19,505 results match your criteria Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition [Journal]


Weight status moderates stress-eating in the absence of hunger associations in children.

Appetite 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Center for Human Growth and Development, 300 N. Ingalls Street, 10th Floor, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Department of Nutritional Sciences, 1415 Washington Heights, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Objective: The association between stress and eating remains unclear in children potentially due to factors that may moderate the association. We examined whether weight status or sex moderated associations between response to a stress induction and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), among low-income children.

Method: Children (n = 223; M age = 7. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Problematic Eating Behaviors Are More Prevalent in African American Women Who Are Overweight or Obese Than African American Women Who Are Lean or Normal Weight.

Fam Community Health 2019 Apr/Jun;42(2):81-89

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.

Problematic eating behaviors such as overeating and loss of control over consumption can lead to obesity. Problematic eating behaviors among women of differing body mass indexes were explored through focus group methodology, the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), and a taste test in a sample of low-income African American women (n = 45). Women who were overweight or obese (W-O/O) reported more problematic eating behaviors including eating in the absence of hunger, frequent overeating, and increased food thoughts than women who were lean or normal weight (W-L/N). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FCH.0000000000000222DOI Listing
February 2019

Predictors of Diet-Related Health Outcomes in Food-Secure and Food-Insecure Communities.

Soc Work Public Health 2019 Feb 15:1-16. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

c Research and Modeling , Moody's Analytics , San Francisco , California , USA.

This study explored health outcomes of 301 individuals living within three food secure and three food insecure neighborhoods in a midwestern city by using a multi-level model that included household-level and neighborhood-level variables. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between household participation in food assistance programs, perceptions of neighborhood food access, distance to food stores where participants purchased food regularly, reliance upon social support systems for food provisioning, and use of community-based food system markets and/or programs with various diet-related health outcomes. Participants in food insecure areas had higher rates of obesity and type II diabetes, with variability related to food insecurity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2019.1575313DOI Listing
February 2019

A pilot study of laparoscopic gastric plication in adolescent patients with severe obesity.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Children's Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Children's Pavilion, 1000 East Board Street Richmond, VA 23219. Electronic address:

Background: Metabolic and bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity has been demonstrated to be safe and have long-term treatment efficacy. However, less than 0.1% of adolescents meeting criteria undergo surgery. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223468193001
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.01.004DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Systematic Review of the Evaluation of Interventions to Tackle Children's Food Insecurity.

Curr Nutr Rep 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To synthesise the research which has sought to evaluate interventions aiming to tackle children's food insecurity and the contribution of this research to evidencing the effectiveness of such interventions.

Recent Findings: The majority of studies in this review were quantitative, non-randomised studies, including cohort studies. Issues with non-complete outcome data, measurement of duration of participation in interventions, and accounting for confounds are common in these evaluation studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13668-019-0258-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Dysfunctional breathing: what do we know?

J Bras Pneumol 2019 Feb 11;45(1):e20170347. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

. Department of Clinical Sciences, Brunel University London, United Kingdom.

Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is a respiratory condition characterized by irregular breathing patterns that occur either in the absence of concurrent diseases or secondary to cardiopulmonary diseases. Although the primary symptom is often dyspnea or "air hunger", DB is also associated with nonrespiratory symptoms such as dizziness and palpitations. DB has been identified across all ages. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-3713/e20170347DOI Listing
February 2019

Salmon in Combination with High Glycemic Index Carbohydrates Increases Diet-Induced Thermogenesis Compared with Salmon with Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates⁻An Acute Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

Nutrients 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

The study investigated the acute effects of meals containing either salmon or veal in combination with carbohydrates with high or low glycemic index (GI) on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (primary endpoint), appetite sensations, and energy intake (EI). Twenty-five overweight men and women ingested four iso-caloric test meals: salmon with mashed potatoes (high GI) (SM), salmon with wholegrain pasta (low GI) (SP), veal with mashed potatoes (VM) and veal with wholegrain pasta (VP). Energy expenditure was measured in the fasting state and six times postprandially for 25 min with 5-min breaks between each measurement. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020365DOI Listing
February 2019

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Does Not Improve the Poor Outcome of Children With Hypodiploid Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From Children's Oncology Group.

