3,492 results match your criteria Journal of Neuroendocrinology [Journal]


Role of oxytocin in the control of stress and food intake.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 20:e12700. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Division of Brain and Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke-shi, Tochigi-ken, JAPAN, 329-0498.

Oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus are activated by stressful stimuli and food intake. The oxytocin receptor is located in various brain regions, including the sensory information-processing cerebral cortex, the cognitive information-processing prefrontal cortex, reward-related regions such as the ventral tegmental areas, nucleus accumbens, and raphe nucleus, stress-related areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, homeostasis-controlling hypothalamus, and the dorsal motor complex controlling intestinal functions. Oxytocin affects behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses and terminates food intake via acting on the metabolic or nutritional homeostasis system, modulating emotional processing, reducing reward values of food intake, and facilitating sensory and cognitive processing through multiple brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12700DOI Listing
February 2019

Raising overlapping litters: differential activation of the rats' maternal neural circuitry after interacting with newborn or juvenile pups.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 19:e12701. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Sección Biomatemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Uruguay.

The maternal behavior of a rat dynamically changes during the postpartum period, adjusting to the characteristics and physiological needs of the pups. This adaptation has been attributed to functional modifications in the maternal circuitry. Maternal behavior can also flexibly adapt according to different litter compositions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12701DOI Listing
February 2019

Ghrelin-mediated improvements in the metabolic phenotype in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 18:e12699. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Section for Metabolic Receptology, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by metabolic disturbances, along with cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Targeting metabolic HD dysfunction through maintenance of body weight and fat mass and restoration of peripheral energy metabolism can improve the progression of neurological symptoms. In this respect, we focused on the therapeutic potential of the orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin, which plays an important role in promoting a positive energy balance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12699DOI Listing
February 2019

Age-specific Associations between Estradiol, Cortico-Amygdalar Structural Covariance, Verbal and Spatial Skills.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 18:e12698. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Brain Development Cooperative Group.

Estradiol is known to play an important role in the developing human brain, but little is known on the entire network of potential regions which might be affected and on how these effects may vary from childhood to early adulthood, which in turn can explain sexually differentiated behaviors. Here we examined the relationship between estradiol, cortico-amygdalar structural covariance, and cognitive or behavioral measures typically showing sex differences (verbal/spatial skills, anxious-depressed symptomatology) in 152 children and adolescents (6-22 years old). Cortico-amygdalar structural covariance shifted from positive to negative across the age range. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12698DOI Listing
February 2019

Hyperthermia-induced seizures followed by repetitive stress are associated with age-dependent changes in specific aspects of the mouse stress system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 18:e12697. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Stress is among the most frequently self-reported factors provoking epileptic seizures in children and adults. It is still unclear though, why some people display stress-sensitive seizures while others don't. Recently, we showed that young epilepsy patients with stress-sensitive seizures exhibit a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12697DOI Listing
February 2019

Tracking oxytocin functions in the rodent brain during the last 30 years: From push-pull perfusion to chemogenetic silencing.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 12:e12695. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

RIAgnosis, Sinzing, Germany.

This is a short overview over the last thirty years of oxytocin (and vasopressin) research performed in our labs starting with attempts to quantitate the release of this nonapeptide in the rodent brain during physiological conditions such as suckling in the lactating animal. Using push-pull perfusion and microdialysis approaches, release patterns in hypothalamic and limbic brain regions could be characterized to occur from intact neuronal structures, to be independent of peripheral secretion into blood, and to respond differentially to various stimuli, particularly those related to reproduction and stress. Parallel efforts focused on the functional impact of central oxytocin release including neuroendocrine and behavioural effects mediated by nonapeptide receptor interactions and subsequent intraneuronal signaling cascades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12695DOI Listing
February 2019

Glucose availability regulates ghrelin-induced food intake in the Ventral Tegmental Area.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 11:e12696. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Victoria, Australia.

Information about metabolic status arrives in the brain in the form of a complex milieu of circulating signalling factors including glucose and fatty acids, ghrelin, leptin and insulin. The specific interactions between humoral factors, brain sites of action and how they influence behaviour is largely unknown. We have previously seen interactions between glucose availability and the actions of ghrelin mediated via the AgRP neurons of the hypothalamus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12696DOI Listing
February 2019

A Brief History of Circannual Time.

Authors:
Gerald Lincoln

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 9:e12694. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Kirkton Cottages Auchtertool, Fife, KY2 5XQ, Scotland.

