133 results match your criteria Journal of Molecular Signaling [Journal]


ER Stress Activates the TOR Pathway through Atf6.

Authors:
Dylan Allen Jin Seo

J Mol Signal 2018 Apr 23;13. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Biology, School of Arts and Sciences, Rogers State University, Claremore, OK, US.

Cellular signaling pathways are often interconnected. They accurately and efficiently regulate essential cell functions such as protein synthesis, cell growth, and survival. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway regulate similar cellular processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-13-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078159PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Transcriptional and Post-Translational Targeting of Myocyte Stress Protein 1 (MS1) by the JNK Pathway in Cardiac Myocytes.

J Mol Signal 2017 Dec 8;12. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, Henry Wellcome Building, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK.

Myocyte Stress Protein 1 (MS1) is a muscle-specific, stress-responsive, regulator of gene expression. It was originally identified in embryonic mouse heart which showed increased expression in a rat model of left ventricular hypertrophy. To determine if MS1 was responsive to other stresses relevant to cardiac myocyte function, we tested if it could be induced by the metabolic stresses associated with ischaemia/reperfusion injury in cardiac myocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-12-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853832PMC
December 2017
10 Reads

Insights into the Shc Family of Adaptor Proteins.

J Mol Signal 2017 May 3;12. Epub 2017 May 3.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Leicester, UK.

The Shc family of adaptor proteins is a group of proteins that lacks intrinsic enzymatic activity. Instead, Shc proteins possess various domains that allow them to recruit different signalling molecules. Shc proteins help to transduce an extracellular signal into an intracellular signal, which is then translated into a biological response. Read More

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http://jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-2187-12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-12-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624076PMC
May 2017
1 Read

Anti-proliferative Effect of C3 Exoenzyme in Fibroblasts is Mediated by c-Jun Phosphorylation.

J Mol Signal 2017 Apr 3;12. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Institute of Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, DE.

The ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 exoenzyme from selectively inactivates Rho and is therefore often used as an inhibitor for investigations on Rho signaling. Previous studies of our group revealed that C3 inhibited cell proliferation in HT22 cells accompanied by increased transcriptional activities of Sp1 and c-Jun and reduced levels of cyclin D1, p21 and phosphorylated p38. By use of a p38α-deficient and a p38α-expressing control cell line, the impact of p38 on C3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and alterations on MAPK signaling was studied by growth kinetic experiments and Western blot analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-12-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5630077PMC

Frizzled-4 C-terminus Distal to KTXXXW Motif is Essential for Normal Dishevelled Recruitment and Norrin-stimulated Activation of Lef/Tcf-dependent Transcriptional Activation.

J Mol Signal 2016 Feb 5;11. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8661, USA.

The carboxy (C)-termini of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) dictate essential functions. The KTXXXW motif C-terminus of Frizzleds (FZD) has been implicated in recruitment of Dishevelled (DVL). Through study of FZD4 and its associated ligand Norrin, we report that a minimum of three residues distal to the KTXXXW motif in the C-terminal tail of Frizzled-4 are essential for DVL recruitment and robust Lef/Tcf-dependent transcriptional activation in response to Norrin. Read More

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http://jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-2187-11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-11-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4834752PMC
February 2016
5 Reads

Activator of G-protein Signaling 3 Controls Renal Epithelial Cell Survival and ERK5 Activation.

J Mol Signal 2015 Nov 27;10. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Memphis, TN 38104, US.

Activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3) is an accessory protein that functions to regulate the activation status of heterotrimeric G-protein subunits. To date, however, the downstream signaling pathways regulated by AGS3 remain to be fully elucidated, particularly in renal epithelial cells. In the present study, normal rat kidney (NRK-52E) proximal tubular epithelial cells were genetically modified to regulate the expression of AGS3 to investigate its role on MAPK and mTOR signaling to control epithelial cell number. Read More

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http://jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-2187-10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-10-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831271PMC
November 2015
6 Reads

The Intracellular Loop 2 F328S Frizzled-4 Mutation Implicated in Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Impairs Dishevelled Recruitment.

