27,350,568 results match your criteria Journal of Investigative Surgery [Journal]

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Incidence of Thyroid Cancer among Patients with Thyroid Nodules

Authors:
A Gilmartin M Ryan

Ir Med J 2018 09 10;111(8):802. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Barrington’s Hospital, Limerick.

Aim To evaluate thyroid nodules and to determine the incidence of thyroid cancer. Methods This retrospective cohort study collected data from ten patients who presented with thyroid nodules to Barrington’s Hospital Limerick. Ultrasound/FNA results of thyroid nodules were used to measure the incidence of thyroid cancer. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Use of “Months of the Year Backwards” (MOTYB) as a Screening Tool for Delirium in Palliative Care Patients in the Acute Hospital Setting

Ir Med J 2018 09 10;111(8):801. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

University Hospital Waterford

Introduction Delirium is common in palliative care. It effects up to 88% of patients with advanced cancer at end of life and has a point prevalence of 20% in the acute hospital setting across all diagnoses. It is under diagnosed and not optimally treated. Read More

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September 2018

Point of Care Echocardiography in an Irish Critical Care Unit

Ir Med J 2018 09 10;111(8):800. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Consultant Intensivist, Mater Misercordiae University Hospital, Eccles Street, Dublin 7, Ireland

Aims We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of a 6 month transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) teaching programme in a critical care unit. Methods An observational single centre study. Four critical care doctors, 2 fellows and 2 consultants were trained to use TTE. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

The law of dental implant.

Minerva Stomatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Periodontics and Implantology School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia -

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December 2018

Antimicrobial activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from a Spanish hospital.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ana Isabel López-Calleja, Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet. IIS Aragón. 3ª planta Edificio de Consultas Externas - c/ Padre Arrupe s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam against multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) non metallo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates at Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet (Zaragoza, Spain) from February 2016 to October 2017.

Methods: We evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and other antipseudomonal antibiotics against 12 MDR and 117 XDR non metallo-β-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa isolates. Read More

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December 2018

[Evolution of the incidence of colonized and infected patients by VIM carbapenemase-producing bacteria in a pediatric hospital in Spain].

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Raquel González Rubio, Escuela Nacional de Sanidad. C/Sinesio Delgado 10, 28029 Madrid. Spain.

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of the incidence of infected and colonized patients with carbapenemase VIM-producing bacteria (CPB-VIM) at a national referral pediatric center in Madrid, Spain, between 2012 and 2015.

Methods: Descriptive epidemiological surveillance study. The surveillance system included case detection (screening for BPC colonization in all admitted patients, with periodicity according to the ward) and control measures (contact precautions, identification of previously colonized patients at admission, environmental cleaning, education, supervision of contact precautions, and patient cohort). Read More

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December 2018

Strategies for the management of invasive fungal infections due to filamentous fungi in high-risk hemato-oncological patients.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Carlos Vallejo, Hospital Donostia, Begiristain Doktorea Pasealekua, 109, 20014 Donostia, Gipuzkoa, Spain.

Objective: In recent years, the introduction of new antifungals for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in hemato- oncological patients, particularly extended-spectrum azoles, has led to a change in the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for established or suspected breakthrough IFI. The aim of the study was to identify the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used in the management of IFIs in hemato-oncological patients in Spain, and to assess compliance with the recommendations of the consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines.

Methods: An online, anonymous, cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and September 2016 involving 137 specialists from third-level hospitals in Spain with Departments of Hematology that regularly deal with IFIs. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

[Recommendations from a panel of experts on the usefulness of fidaxomicin for the treatment of infections caused by Clostridium difficile].

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Benito Almirante, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129 - 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Clostridium difficile infections have a high recurrence rate, which can complicate the prognosis of affected patients. It is therefore important to establish an early detection and an appropriate therapeutic strategy. The objective of this manuscript was to gather the opinion of an expert group about the predictive factors of poor progression, as well as when to use fidaxomicin in different groups of high-risk patients. Read More

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December 2018

The Williams Review on Gross Negligence Manslaughter

Authors:
J F A Murphy

Ir Med J 2018 08 13;111(7):784. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Holles Street National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street, Dublin 2, Ireland.

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New evidences and clarifications by world leaders in maternal fetal medicine.

Authors:
Giovanni Sisti

Minerva Ginecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Health Sciences, AOU Careggi, University of Florence, Florence, Italy -

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December 2018
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Cognitive training benefit depends on brain injury location in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living.