The tenet of this review is that innate circannual timing is an ancestral trait that first evolved in free-living eukaryotic cells some 2000My ago. Marine algae of the genus Allexandrium provide a living unicellular model. This species shows the primitive trait of 'alternation of generations' where the organism alternates between fast replicating vegetative cells in summer, and a dormant cystic cell over winter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12694DOI Listing
February 2019
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Stress and obesity: The ghrelin connection.

Authors:
Alfonso Abizaid

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12693. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Ghrelin is a hormone associated with feeding and energy balance. Not surprisingly, this hormone is secreted in response to acute stressors and it is chronically elevated after exposure to chronic stress in tandem with a number of metabolic changes aimed at attaining homeostatic balance. In the present review, we propose that ghrelin plays a key role in these stress-induced homeostatic processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12693DOI Listing
February 2019

A role for taste receptors in (neuro)endocrinology?

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12691. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

The sense of taste is positioned at the forefront when it comes to the interaction of our body with foodborne chemicals. However, the role of our taste system, and in particular its associated taste receptors, is not limited to driving food preferences leading to ingestion or rejection before other organs take over responsibility for nutrient digestion, absorption and metabolic regulation. Taste sensory elements do much more. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12691DOI Listing
February 2019

Short and long-term responsiveness to low dose GH in adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD): role of GH receptor (GHR) polymorphism.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12692. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Pituitary Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Catholic University, School of Medicine, 00168, Rome, ; Italy.

Purpose: in patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD), low doses of recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) have a similar or better long-term clinical effect than higher doses. Pharmacogenetic studies suggest that GH receptor (GHR) polymorphism influences only some metabolic parameters. Nonetheless there is no clear scientific evidence proving the effects of lower rhGH dose regimens on metabolic parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12692DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

NDP-MSH reduces oxidative damage induced by palmitic acid in primary astrocytes.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12673. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

INBIOMED - Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, UBA-CONICET, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Recent findings relate obesity to inflammation in key hypothalamic areas for body weight control. Hypothalamic inflammation has also been related to oxidative stress. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant free fatty acid found in food, and in vitro studies indicate that it triggers a pro-inflammatory response in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12673DOI Listing
February 2019

Tanycytes: a rich morphological history to underpin future molecular and physiological investigations.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 29:e12690. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Departamento de Anatomía e Histología Humanas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Salamanca, España.

Tanycytes are located at the base of the brain and retain characteristics from their developmental origins - as radial glial cells - throughout their life span. With transport mechanisms and modulation of tight junction proteins, tanycytes form a bridge connecting the cerebrospinal fluid with the external limiting basement membrane. They also retain the powers of self-renewal and can differentiate to generate neurons and glia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12690DOI Listing
January 2019

From sensory circumventricular organs to cerebral cortex: neural pathways controlling thirst and hunger.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 23:e12689. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, Australia.

Much progress has been made during the past thirty years elucidating neural and endocrine pathways by which bodily needs for water and energy are brought to conscious awareness through the generation of thirst and hunger. One way that circulating hormones influence thirst and hunger is by acting on neurons within sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs). This is possible because the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the sensory CVOs in the forebrain, and the area postrema in the hindbrain, lack a normal blood-brain barrier so that neurons within them are exposed to blood-borne agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12689DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Double transcranial direct current stimulation of the brain increases cerebral energy levels and systemic glucose tolerance in men.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 19:e12688. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Section of Psychoneurobiology, Center of Brain, Behavior and Metabolism, University of Luebeck, Germany.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory method, which has been experimentally tested and is already used as an adjuvant therapeutic option to treat a number of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric diseases. Beyond its well-known local effects within the brain, tDCS also transiently promotes systemic glucose uptake and reduces the activity of the neurohormonal stress axes. We aimed to test if the effects of a single tDCS application could be replicated upon double stimulation to persistently improve systemic glucose tolerance and stress axes activity in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12688DOI Listing
January 2019