J Mol Signal 2015 Nov 24;10. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8661, USA.

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a disease state characterized by aberrant retinal angiogenesis. Norrin-induced activation of Frizzled-4 (Fz4) has a major role in regulating beta-catenin levels in the eye that, in turn, modulate the blood retina barrier (BRB). Here we gain insight on the basis of the pathology of a FEVR implicated F328S Fz4 mutant by study. Read More

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http://jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-2187-10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-10-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831297PMC
November 2015
6 Reads

Interaction with the Paxillin LD1 Motif Relieves MEKK2 Auto-inhibition.

J Mol Signal 2015 Oct 16;10. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.

The cell signaling molecule MEK kinase 2 (MEKK2) is a key upstream regulator of MAPK activity that regulates numerous cellular functions, but the mechanisms that control MEKK2 activity are not well understood. Recently, we reported that MEKK2 both binds and promotes ubiquitylation of the scaffold protein paxillin, and thereby modulates the composition of adhesion complexes. In this study, we have extended our examination of this interaction and report that recombinant paxillin is sufficient to induce MEKK2 auto-phosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-10-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831274PMC
October 2015
4 Reads

Gα13 Stimulates the Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Ric-8A.

J Mol Signal 2015 Jul 27;10. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Stephenson Cancer Center and Department of Cell Biology, 975 NE 10th Street, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, OK 73104, United States.

The G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins is defined by their α-subunits, Gα12 and Gα13. These α-subunits regulate cellular homeostasis, cell migration, and oncogenesis in a context-specific manner primarily through their interactions with distinct proteins partners that include diverse effector molecules and scaffold proteins. With a focus on identifying any other novel regulatory protein(s) that can directly interact with Gα13, we subjected Gα13 to tandem affinity purification-coupled mass spectrometric analysis. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-10-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831272PMC
July 2015
14 Reads

Inhibition of Gαs/cAMP Signaling Decreases TCR-Stimulated IL-2 transcription in CD4(+) T Helper Cells.

J Mol Signal 2015 Jul 6;10. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, 17822-2623, United States of America.

Background: The role of cAMP in regulating T cell activation and function has been controversial. cAMP is generally known as an immunosuppressant, but it is also required for generating optimal immune responses. As the effect of cAMP is likely to depend on its cellular context, the current study investigated whether the mechanism of activation of Gαs and adenylyl cyclase influences their effect on T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA levels. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-10-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831273PMC
July 2015
7 Reads

Inhibition of G-Protein βγ Signaling Decreases Levels of Messenger RNAs Encoding Proinflammatory Cytokines in T Cell Receptor-Stimulated CD4(+) T Helper Cells.

J Mol Signal 2015 Jul 6;10. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, 17822-2623, United States of America.

Background: Inhibition of G-protein βγ (Gβγ) signaling was found previously to enhance T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated increases in interleukin 2 (IL-2) mRNA in CD4(+) T helper cells, suggesting that Gβγ might be a useful drug target for treating autoimmune diseases, as low dose IL-2 therapy can suppress autoimmune responses. Because IL-2 may counteract autoimmunity in part by shifting CD4(+) T helper cells away from the Type 1 T helper cell (TH1) and TH17 subtypes towards the TH2 subtype, the purpose of this study was to determine if blocking Gβγ signaling affected the balance of TH1, TH17, and TH2 cytokine mRNAs produced by CD4(+) T helper cells.

Methods: Gallein, a small molecule inhibitor of Gβγ, and siRNA-mediated silencing of the G-protein β1 subunit (Gβ1) were used to test the effect of blocking Gβγ on mRNA levels of cytokines in primary human TCR-stimulated CD4(+) T helper cells. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/1750-2187-10-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831316PMC
July 2015
6 Reads

Forkhead box O1 and muscle RING finger 1 protein expression in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated mouse skeletal muscle.

J Mol Signal 2014 24;9. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar SE-391 82, Sweden.

