respect to drug consumption, and negative emotional states, including increased anxiety and irritability during withdrawal. Central vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors are involved in controlling social behavior, anxiety and reward, all of which are altered by drugs of abuse. Hypothalamic AVP neurons influence the stress response by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12611DOI Listing
May 2018
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Maternal regulation of the infant's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response: Seymour 'Gig' Levine's legacy to neuroendocrinology.

Authors:
D Suchecki

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Jul;30(7):e12610

Departamento de Psicobiologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Thirty years ago, Seymour 'Gig' Levine published a serendipitous, yet, seminal finding with respect to the regulatory role of maternal presence on the corticosterone stress response of neonatal rats during the developmental period known as the stress hyporesponsive period. At the same time, his group of students also investigated the stress response of infant monkeys with respect to maternal separation, as a means of understanding the stress to the primary caregiver resulting from disruptions of attachment. Gig and his group of students and collaborators, mainly in the USA and the Netherlands, investigated how initial social relationships buffer the stress response of nonhuman primates and rodent infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12610DOI Listing
July 2018
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Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Jul;30(7):e12609

Laboratory of Stress Neurobiology, Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

The foetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behaviour. The present study aimed to determine the physiological and behavioural effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 to 21, a critical period for foetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12609DOI Listing

Ontogeny of Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH) in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 May 13:e12608. Epub 2018 May 13.

Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

RFamide peptides are expressed in the early stages of development in most vertebrates. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to the RFamide family, and its role in reproduction has been widely studied in adult vertebrates, ranging from fish to mammals. As only three reports evaluated GnIH during development, the aim of this study was to characterise the ontogeny of GnIH in a fish model, Cichlasoma dimerus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12608DOI Listing
May 2018
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Feeding and GLP-1 receptor activation stabilize β-catenin in specific hypothalamic nuclei in male rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 May 11:e12607. Epub 2018 May 11.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

β-catenin is a multifunctional protein that can act in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate gene expression but can also bind to cadherin proteins in adherens junctions where it plays a key role in regulating cytoskeleton linked with these junctions. Recently, evidence has been presented indicating an essential role for β-catenin in regulating trafficking of insulin vesicles in β-cells and showing that changes in nutrient levels rapidly alter levels of β-catenin in these cells. Given the importance of neuroendocrine hormone secretion in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis, the objective of this study was to investigate whether β-catenin signalling is regulated in the hypothalamus during the normal physiological response to food intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12607DOI Listing