Aim: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence. Read More

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December 2018

A 9-months multidisciplinary rehabilitation protocol based on early post-operative mobilization following a chronic-degenerative patellar tendon rupture in a professional soccer player: a case report.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Background: Isolated patellar tendon rupture (PTR) is the final stage of a long-standing tendon chronic degeneration. PTR requires immediate repair in order to avoid important muscle retraction and tendon fibrosis. The aim was to describe the effects of a rehabilitation protocol after chronic-degenerative PTR on subjective functional outcomes, knee range of motion (ROM), size, and strength in a professional football player. Read More

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December 2018

[Introduction: In 2014, a symposium focusing on access to healthcare was organized with input from socially excluded people, using the ATD Fourth World Guidelines for the Merging of Knowledge and Practices as the ethical framework. Can this approach be transferred to other settingsMethods: Prospective assessment of a participatory approach in the context of a symposium.Results: Strict conditions are required to ensure effective participation of extremely vulnerable people. Support, temporality and a strictly defined agenda are key factors.Conclusion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):99-104

Introduction: In 2014, a symposium focusing on access to healthcare was organized with input from socially excluded people, using the ATD Fourth World Guidelines for the Merging of Knowledge and Practices as the ethical framework. Can this approach be transferred to other settings?

Methods: Prospective assessment of a participatory approach in the context of a symposium.

Results: Strict conditions are required to ensure effective participation of extremely vulnerable people. Read More

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September 2018

Projet Bien-être : vers un meilleur repérage et accompagnement des femmes présentant des vulnérabilités psychologiques ou sociales.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):89-97

The perinatal period is one of the most critical periods in the life cycle. The health of the mother and child are strongly and permanently influenced by events occurring during pregnancy, delivery or early infancy. In psychological terms, nearly 10% of women reported poor self-rated mental health during pregnancy. Read More

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September 2018
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[Introduction: Healthy behaviours become less common when descending the social ladder, which contributes to social inequalities in health. General practitioners (GPs) could have an impact on this general trend by providing preventive care counselling. We wanted to describe the social inequalities related to physical activity (PA) and the counselling given to patients, in order to improve our understanding of how inequalities can be produced at the doctor-patient relationship level.Methods: Prev Quanti simultaneously examined social differences in the patients’ level of PA and in the PA counselling provided by their GPs. 3,640 registered patients were randomly selected from the patient list of 52 GPs involved in GP training in two Parisian Universities. Based on interviews with 99 GPs from the same area on preventive care, Prev Quali explored the construction of the GP’s PA counselling practice style.Results: A social gradient was observed, with less counselling at the bottom of the social ladder, where lower levels of PA were also reported by patients. Interviews revealed a common difficulty for GPs to consider PA as a valuable form of medical care and the lack of a systematic approach. An implicit triage process leads to an indirect social selection of the patients “worth trying” to deliver PA counselling, by GPs barely aware of the social gradient among their patients in terms of PA.Conclusion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):81-87

Introduction: Healthy behaviours become less common when descending the social ladder, which contributes to social inequalities in health. General practitioners (GPs) could have an impact on this general trend by providing preventive care counselling. We wanted to describe the social inequalities related to physical activity (PA) and the counselling given to patients, in order to improve our understanding of how inequalities can be produced at the doctor-patient relationship level. Read More

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September 2018

Comment les médecins généralistes favorisent-ils l?équité d?accès à l?éducation thérapeutique pour leurs patients.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):69-80

Our research is designed to understand how and under what conditions general practitioners contribute to equitable access to patient education (PE).We conducted a survey based on interactionist sociology in a sample of 32 doctors. These practitioners worked in the context of health networks and health care centres and were also involved in the PE resource centre for the Île-de-France region, thereby providing a favourable setting for our study, also reflected by the fact that one-half of practitioners were aware of the importance of or had been trained in PE. Read More