Background: Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors and E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) are believed to participate in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The function of FoxO transcription factors is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In the present study FoxO1 protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation as well as MuRF1 protein expression, were examined in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4177715PMC
October 2014
4 Reads

Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1α in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway.

J Mol Signal 2014 8;9. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

MRC/UCT Receptor Biology Unit, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Division of Medical Biochemistry, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Private bag X3 Observatory 7935, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

Background: Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1α is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166412PMC
September 2014
4 Reads

The role of p21-activated kinases in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.

J Mol Signal 2014 1;9. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China ; State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are downstream effectors of the Rho family small GTPases as well as a wide variety of mitogenic factors and have been implicated in cancer formation, development and metastasis. PAKs phosphorylate a wide spectrum of substrates to mediate extracellular signals and regulate cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility and survival. In this review, we aim to summarize the findings regarding the oncogenic role and the underlying mechanisms of PAKs signaling in various cancers, and in particular highlight the prime importance of PAKs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and metastasis. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4121300PMC
August 2014
9 Reads

Breast cancer cell invasion mediated by Gα12 signaling involves expression of interleukins-6 and -8, and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

J Mol Signal 2014 17;9. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Program in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore.

Background: Recent studies on the involvement of the G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα12 and Gα13, the products of the GNA12 and GNA13 genes, respectively) in oncogenic pathways have uncovered a link between G12 signaling and cancer progression. However, despite a well characterized role of Rho GTPases, the potential role of secreted factors in the capacity of G12 signaling to promote invasion of cancer cells is just beginning to be addressed.

Methods: MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A breast cancer cell lines were employed as a model system to explore the involvement of secreted factors in G12-stimulated cell invasion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074425PMC
June 2014
2 Reads

Identification of endoglin-dependent BMP-2-induced genes in the murine periodontal ligament cell line PDL-L2.

J Mol Signal 2014 14;9. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Biological Macromolecules, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan.

Background: The periodontal ligament (PDL), connective tissue located between the cementum of teeth and alveolar bone of the mandibula, plays an important role in the maintenance and regeneration of periodontal tissues. We reported previously that endoglin was involved in the BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of mouse PDL cells, which is associated with Smad-2 phosphorylation but not Smad-1/5/8 phosphorylation. In this study, to elucidate the detailed mechanism underlying the BMP-2 signalling pathway unique to PDL cells, we performed a microarray analysis to identify BMP-2-inducible genes in PDL-L2 cells, a mouse PDL-derived cell line, with or without endoglin knockdown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4062770PMC
June 2014
21 Reads

The metastasis suppressor Nm23 as a modulator of Ras/ERK signaling.

J Mol Signal 2014 12;9. Epub 2014 May 12.

Department of Biological Anthropology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter stny. 1/C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.

NM23-H1 (also known as NME1) was the first identified metastasis suppressor, which displays a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and histidine protein kinase activity. NDPKs are linked to many processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, but the exact mechanism whereby NM23-H1 inhibits the metastatic potential of cancer cells remains elusive. However, some recent data suggest that NM23-H1 may exert its anti-metastatic effect by blocking Ras/ERK signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020307PMC
June 2014
6 Reads

Probing the stoichiometry of β2-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation by targeted mass spectrometry.

J Mol Signal 2014 Apr 1;9(1). Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8651, USA.

Background: Protein phosphorylation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is central to the myriad of functions that these ubiquitous receptors perform in biology. Although readily addressable with the use of phospho-specific antibodies, analysis phosphorylation at the level of stoichiometry requires receptor isolation and advanced proteomics. We chose two key sites of potential phosphorylation of human beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR residues S355 and S356) to ascertain the feasibility of applying targeted mass spectrometry to establishing the stoichiometry of the phosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022239PMC
April 2014
3 Reads

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) signaling in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated mouse skeletal muscle.

J Mol Signal 2014 Mar 15;9(1). Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar, Sweden.