Nitric oxide acutely modulates hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide production to control vasopressin, oxytocin and atrial natriuretic peptide release in rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 11:e12686. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Physiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Nitric oxide (NO) negatively modulates the secretion of vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) induced by the increase in extracellular osmolality, whereas carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H S) act to potentiate it; however, little information is available for the osmotic challenge model about whether and how such gaseous systems modulate each other. Therefore, using an acute ex vivo model of hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal explants (obtained from male 6/7-week-old Wistar rats) under conditions of extracellular iso- and hypertonicity, we determined the effects of NO (600 μmol L sodium nitroprusside), CO (100 μmol L tricarbonylchloro[glycinato]ruthenium [II]) and H S (10 mmol L sodium sulphide) donors and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (300 μmol L N -methyl-l-arginine [LNMMA]), haeme oxygenase (HO) (200 μmol L Zn(II) deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4-bis-ethylene glycol [ZnDPBG]) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) (100 μmol L aminooxyacetate [AOA]) inhibitors on the release of hypothalamic ANP and hypothalamic and neurohypophyseal AVP and OT, as well as on the activities of NOS, HO and CBS. LNMMA reversed hyperosmolality-induced NOS activity, and enhanced hormonal release by the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis, in addition to increasing CBS and hypothalamic HO activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12686DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

RANK deletion in neuropeptide Y neurones attenuates oestrogen deficiency-related bone loss.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 11:e12687. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

The RANKL pathway is known to be an important aspect of the pathogenesis of oestrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. RANK deletion specifically in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones has been shown to enhance the ability of the skeleton to match increases in body weight caused by high-fat diet feeding, likely via the modulation of NPY levels. In the present study, we used ovariectomy in female mice to show that RANK deletion in NPY neurones attenuates bone loss caused by long-term oestrogen deficiency, particularly in the vertebral compartment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12687DOI Listing
January 2019

PI3K signalling in leptin receptor cells: Role in growth and reproduction.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 8:e12685. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Nutrition and growth are important signals for pubertal development, although how they are perceived and integrated in brain circuits has not been well defined. Growth hormones and metabolic cues both recruit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling in hypothalamic sites, although whether they converge into the same neuronal population(s) is also not known. In this review, we discuss recent findings from our laboratory showing the role of PI3K subunits in cells directly responsive to the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin in the coordination of growth, pubertal development and fertility. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12685
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12685DOI Listing
January 2019
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The role of the gut microbiota in development, function and disorders of the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 7:e12684. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Before obtaining its own microbiota, eutherian foetuses are exposed to products and metabolites from the maternal microbiota. At birth, the infants are colonised by microorganisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12684DOI Listing
January 2019

Aberrant intra and inter network resting state functional connectivity in thyrotoxicosis.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 1:e12683. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), DRDO, New Delhi, India.

Thyroid hormones epigenetically play an important role in the regularisation of neural networks and in neural differentiation during brain development. The present study aimed to explore the intra and inter network resting state functional connectivity changes underlying the neurobehavioural symptoms in thyrotoxicosis. To understand the pathophysiological changes, we investigated the correlation between functional connectivity and clinical and behavioural measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12683DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Sex-specific contribution of DHEA-cortisol ratio to prefrontal-hippocampal structural development, cognitive abilities and personality traits.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 31:e12682. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Although dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may exert neuroprotective effects in the developing brain, prolonged or excessive elevations in cortisol may exert neurotoxic effects. The ratio between DHEA and cortisol (DC ratio) has been linked to internalising and externalising disorders, as well as cognitive performance, supporting the clinical relevance of this hormonal ratio during development. However, the brain mechanisms by which these effects may be mediated have not yet been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12682DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Maternal photoperiodic programming enlightens the internal regulation of thyroid-hormone deiodinases in tanycytes.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 17;31(1):e12679. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institute for Cellular and Integrative Neuroscience, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Seasonal rhythms in physiology are widespread among mammals living in temperate zones. These rhythms rely on the external photoperiodic signal being entrained to the seasons, although they persist under constant conditions, revealing their endogenous origin. Internal long-term timing (circannual cycles) can be revealed in the laboratory as photoperiodic history-dependent responses, comprising the ability to respond differently to similar photoperiodic cues based on prior photoperiodic experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12679DOI Listing
January 2019

Steroid profiles in quail brain and serum: Sex and regional differences and effects of castration with steroid replacement.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 26:e12681. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Both systemic and local production contribute to the concentration of steroids measured in the brain. This idea was originally based on rodent studies and was later extended to other species, including humans and birds. In quail, a widely used model in behavioural neuroendocrinology, it was demonstrated that all enzymes needed to produce sex steroids from cholesterol are expressed and active in the brain, although the actual concentrations of steroids produced were never investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12681DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