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September 2018
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[Introduction: The city of Villeurbanne has made the political choice to reduce social inequalities in health (SIH). The Public Health Department wanted to assess the health impact in the context of this project. The main objective was to analyse the links between urban development and health in order to identify the impact of the urban project on health and to make recommendations to reduce physical inactivity of children. Attention was focused on a neighbourhood of 6,000 inhabitants in the process of urban renewal. A high rate of adults on antidiabetic treatment was observed in this relatively deprived neighbourhood. School medicine also noted a high proportion of overweight children in schools in the neighbourhood, higher than in all schools of the city. The objective of this HIA was therefore to identify the impact of the renovation project on children’s mobility and to make recommendations in order to combat their physical inactivity by encouraging spontaneous physical activity.Methods: The selected determinants were grouped into four categories: outdoor environment, use of open spaces, adapted sports facilities/equipment, roads. The evaluation was based on analysis of urban planning documents, environmental analysis reports, ad hoc surveys, individual interviews with the various partners and target actors. A bibliographic review confirmed the positive or negative impacts of various aspects of the project on health.Results: Although some aspects of the project had a positive impact on the health of the inhabitants, others have a negative impact on children’s mobility, well-being and social capital. About 30 recommendations were proposed and prioritized according to their political support and their technical, economic and temporal feasibility.Discussion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):63-67

Introduction: The city of Villeurbanne has made the political choice to reduce social inequalities in health (SIH). The Public Health Department wanted to assess the health impact in the context of this project. The main objective was to analyse the links between urban development and health in order to identify the impact of the urban project on health and to make recommendations to reduce physical inactivity of children. Read More

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September 2018

Les évolutions des modes d?action pour agir sur les inégalités sociales de santé dans les recommandations politiques à l?international et en France.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):33-46

This article describes the changing modalities of action designed to address social inequalities in health recommended in France, in the light of WHO and other international guidelines. Content analysis of policy recommendations identified eleven categories of actions and five types of changes as a function of target populations and the resources deployed. Recommendations have evolved from interventions designed to improve access to primary care to interventions on the social determinants of health, from reinforcement of individual capacities to global empowerment, from interventions on target populations to social inclusion of everyone, from promotion of health investments to increased financial regulation, from a favourable public health policies approach to a health approach in all policies. Read More

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September 2018
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[Introduction: Reduction of social inequalities in health has been one of the main political pillars of Regional Health Agencies in France since their creation in 2009. This paper presents a contextual analysis of the effects on social inequalities in health of a hospital-based health promotion and disease prevention programme in terms of overall health policy and scope.Methods: Qualitative analysis was used to describe the impact on social inequalities in health according to the classification proposed by Diderichsen et al. Carey’s framework was used to apply proportionate universalism in order to analyse its action on these inequalities, adopting a contextualised and holistic approach with regard to regional and national public policy. The results showed that the intervention focused on targeted actions, but may have broader applications. The intervention strategy shifts between closing the inequality gap and levelling up the social gradient. However, analysis of this type of intervention using the proportionate universalism framework may lead to a revised view of the effects of the intervention on social inequalities in health.Results: Implementing health-equity focused interventions remains a challenge for each institution, including Regional Health Agencies. However, research on hospital-based preventive interventions highlights contrasting results in terms of social gradient, depending on whether the intervention is considered in isolation or in its broader context.Discussion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):25-32

Introduction: Reduction of social inequalities in health has been one of the main political pillars of Regional Health Agencies in France since their creation in 2009. This paper presents a contextual analysis of the effects on social inequalities in health of a hospital-based health promotion and disease prevention programme in terms of overall health policy and scope.

Methods: Qualitative analysis was used to describe the impact on social inequalities in health according to the classification proposed by Diderichsen et al. Read More

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September 2018

Quand l?universalisme proportionné devient relatif : l?accès aux soins des travailleurs non-salariés.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):165-173

The policy designed to address social inequalities in health (SIH) currently does not integrate the specificities of self-employed persons, who nevertheless occupy an intermediate position in the mortality gradient observed since the 1990s. Qualitative analysis of the care pathway of precarious people, financed by the French Directorate of health care services (DGOS), despite its limitations, highlights the difficulties encountered by self-employed persons in the use of the health system in its present state and shows the poor perception of these difficulties, due to the limitations of the available evaluation tools of individual precarity, the representations of professional and institutional actors, or the absence of response in the field of social solidarity. Supported by documentary analysis, these observations question the meaning of the concept of equity in terms of social protection measures for this socioeconomic category, the proportionate universalism of the measures taken, and suggest new approaches to globally and more effectively address SIH. Read More

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September 2018
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Parcours de soins en situation de précarité : entre détermination et individualisation.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):157-163

The purpose of this article is to analyse healthcare pathways for precarious people, based on the results of a field study conducted in 2011 and 2012 in the north of France and Burgundy. About 40 semi-directed interviews were conducted in order to collect healthcare pathways narratives revolving around various health events during the subject's life, and putting them in perspective with individual, familial stories as well as their environment (social environment, healthcare organization, etc.). Read More