Background: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase has been implicated in both skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. T317 phosphorylation of the p38 substrate mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) correlates with muscle weight in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated muscle and may influence the nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of p38 and/or MK2. The present study investigates expression and phosphorylation of p38, MK2 and related proteins in cytosolic and nuclear fractions from atrophic and hypertrophic 6-days denervated skeletal muscles compared to innervated controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995524PMC
March 2014
5 Reads

Multiple functions of G protein-coupled receptor kinases.

J Mol Signal 2014 Mar 6;9(1). Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Desensitization is a physiological feedback mechanism that blocks detrimental effects of persistent stimulation. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was originally identified as the kinase that mediates G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization. Subsequent studies revealed that GRK is a family composed of seven isoforms (GRK1-GRK7). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-9-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973964PMC
March 2014
5 Reads

Molecular targets and signaling pathways regulated by interleukin (IL)-24 in mediating its antitumor activities.

J Mol Signal 2013 Dec 30;8(1):15. Epub 2013 Dec 30.

Department of Pathology, Stanton L Young Biomedical Research Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Suite 1403, 975 NE 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Cancer remains a major health issue in the world and the effectiveness of current therapies is limited resulting in disease recurrence and resistance to therapy. Therefore to overcome disease recurrence and have improved treatment efficacy there is a continued effort to develop and test new anticancer drugs that are natural or synthetic - (conventional chemotherapeutics, small molecule inhibitors) and biologic (antibody, tumor suppressor genes, oligonucleotide) product. In parallel, efforts for identifying molecular targets and signaling pathways to which cancer cells are "addicted" are underway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3879428PMC
December 2013
3 Reads

Neuronal aging: learning from C. elegans.

J Mol Signal 2013 Dec 10;8(1):14. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No, 7, Chung-Shan South Rd, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

The heterogeneity and multigenetic nature of nervous system aging make modeling of it a formidable task in mammalian species. The powerful genetics, simple anatomy and short life span of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer unique advantages in unraveling the molecular genetic network that regulates the integrity of neuronal structures and functions during aging. In this review, we first summarize recent breakthroughs in the morphological and functional characterization of C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895751PMC
December 2013
5 Reads

A synergistic approach towards understanding the functional significance of dopamine receptor interactions.

J Mol Signal 2013 Dec 5;8(1):13. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Neuroscience Research, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, USA.

The importance of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the nervous system is underscored by its role in a wide variety of physiological and neural functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Binding of dopamine to its membrane receptors initiates precise signaling cascades that result in specific cellular responses. Dopamine receptors belong to a super-family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are characterized by seven trans-membrane domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878971PMC
December 2013
8 Reads

Membrane TNF-alpha-activated programmed necrosis is mediated by Ceramide-induced reactive oxygen species.

J Mol Signal 2013 Nov 1;8(1):12. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, C2217A MCN, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Background: Programmed necrosis is a form of caspase-independent cell death whose molecular regulation is poorly understood. While tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been identified as an activator of programmed necrosis, the specific context under which this can happen is unclear. Recently we reported that TNF-α can be expressed by human tumor cells as both a membrane tethered (mTNF-α) and a soluble (sTNF-α) form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895838PMC
November 2013
4 Reads

Mitochondrial H2O2 as an enable signal for triggering autophosphorylation of insulin receptor in neurons.

J Mol Signal 2013 Oct 5;8(1):11. Epub 2013 Oct 5.

Biosignal Ltd,, M, Gruzinskaya 29-153, 123557 Moscow, Russia.

Background: Insulin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, where they play roles in synaptic function, memory formation, and neuroprotection. Autophosphorylation of the receptor in response to insulin stimulation is a critical step in receptor activation. In neurons, insulin stimulation leads to a rise in mitochondrial H2O2 production, which plays a role in receptor autophosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817577PMC
October 2013
6 Reads

Differential PKA activation and AKAP association determines cell fate in cancer cells.

J Mol Signal 2013 Oct 1;8(1):10. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Eppley Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950, USA.