A unifying hypothesis for control of body weight and reproduction in seasonally breeding mammals.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 26:e12680. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Animals have evolved diverse seasonal variations in physiology and reproduction to accommodate yearly changes in environmental and climatic conditions. These changes in physiology are initiated by changes in photoperiod (daylength) and are mediated through melatonin, which relays photoperiodic information to the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Melatonin drives thyroid-stimulating hormone transcription and synthesis in the pars tuberalis, which, in turn, regulates thyroid hormone and retinoic acid synthesis in the tanycytes lining the third ventricle of the hypothalamus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12680DOI Listing
December 2018
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Prenatal programming of stress responsiveness and behaviours: Progress and perspectives.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 24:e12674. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Departments of Physiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Parental exposure to stress or glucocorticoids either before or during pregnancy can have profound influences on neurodevelopment, neuroendocrine function and behaviours in offspring. Specific outcomes are dependent on the nature, intensity and timing of the exposure, as well as species, sex and age of the subject. Most recently, it has become evident that outcomes are not confined to first-generation offspring and that there may be intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12674DOI Listing
December 2018

Brain accessibility delineates the central effects of circulating ghrelin.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 23:e12677. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Laboratorio de Neurofisiología del Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de Argentina, Universidad Nacional de La Plata y Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas-Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract that acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. In the central nervous system, ghrelin signalling is able to recruit different neuronal targets that regulate the behavioural, neuroendocrine, metabolic and autonomic effects of the hormone. Notably, several studies using radioactive or fluorescent variants of ghrelin have found that the accessibility of circulating ghrelin into the mouse brain is both strikingly low and restricted to some specific brain areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12677DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Tumour necrosis factor α induces neuroinflammation and insulin resistance in immortalised hypothalamic neurones through independent pathways.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 20;31(1):e12678. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The links between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, which are all key characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are yet to be delineated in the brain. One of the key neuroinflammatory proteins detected in the hypothalamus with over-nutrition is tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α. Using immortalised embryonic rat and mouse hypothalamic cell lines (rHypoE-7 and mHypoE-46) that express orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, we investigated changes in insulin signalling and inflammatory gene marker mRNA expression after TNFα exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12678DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Activation of the rat hypothalamic supramammillary nucleus by food anticipation, food restriction or ghrelin administration.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 23:e12676. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The circulating orexigenic hormone ghrelin targets many brain areas involved in feeding control and signals via a dedicated receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A. One unexplored target area for ghrelin is the supramammillary nucleus (SuM), a hypothalamic area involved in motivation and reinforcement and also recently linked to metabolic control. Given that ghrelin binds to the SuM, we explored whether SuM cells respond to ghrelin and/or are activated when endogenous ghrelin levels are elevated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12676DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Top-down and bottom-up control of stress-coping.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 22:e12675. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

In this 30th anniversary issue review, we focus on the glucocorticoid modulation of limbic-prefrontocortical circuitry during stress-coping. This action of the stress hormone is mediated by mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) that are co-expressed abundantly in these higher brain regions. Via both receptor types, the glucocorticoids demonstrate, in various contexts, rapid nongenomic and slower genomic actions that coordinate consecutive stages of information processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12675DOI Listing
December 2018
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Late onset obesity in mice with targeted deletion of potassium inward rectifier Kir7.1 from cells expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 20;31(1):e12670. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Energy stores in fat tissue are determined in part by the activity of hypothalamic neurones expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). Even a partial reduction in MC4R expression levels in mice, rats or humans produces hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the molecular basis of neuromodulation by the MC4R. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12670
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12670DOI Listing
January 2019
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Physiological and pathophysiological roles of hypothalamic astrocytes in metabolism.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 17:e12671. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Instituto Pluridisciplinar UCM y Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacognosia y Botánica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

The role of glial cells, including astrocytes, in metabolic control has received increasing attention in recent years. Although the original interest in these macroglial cells was a result of astrogliosis being observed in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese subjects, studies have also focused on how they participate in the physiological control of appetite and energy expenditure. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones, growth factors and neuropeptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12671DOI Listing
December 2018

30 years after: CNS actions of prolactin: Sources, mechanisms and physiological significance.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 14:e12669. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

Our understanding of the neural actions of prolactin (PRL) and its biochemical basis has expanded greatly over the past three decades. During this time, major progress has been made, including clarification of how PRL accesses the brain, identification of the PRL receptor and the sites where it is expressed within the brain, determination of the neurochemical mechanism of action of PRL and its effect on genomic expression in neurones, identification of the neural sites where PRL acts to stimulate maternal behaviour and related affective states, and exploration of how life experiences impact neural PRL receptor activity and actions. The next 30 years promise to reveal a myriad of basic and clinical findings regarding new roles for PRL and a greater indepth understanding of how and where PRL affects physiological and behavioural processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12669DOI Listing
December 2018