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September 2018
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[Introduction: Health literacy refers to the competences and resources required by individuals to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. This paper describes and analyses the health literacy profiles of type 2 diabetic patients included in a 2-year long self-management education programme.Methods: Nested in the ERMIES randomized controlled trial conducted in Reunion island, the ERMIES Ethnosocio study explored health literacy by means of two complementary approaches: description of health literacy profiles via the French version of the multidimensional “Health Literacy Questionnaire”, and a socio-anthropological perspective based on 40 semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 and then in 2015.Results: The results highlight the existence of 8 constitutive variables in the management of type 2 diabetes in an ordinary context: diet, physical activity, treatment and monitoring of disease (disease management), access to knowledge and skills (health knowledge), relationships with health professionals and social support (expertise, support and social network). They also emphasize the differentiated relationships of individuals to each of these variables, ranging from functional to interactive or critical “levels”.Discussion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):145-156

Introduction: Health literacy refers to the competences and resources required by individuals to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. This paper describes and analyses the health literacy profiles of type 2 diabetic patients included in a 2-year long self-management education programme.

Methods: Nested in the ERMIES randomized controlled trial conducted in Reunion island, the ERMIES Ethnosocio study explored health literacy by means of two complementary approaches: description of health literacy profiles via the French version of the multidimensional ?Health Literacy Questionnaire?, and a socio-anthropological perspective based on 40 semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 and then in 2015. Read More

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September 2018

La littératie en santé, un levier pour des systèmes de soins plus équitables  Des outils pour armer les professionnels et impliquer les institutions.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):139-143

This article briefly recalls why low levels of health literacy should be considered to constitute a public health issue. It then proposes the concept of health literacy as a possible lever to help health care systems to more effectively take social health inequalities into account. Finally, it provides concrete tools for field workers, both clinicians and quality of care managers, and emphasises the importance of an organizational approach to health literacy. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

[Introduction: Each year, more than 1.2 million deaths in the world are due to road accidents. It is the leading cause of mortality in young people between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Road accidents and associated injuries have a major impact on health and development. Many international reports have evaluated the mortality and morbidity related to road accidents, but these studies are based on limited data, often with limited robustness. Based on a study conducted in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, to estimate the mortality and morbidity of road accident victims, the objective of this article was to evaluate social, spatial and health inequalities of populations killed or injured as a result of a road accident.Methods: Between February and July 2015, all road accidents were recorded by policemen using a mobile telephone data collection system, including geolocation of accidents. Three quantitative and prospective survey phases were then performed on injured patients admitted to Yalgado Ouedraogo hospital, the reference centre for these patients.Results: A total of 1,867 emergency department admissions were reported. The majority (95%) of road accident victims were vulnerable users. More than 30% of accidents occurred in one central quarter and two peripheral quarters. The mean management time as 1 hour 3 minutes for victims rescued by firemen and 3 hours 10 minutes for those who attended the emergency department on their own. The mean total cost of management was 126,799 CFA francs (€193) [400-2,000,000 CFA francs].Discussion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):131-137

Introduction: Each year, more than 1.2 million deaths in the world are due to road accidents. It is the leading cause of mortality in young people between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Read More

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September 2018

Universalisme proportionné : vers une « égalité réelle » de la prévention en France.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):13-24

Although their design may feature a considerable amount of universalism, prevention strategies often produce results that are socially and/or spatially differentiated. This differentiation process can induce social or territorial gradients of access to and/or effectiveness of prevention and, in turn, worsen health inequalities. This process also accentuates the gap between the principles of certain public policies and their practical implementation, raising the question of the real benefit of these policies for beneficiaries. Read More

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September 2018
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Adaptation et conditions d?utilisation d?un outil d?analyse des interventions au regard des inégalités sociales de santé.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):121-130

Although actions to reduce social inequalities in health cannot be considered the exclusive responsibility of public health actors, they should at least make sure their interventions account for these inequalities. However, the actors involved in these interventions have few tools to support them in this process. Therefore, building on a study conducted in France, we have adapted, tested, and developed in Quebec a tool intended to help actors take into account social inequalities in health. Read More

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September 2018

Réduire les inégalités subies par une communauté amérindienne au Brésil : le rôle social de l?université.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):105-110