Background: The dependence of malignant properties of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on IGF1R signaling has been demonstrated and several IGF1R antagonists are currently in clinical trials. Recently, we identified a novel pathway in which cAMP independent PKA activation by TGFβ signaling resulted in the destabilization of survivin/XIAP complex leading to increased cell death. In this study, we evaluated the effect of IGF1R inhibition or activation on PKA activation and its downstream cell survival signaling mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3853032PMC
October 2013
3 Reads

Direct RNA sequencing mediated identification of mRNA localized in protrusions of human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells.

J Mol Signal 2013 Sep 1;8(1). Epub 2013 Sep 1.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Protrusions of cancer cells conferrers a vital function for cell migration and metastasis. Protein and RNA localization mechanisms have been extensively examined and shown to play pivotal roles for the functional presence of specific protein components in cancer cell protrusions.

Methods: To describe genome wide RNA localized in protrusions of the metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 we used Boyden chamber based methodology followed by direct mRNA sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844448PMC
September 2013
4 Reads

EGF regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane-translocation of the scaffold protein Tks5.

J Mol Signal 2013 7;8. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1113, Hungary ; Department of Medical Chemistry, Semmelweis University Medical School, Budapest 1094, Hungary.

Background: Tks5/FISH is a scaffold protein comprising of five SH3 domains and one PX domain. Tks5 is a substrate of the tyrosine kinase Src and is required for the organization of podosomes/invadopodia implicated in invasion of tumor cells. Recent data have suggested that a close homologue of Tks5, Tks4, is implicated in the EGF signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3765130PMC
May 2014
6 Reads

TRAF molecules in cell signaling and in human diseases.

Authors:
Ping Xie

J Mol Signal 2013 Jun 13;8(1). Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Nelson Labs Room B336, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854.

The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF) family of intracellular proteins were originally identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the cytoplasmic regions of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily. The past decade has witnessed rapid expansion of receptor families identified to employ TRAFs for signaling. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), T cell receptor, IL-1 receptor family, IL-17 receptors, IFN receptors and TGFβ receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697994PMC
June 2013
4 Reads

Ovarian cancer G protein coupled receptor 1 suppresses cell migration of MCF7 breast cancer cells via a Gα12/13-Rho-Rac1 pathway.

J Mol Signal 2013 May 10;8(1). Epub 2013 May 10.

Key Laboratory for Cell Proliferation and Regulation Biology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Cell Biology, College of Life Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, PR of China.

Background: Ovarian cancer G protein coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) mediates inhibitory effects on cell migration in human prostate and ovarian cancer cells. However, the mechanisms and signaling pathways that mediate these inhibitory effects are essentially unknown.

Methods: MCF7 cell line was chosen as a model system to study the mechanisms by which OGR1 regulates cell migration, since it expresses very low levels of endogenous OGR1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665705PMC
May 2013
7 Reads

NFAT5 in cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress - regulations and functional significance.

J Mol Signal 2013 Apr 23;8(1). Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, and The State Key Laboratory in Oncology in South China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Rm 38019, Clinical Sciences Building, Shatin, Hong Kong, China.

The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells-5 (NFAT5), also known as OREBP or TonEBP, is a member of the nuclear factors of the activated T cells family of transcription factors. It is also the only known tonicity-regulated transcription factor in mammals. NFAT5 was initially known for its role in the hypertonic kidney inner medulla for orchestrating a genetic program to restore the cellular homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3655004PMC
April 2013
2 Reads

Aggressive neuroblastomas have high p110alpha but low p110delta and p55alpha/p50alpha protein levels compared to low stage neuroblastomas.

J Mol Signal 2013 Apr 18;8(1). Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is involved in neuroblastoma development where Akt/PKB activation is associated with poor prognosis. PI3K activity subsequently activates Akt/PKB, and as mutations of PI3K are rare in neuroblastoma and high levels of PI3K subunit p110delta is associated with favorable disease with low p-Akt/PKB, the levels of other PI3K subunits could be important for Akt activation.