Ghrelin's effects on food motivation in rats are not limited to palatable foods.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 7:e12665. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physiology/Endocrine, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, is powerfully orexigenic. Even in the absence of hunger, ghrelin delivery to rats increases consumption of chow, as well as palatable foods, and increases motivated behaviour for palatable food rewards. Inspired by the finding that ghrelin increases the selection of chow in rats offered a choice diet (lard, sucrose or chow) and even in rats bingeing on a high-fat diet, we aimed to explore whether the effects of ghrelin on motivation extend to regular chow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12665DOI Listing
December 2018

Isolation and identification of endogenous RFamide-related peptides 1 and 3 in the mouse hypothalamus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 2;31(1):e12668. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Biological Functions of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.

Although the RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) preproprotein sequence is known in mice, until now, the molecular structure of the mature, functional peptides processed from the target precursor molecule has not been determined. In the present study, we purified endogenous RFRP1 and RFRP3 peptides from mouse hypothalamic tissue extracts using an immunoaffinity column conjugated with specific antibodies against the mouse C-terminus of RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. Employing liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that RFRP1 consists of 15 amino acid residues and RFRP3 consists of 10 amino acid residues (ANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH2 and SHFPSLPQRF-NH2, respectively). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12668
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12668DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Electrophysiological properties of identified oxytocin and vasopressin neurones.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12666. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

To understand the contribution of intrinsic membrane properties to the different in vivo firing patterns of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurones, in vitro studies are needed, where stable intracellular recordings can be made. Combining immunochemistry for OT and VP and intracellular dye injections allows characterisation of identified OT and VP neurones, and several differences between the two cell types have emerged. These include a greater transient K current that delays spiking to stimulus onset, and a higher Na current density leading to greater spike amplitude and a more stable spike threshold, in VP neurones. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jne.12666
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12666DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Intracerebroventricular administration of sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide induces anxiety-like behaviour in goldfish.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 6;31(1):e12667. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8s) is involved in feeding regulation as an anorexigenic neuropeptide in vertebrates. In rodents, i.c. Read More

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January 2019
11 Reads

Cracking the combination: Gut hormones for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 22:e12664. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are a veritable global pandemic. There is an imperative to develop new therapies for these conditions that can be delivered at scale to patients, which deliver effective and titratable weight loss, amelioration of diabetes, prevention of diabetic complications and improvements in cardiovascular health. Although agents based on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are now in routine use for diabetes and obesity, the limited efficacy of such drugs means that newer agents are required. Read More

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November 2018
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Ghrelin receptor deletion reduces binge-like alcohol drinking in rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 20:e12663. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, and National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that has been implicated in the neurobiology of alcohol drinking. We have recently developed a ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor; GHSR) knockout (KO) rat model, which exhibits reduced food consumption and body weight. In addition, recent preliminary work suggests that the gut-microbiome, which appears to interact with the ghrelin system, may modulate alcohol drinking. Read More

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November 2018
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The osmoresponsiveness of oxytocin and vasopressin neurones: Mechanisms, allostasis and evolution.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 19:e12662. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

In the rat supraoptic nucleus, every oxytocin cell projects to the posterior pituitary, and is involved both in reflex milk ejection during lactation and in regulating uterine contractions during parturition. All are also osmosensitive, regulating natriuresis. All are also regulated by signals that control appetite, including the neural and hormonal signals that arise from the gut after food intake and from the sites of energy storage. Read More

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November 2018
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Menopause is associated with decreased postprandial ghrelin, whereas a history of anorexia nervosa is associated with increased total ghrelin.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 17:e12661. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Institute of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Middle age has been linked with various dysfunctional eating patterns in women. The hormone ghrelin is related to food intake, with plasma levels rising before eating and decreasing immediately afterwards. Animal research has shown that oestradiol is an antagonist of ghrelin. Read More

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November 2018
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Sex- and sub region-dependent modulation of arcuate kisspeptin neurones by vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec;30(12):e12660

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

A population of kisspeptin neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARN) very likely represent the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator responsible for driving pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in mammals. As such, it has become important to understand the neural inputs that modulate the activity of ARN kisspeptin (ARN ) neurones. Using a transgenic GCaMP6 mouse model allowing the intracellular calcium levels ([Ca ] ) of individual ARN neurones to be assessed simultaneously, we examined whether the circadian neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) modulated the activity of ARN neurones directly. Read More

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December 2018
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A novel GNRHR gene mutation causing congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in a Brazilian kindred.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 19;30(12):e12658. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Laboratory of Molecular and Translational Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) is a challenging inherited endocrine disorder characterised by absent or incomplete pubertal development and infertility as a result of the low action/secretion of the hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Given a growing list of gene mutations accounting for CHH, the application of massively parallel sequencing comprises an excellent molecular diagnostic approach because it enables the simultaneous evaluation of many genes. The present study proposes the use of whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify causative and modifying mutations based on a phenotype-genotype CHH analysis using an in-house exome pipeline. Read More

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December 2018
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Interplay of central and peripheral circadian clocks in energy metabolism regulation.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 11:e12659. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Institute of Neurobiology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany.