The objective of this article is to describe and analyse the actions developed by a health promotion programme between 2013 and 2014 in an indigenous Kiriri community in Bahia, Brazil. One of the specificities of the programme was that it was conducted in the context of the extension activities of Brazilian universities. This programme illustrates the actions of extension, a longstanding social function of Brazilian universities and the value of involving the university in community health actions. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

The Overview of Methods of Nanoparticle Exposure Assessment.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:353-367

Key Laboratory of Occupational Safety and Health, Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Nanotechnology is now widely used in industry as well as consumer products, such as electrical devices, cosmetics, medicine, and household appliances. In the life cycle of the nano-products, including production, use, and disposal, nanoparticles may be released to the environment. However, there is no current consensus on the best method for evaluating and characterizing nanoparticle exposure. Read More

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January 2019
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Application of Daphnia magna for Nanoecotoxicity Study.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:345-352

Key Laboratory of Occupational Safety and Health, Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Daphnia magna (D. magna), an aquatic invertebrate, is the most commonly used test organism in ecotoxicological studies on manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). Although standard protocols for undertaking acute and chronic toxicity tests of dissolved chemicals with D. Read More

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January 2019
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Nanotoxicity Assessment Using Embryonic Zebrafish.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:331-343

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA.

The emergence of nanomaterials in industrial processing and consumer products has generated an increased presence of nano-enabled products in the environment and now pose an increased risk of exposure to living organisms. However, assessing the risks of nanomaterials is a challenging task because of a large variety and great variability in their properties. Here, we describe a methodology for assessing toxicity and evaluate potential risks posed by nanomaterials using zebrafish embryos as a model organism. Read More

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January 2019

Pulmonary Function Testing in Animals.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:323-330

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Nanoparticles possess a number of useful properties that make them useful for a variety of industrial and commercial applications. The small size of nanoparticles means that they are respirable and can penetrate deep into the lung when inhaled. Because of this, there is interest in assessing possible toxic effects of nanoparticles on the respiratory system. Read More

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January 2019

Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanoparticles by Bronchoalveolar Lavage.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:313-322

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Nanoparticles can enter the body via the lungs, the digestive tract, and the skin. The pulmonary effects of nanoparticles and the underlying mechanisms may be investigated by histopathological examination, immunostaining, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and so on. BAL is a simple, fast, and inexpensive method that is commonly used to investigate the immune cells and acellular components in the lungs, which reflect the health state of the lungs. Read More

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January 2019
4 Reads

Evaluation of Genotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Mouse Models.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:301-312

Cancer Research Center, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY, USA.

Owing to new and unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) likely pose different risks than their constituent chemicals and these risks need to be understood. In particular, it is important to assess genotoxicity, since genotoxicity is a precursor to carcinogenicity. Here we describe a battery of tests for the assessment of genotoxicity of NPs in vivo in mice. Read More

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January 2019
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Methods to Quantify Nanomaterial Association with, and Distribution Across, the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vivo.

Authors:
Robert A Yokel

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:281-299

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Kentucky Academic Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA.

The role and functional anatomy of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is summarized to enable the investigator to appropriately address evaluation of nanomaterial interaction with, and distribution across, it into brain tissue (parenchyma). Transport mechanisms across the BBB are presented, in relation to nanomaterial physicochemical properties. Measures and test substances to assess BBB integrity/disruption/permeation are introduced, along with how they are used to interpret the results obtained with the presented methods. Read More

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January 2019

Metabolic Fingerprinting of Bacteria Exposed to Nanomaterials, Using Online Databases, NMR, and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:271-280

Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Nanomaterials are examined more and more for their antibacterial properties. Herein, we propose a method for assessing the bactericidal properties of nanomaterials against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as a method to investigate the metabolic alterations occurring to bacteria, induced by their exposure to nanomaterials. Bacterial metabolome is extracted and metabolic fingerprint is recorded by H-NMR. Read More

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January 2019

Application of Electron Microscopes in Nanotoxicity Assessment.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:247-269

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

In this chapter, we highlight the applications of electron microscopes (EMs) in nanotoxicity assessment. EMs can provide detailed information about the size and morphology of nanomaterials (NMs), their localization in cells and tissues, the nano-bio interactions, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced by NMs exposure. Here, we share with the readers how we prepare the tissue sample, and the different types of EMs used among the nanotoxicologists. Read More

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January 2019

Evaluation of Nrf2 with Exposure to Nanoparticles.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:229-246

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, P. R. China.