Methods: Protein levels of Type IA PI3K catalytic and regulatory subunits were investigated together with levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB and the PI3K negative regulator PTEN in primary neuroblastoma tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639884PMC
April 2013
2 Reads

Determinants at the N- and C-termini of Gα12 required for activation of Rho-mediated signaling.

J Mol Signal 2013 Mar 25;8(1). Epub 2013 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Asheville, One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804, USA.

Background: Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins of the G12/13 subfamily, which includes the α-subunits Gα12 and Gα13, stimulate the monomeric G protein RhoA through interaction with a distinct subset of Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). The structural features that mediate interaction between Gα13 and RhoGEFs have been examined in crystallographic studies of the purified complex, whereas a Gα12:RhoGEF complex has not been reported. Several signaling responses and effector interactions appear unique to Gα12 or Gα13, despite their similarity in amino acid sequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636079PMC
March 2013
11 Reads

Caspase-3 mediated release of SAC domain containing fragment from Par-4 is necessary for the sphingosine-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells.

J Mol Signal 2013 Feb 27;8(1). Epub 2013 Feb 27.

Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P,O, Box 17666, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Background: Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor protein that selectively activates and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. The cancer specific pro-apoptotic function of Par-4 is encoded in its centrally located SAC (Selective for Apoptosis induction in Cancer cells) domain (amino acids 137-195). The SAC domain itself is capable of nuclear entry, caspase activation, inhibition of NF-κB activity, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599610PMC
February 2013
7 Reads
7 Citations

Consequences of nongenomic actions of estradiol on pathogenic genital tract response.

J Mol Signal 2013 Jan 26;8(1). Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Center for Integrative Medicine and Innovative Sciences, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andrés Bello, Echaurren 183, Santiago, Chile.

Estradiol is a steroid hormone that regulates the structure and function of the female reproductive system. In addition to its genomic effects, which are mediated by activated nuclear receptors, estradiol elicits a variety of rapid signaling events independently of transcriptional or genomic regulation. These nongenomic actions influence the milieu of the genital tract, which changes the ability of pathogens to infect the genital tract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-8-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570385PMC
January 2013
2 Reads

Defining regulatory and phosphoinositide-binding sites in the human WIPI-1 β-propeller responsible for autophagosomal membrane localization downstream of mTORC1 inhibition.

J Mol Signal 2012 Oct 22;7(1):16. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

From the Autophagy Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology, Interfaculty Institute of Cell Biology, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.

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Background: Autophagy is a cytoprotective, lysosomal degradation system regulated upon induced phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) generation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class III (PtdIns3KC3) downstream of mTORC1 inhibition. The human PtdIns(3)P-binding β-propeller protein WIPI-1 accumulates at the initiation site for autophagosome formation (phagophore), functions upstream of the Atg12 and LC3 conjugation systems, and localizes at both the inner and outer membrane of generated autophagosomes. In addition, to a minor degree WIPI-1 also binds PtdIns(3,5)P2. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543385PMC
October 2012
5 Reads

NADPH oxidase mediates the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A subunit in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells.

J Mol Signal 2012 Sep 8;7(1):15. Epub 2012 Sep 8.

From the Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Center for Structural and Functional Neuroscience, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA.

Background: Evidence exists that oxidative stress promotes the tyrosine phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits during post-ischemic reperfusion of brain tissue. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDAR NR2A subunits has been reported to potentiate receptor function and exacerbate NMDAR-induced excitotoxicity. Though the effect of ischemia on tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDAR subunits has been well documented, the oxidative stress signaling cascades mediating the enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A subunits remain unclear. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3489596PMC
September 2012
5 Reads

The roles played by highly truncated splice variants of G protein-coupled receptors.