Metabolic health founds on a homeostatic balance that has to integrate the daily changes of rest/activity and feeding/fasting cycles. A network of endogenous 24-hour circadian clocks helps to anticipate daily recurring events and adjust physiology and behavioural functions accordingly. Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators based on a set of clock genes/proteins organised in interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops. Read More

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November 2018
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Mapping GABA and glutamate inputs to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones in male and female mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 29;30(12):e12657. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone function is dependent upon gonadal steroid hormone feedback, which is communicated in large part through an afferent neuronal network. The classical neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate are important regulators of GnRH neurone activity and are implicated in mediating feedback signals. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether GABAergic or glutamatergic input to GnRH neurones differs between males and females and/or exhibits morphological plasticity in response to steroid hormone feedback in females. Read More

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December 2018
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Peptide mimetic of N-terminal ghrelin enhances ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion and c-Fos expression in mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 22;30(12):e12656. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Chair of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Orexigenic peptide ghrelin and its receptor have been extensively investigated as potential therapeutic targets, primarily because of their role in feeding initiation and growth hormone (GH) release. However, no specific ghrelin targeting anti-obesity or cachexia therapeutics are available for clinical use thus far and further efforts in this direction are warranted. The present study aimed to find new peptide drug leads modulating ghrelin signal transduction. Read More

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December 2018
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Grey matter differences associated with age and sex hormone levels between premenopausal and perimenopausal women: A voxel-based morphometry study.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 22;30(12):e12655. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Medical Engineering and Technical Center, Taishan Medcial University, Taian, China.

The present study aimed to explore brain morphological alterations associated with age and sex hormone levels between premenopausal and perimenopausal women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T -weighted structural images. Thirty-two premenopausal women aged (mean ± SD) 47.75 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018
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Interaction between angiotensin II and glucose sensing at the subfornical organ.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 22;30(12):e12654. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Centre for Neurosciences Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

The subfornical organ (SFO) lacks the normal blood-brain barrier and senses the concentrations of many different circulating signals, including glucose and angiotensin II (ANG II). ANG II has recently been implicated in the control of food intake and body weight gain. The present study assessed whether single SFO neurones sense changes in glucose and ANG II, and also whether changes in glucose concentration alter the responsiveness of these neurones to ANG II. Read More

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December 2018
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Thirty years of neuroendocrinology: Technological advances pave the way for molecular discovery.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Oct 26:e12653. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Since the 1950s, the systems level interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary and end organs such as the adrenal, thyroid and gonads have been well known; however, it is only over the last three decades that advances in molecular biology and information technology have provided a tremendous expansion of knowledge at the molecular level. Neuroendocrinology has benefitted from developments in molecular genetics, epigenetics and epigenomics, and most recently optogenetics and pharmacogenetics. This has enabled a new understanding of gene regulation, transcription, translation and post-translational regulation, which should help direct the development of drugs to treat neuroendocrine-related diseases. Read More

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October 2018
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High-fat diet and type 2 diabetes induced disruption of the oestrous cycle and alteration of hormonal profiles, but did not affect subpopulations of KNDy neurones in female rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 7;30(11):e12651. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Laboratory of Neurobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Apart from the primary metabolic symptoms of obesity and/or diabetes, there are numerous secondary problems, including disruptions of the reproductive system. The KNDy neurones, which express kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin A and are located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions are highly influenced by metabolic and hormonal status. Read More

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November 2018
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Differential effects of chronic 17β-oestradiol treatment on rat behaviours relevant to depression.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Nov 13;30(11):e12652. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Sex differences are a prominent feature of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, which affects women at a higher incidence than men. Research suggests that the most potent endogenous oestrogen, 17β-oestradiol, may have therapeutic potential in treating depression. However, preclinical studies have produced mixed results, likely as a result of various methodological factors such as treatment duration. Read More

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November 2018