Transcription factor Nrf2, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, is considered a master regulator of redox homeostasis and plays a central role in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defence. It has been largely reported that oxidative stress is implicated in nanoparticle-induced toxicity with the involvement of Nrf2. Several basic methods for Nrf2 evaluation with exposure to nanoparticles are described in this chapter including real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, DNase I footprinting, dimethylsulfate footprinting, protein pulse-chase analysis, and tert-butylhydroquinone treatment. Read More

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January 2019

DNA Methylation Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:181-227

Institute of Occupational Diseases, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, P. R. China.

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to cytosine or adenine. DNA methylation can change the activity of the DNA molecule without changing the sequence. Methylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and it is a very important epigenetic modification event, which can regulate gene activity and influence a number of key processes such as genomic imprinting, cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Read More

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January 2019

Quantification of Mitochondrial Genome Transcription in Male Reproductive Cells by Real-Time PCR.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:171-180

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Mitochondria are organelles that play a key role in the regulation of cell energy metabolism, biosynthesis, and cell death. Mitochondria are also involved in important physiological processes, such as the three-carboxylic acid cycle, the oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, and calcium ion homeostasis. The energy demands of male germ cells during mitosis and meiosis are higher than those of somatic cells, suggesting that mitochondria play a critical role in sperm. Read More

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January 2019
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Analysis of Nanomaterial Toxicity by Western Blot.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:161-169

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Western blot is a routine biochemical technique for the immunodetection of proteins in cells and tissues exposed to nanomaterials (NMs). It is a sensitive method for protein analysis that involves the solubilization and separation of proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), transferring and immobilizing proteins onto a solid support, and targeted immunoprobing of a specific antigen. As a convenient and reliable research tool, the western blot plays an irreplaceable role in the era of proteomics together with mass spectrometry and protein chip. Read More

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January 2019
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Determination of Phosphorylated Histone H2AX in Nanoparticle-Induced Genotoxic Studies.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:145-159

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most severe lesions of DNA damage triggered by various genotoxic insults, can lead to chromosome change, genomic instability, and even tumorigenesis if not repaired efficiently. In response to DNA damage, histone H2AX molecules are rapidly phosphorylated at serine 139 near the site of DNA DSBs and form γ-H2AX foci. As an early important cellular event linked to DNA damage and repair, γ-H2AX is a highly sensitive biomarker for "monitoring" DNA damage and consequently is a useful tool in genetic toxicology screen. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Application of Gelatin Zymography in Nanotoxicity Research.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:133-143

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Gelatin zymography is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and powerful technique to detect proteolytic enzymes capable of degrading gelatin from various biological sources. It has been used particularly to detect the two members of the matrix metalloproteinase family, MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B), due to their potent gelatin-degrading activity. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are also able to degrade a number of extracellular matrix molecules including type IV, V, and XI collagens, laminin, and aggrecan core protein, thus making them important in the nanotoxicity research. Read More

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January 2019

Measurement of Nanoparticle-Induced Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Alterations.

Authors:
Salik Hussain

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:123-131

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Robert C. Byrd Health Science Center, School of Medicine,, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Mitochondria hold a critical role in cell metabolism and homeostasis. Mitochondrial injury plays central part in deciding cell fate especially in programmed cell death pathways. Various nanomaterials lead to different cell death modalities by inducing mitochondrial injury. Read More

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January 2019

In Vitro Approaches for Assessing the Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:83-122

Department of Chemical and Product Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Berlin, Germany.

Genotoxicity is associated with serious health effects and includes different types of DNA lesions, gene mutations, structural chromosome aberrations involving breakage and/or rearrangements of chromosomes (referred to as clastogenicity) and numerical chromosome aberrations (referred to as aneuploidy). Assessing the potential genotoxic properties of chemicals, including nanomaterials (NMs), is a key element in regulatory safety assessment. State-of-the-art genotoxicity testing includes a battery of assays covering gene mutations, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations. Read More

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January 2019

Methods for Evaluation of Ovarian Granulosa Cells with Exposure to Nanoparticles.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:73-81

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Increasing evidence demonstrates that a substantial number of chemicals including nanoparticles have potential toxic effects on human and wildlife reproductive health. Ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), the functional unit of the ovary, play a pivotal role in the regulation of ovarian reproductive health in females. They are considered to be the main target by the chemicals at all stages of their development. Read More

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January 2019
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