Authors:
Helen Wise

J Mol Signal 2012 Sep 1;7(1):13. Epub 2012 Sep 1.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Alternative splicing of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes greatly increases the total number of receptor isoforms which may be expressed in a cell-dependent and time-dependent manner. This increased diversity of cell signaling options caused by the generation of splice variants is further enhanced by receptor dimerization. When alternative splicing generates highly truncated GPCRs with less than seven transmembrane (TM) domains, the predominant effect in vitro is that of a dominant-negative mutation associated with the retention of the wild-type receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Read More

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http://www.springerlink.com/index/7175K453K4138251.pdf
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http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-2187-7-13.pdf
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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3477067PMC
September 2012
2 Reads

Multiple biomarker tissue arrays: A computational approach to identifying protein-protein interactions in the EGFR/ERK signalling pathway.

J Mol Signal 2012 Sep 1;7(1):14. Epub 2012 Sep 1.

INIBIC, Oncology Group, CHU A Coruña, A Coruña, Coruña, Spain.

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Background: Many studies have demonstrated genetic and environmental factors that lead to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and that occur during a protracted period of tumourigenesis. It appears suitable to identify and characterise potential molecular markers that appear during tumourigenesis and that might provide rapid and effective possibilities for the early detection of RCC. EGFR activation induces cell cycle progression, inhibition of apoptosis and angiogenesis, promotion of invasion/metastasis, and other tumour promoting activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3493339PMC
September 2012
3 Reads

Understanding sensitivity to BH3 mimetics: ABT-737 as a case study to foresee the complexities of personalized medicine.

J Mol Signal 2012 Aug 16;7(1):12. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine & School of Pharmacy, Guy Hilton Research Centre, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Stoke-on-Trent, Keele, ST4 7QB, UK.

BH3 mimetics such as ABT-737 and navitoclax bind to the BCL-2 family of proteins and induce apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. There is considerable variability in the sensitivity of different cells to these drugs. Understanding the molecular basis of this variability will help to determine which patients will benefit from these drugs. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3477050PMC
August 2012
7 Reads

Signaling in colon cancer stem cells.

J Mol Signal 2012 Aug 6;7(1):11. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

John D Dingell VA Medical Centre, 4646 John R; Room: B-4238, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common form of cancer worldwide and ranks third among the cancer-related deaths in the US and other Western countries. It occurs with equal frequency in men and women, constituting 10% of new cancer cases in men and 11% in women. Despite recent advancement in therapeutics, the survival rates from metastatic are less than 5%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485105PMC
August 2012
4 Reads

siRNA knockdown of GPR18 receptors in BV-2 microglia attenuates N-arachidonoyl glycine-induced cell migration.

J Mol Signal 2012 Jul 26;7(1):10. Epub 2012 Jul 26.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

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Background: Neurons are known to employ the endogenous cannabinoid system to communicate with other cells of the CNS. Endocannabioid signaling recruits microglia toward neurons by engaging cannabinoid CB2 and abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) receptors. The Abn-CBD receptor is a prominent atypical cannabinoid receptor that had been discriminated by means of various pharmacological and genetic tools but remained to be identified at the molecular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3493281PMC
July 2012
5 Reads

Tumour promoting and suppressing roles of the atypical MAP kinase signalling pathway ERK3/4-MK5.

J Mol Signal 2012 Jul 16;7(1). Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, NO-9037, Norway.

Perturbed action of signal transduction pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways, is one of the hallmarks of many cancers. While the implication of the typical MAP kinase pathways ERK1/2-MEK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK is well established, recent findings illustrate that the atypical MAP kinase ERK3/4-MK5 may also be involved in tumorigenic processes. Remarkably, the ERK3/4-MK5 pathway seems to possess anti-oncogenic as well as pro-oncogenic properties in cell culture and aninal models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419095PMC
July 2012
5 Reads

Assembly of Dishevelled 3-based supermolecular complexes via phosphorylation and Axin.

J Mol Signal 2012 Jun 29;7(1). Epub 2012 Jun 29.

Departments of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8651, USA.

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Background: Dishevelled-3 (Dvl3) is a multivalent scaffold essential to cell signaling in development. Dsh/Dvls enable a myriad of protein-protein interactions in Wnt signaling. In the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway specifically, Dvl3 polymerizes to form dynamic protein aggregates, so-called "signalsomes", which propagate signals from the Wnt receptor Frizzled to downstream elements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3542119PMC
June 2012
4 Reads

Akt (protein kinase B) isoform phosphorylation and signaling downstream of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic mouse skeletal muscle.

J Mol Signal 2012 Jun 1;7(1). Epub 2012 Jun 1.

School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82, Kalmar, Sweden.

Background: The present study examines the hypothesis that Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling is increased in hypertrophic and decreased in atrophic denervated muscle. Protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt1, Akt2, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), 70 kD ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were examined in six-days denervated mouse anterior tibial (atrophic) and hemidiaphragm (hypertrophic) muscles.

Results: In denervated hypertrophic muscle expression of total Akt1, Akt2, GSK-3beta, p70S6K1 and rpS6 proteins increased 2-10 fold whereas total 4EBP1 protein remained unaltered. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406959PMC
June 2012
4 Reads

Chibby suppresses growth of human SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of β-catenin signaling.

J Mol Signal 2012 May 31;7(1). Epub 2012 May 31.

Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Stony Brook University, BST 7-186, Nicolls Rd, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8651, USA.

The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is crucial for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Activating mutations in the Wnt pathway are frequently associated with the pathogenesis of various types of cancer, particularly colon cancer. Upon Wnt stimulation, β-catenin plays a central role as a coactivator through direct interaction with Tcf/Lef transcription factors to stimulate target gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3463480PMC
May 2012
2 Reads

Coexpression of human somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) and SSTR3 modulates antiproliferative signaling and apoptosis.

J Mol Signal 2012 May 31;7(1). Epub 2012 May 31.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: Somatostatin (SST) via five Gi coupled receptors namely SSTR1-5 is known to inhibit cell proliferation by cytostatic and cytotoxic mechanisms. Heterodimerization plays a crucial role in modulating the signal transduction pathways of SSTR subtypes. In the present study, we investigated human SSTR2/SSTR3 heterodimerization, internalization, MAPK signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis in HEK-293 cells in response to SST and specific agonists for SSTR2 and SSTR3. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3403965PMC
May 2012
7 Reads

"Shaping" of cell signaling via AKAP-tethered PDE4D: Probing with AKAR2-AKAP5 biosensor.

J Mol Signal 2012 May 14;7(1). Epub 2012 May 14.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Health Sciences Center, BST-7, SUNY at Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA.

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Background: PKA, a key regulator of cell signaling, phosphorylates a diverse and important array of target molecules and is spatially docked to members of the A-kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) family. AKAR2 is a biosensor which yields a FRET signal in vivo, when phosphorylated by PKA. AKAP5, a prominent member of the AKAP family, docks several signaling molecules including PKA, PDE4D, as well as GPCRs, and is obligate for the propagation of the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade from GPCRs to ERK1,2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3493269PMC
May 2012
14 Reads

The Caenorhabditis elegans D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-2 physically interacts with GPA-14, a Gαi subunit.

J Mol Signal 2012 Jan 26;7(1). Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Department of Biological Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, USA.

Dopaminergic inputs are sensed on the cell surface by the seven-transmembrane dopamine receptors that belong to a superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Dopamine receptors are classified as D1-like or D2-like receptors based on their homology and pharmacological profiles. In addition to well established G-protein coupled mechanism of dopamine receptors in mammalian system they can also interact with other signaling pathways. Read More

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http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3297496PMC
January 2012
5 Reads

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor TrkB exists as a preformed dimer in living cells.

J Mol Signal 2012 Jan 24;7(1). Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Information Processing Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.

Background: Neurotrophins (NTs) and their receptors play crucial roles in the development, functions and maintenance of nervous systems. It is widely believed that NT-induced dimerization of the receptors initiates the transmembrane signaling. However, it is still controversial whether the receptor molecule has a monomeric or dimeric structure on the cell surface before its ligand binding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-2187-7-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3284413PMC
January 2012
5 Reads