J Clin Oncol 2019 Feb 11:JCO1800884. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

14 New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Children and young adults with hypodiploid B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) fare poorly and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often pursued in first complete remission (CR1). We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of children and young adults with hypodiploid B-ALL who were enrolled in recent Children's Oncology Group (COG) trials to evaluate the impact of HSCT on outcome.

Patients And Methods: Cytogenetic analyses and DNA index were performed at COG-approved laboratories, and hypodiploidy was defined as modal chromosome number less than 44 and/or DNA index less than 0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00884DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Implicit evaluation of chocolate and motivational need states interact in predicting chocolate intake in everyday life.

Eat Behav 2019 Jan 26;33:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria; Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Snack food consumption has a high relevance for health and is partially controlled by implicit, motivational processes that make self-control difficult at certain times. Specifically, research suggests that individuals with a more positive implicit food evaluation consume more snack foods in the laboratory under conditions of high motivational needs (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Elevated carotenoids in staple crops: The biosynthesis, challenges and measures for target delivery.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2018 Dec 6;16(2):553-562. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam, India.

Poverty eradication and global food security are among the targets of world leaders, most especially combating the scourge of hidden hunger. Provitamin A carotenoids cannot be synthesized by human and so it must be taken as part of the diet. The deficiency of which is causing almost 6000 sights to be lost daily in most developing countries because of the monotonous starchy diets lacking substantial amount of carotenoid. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353757PMC
December 2018

US immigration authorities admit to force feeding detained hunger striking migrants.

Authors:
Owen Dyer

BMJ 2019 Feb 7;364:l629. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Montreal.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l629DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Assessment of patients' self-perceived intensive care unit discomforts: Validation of the 18-item version of the IPREA.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2019 Feb 7;17(1):29. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Réanimation polyvalente, Hôpital Louis Pasteur, CH de Chartres, Le Coudray, France.

Background And Aims: We reported the validation of the 18-item version of the 'Inconforts des Patients de REAnimation (IPREA)' questionnaire that includes 2 new items exploring feeling depressed and shortness of breath during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay.

Methods: The validation process was integrated in a multicenter, cluster-randomized, controlled, two-parallel group study built to assess the effectiveness of a tailored multicomponent program for reducing self-perceived discomfort in the ICU. All patients aged 18 years or older who survived an ICU stay of 3 calendar days or more were eligible for inclusion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-019-1101-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367827PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Increased adiposity, inflammation, metabolic disruption and dyslipidemia in adult male offspring of DOSS treated C57BL/6 dams.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 6;9(1):1530. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Molecular and Cellular Biology and Pathobiology Program, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Evidence indicates that obesity can be promoted by chemical 'obesogens' that drive adiposity, hunger, inflammation and suppress metabolism. Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a lipid emulsifier and candidate obesogen in vitro, is widely used in processed foods, cosmetics and as stool softener medicines commonly used during pregnancy. In vivo testing of DOSS was performed in a developmental origins of adult obesity model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38383-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365642PMC
February 2019
1 Read

NPY 2 receptor activation in the dorsal vagal complex increases food intake and attenuates CCK-induced satiation in male rats.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Washington State Univ.

NPY, PYY and cognate receptors (YR) are expressed by subpopulations of central and peripheral nervous system neurons. Intracerebroventricular injections of NPY or PYY increase food intake, and intrahypothalamic NPY 1 or 5 receptor agonist injections also increase food intake. In contrast, injection of PYY in the periphery reduces food intake, apparently by activating peripheral Y2R. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00011.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Early objective response to avelumab treatment is associated with improved overall survival in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.

Background: Response rates are primary endpoints in many oncology trials; however, correlation with overall survival (OS) is not uniform across cancer types, treatments, or lines of therapy. This study explored the association between objective response (OR) and OS in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma who received avelumab (anti-PD-L1).

Methods: Eighty-eight patients enrolled in JAVELIN Merkel 200 (part A; NCT02155647) received i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-018-02295-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Unlike calorie restriction, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery does not increase hypothalamic AgRP and NPY in mice on a high-fat diet.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409, USA.

Objectives: Dieting often fails because weight loss triggers strong counter-regulatory biological responses such as increased hunger and hypometabolism that are thought to be critically dependent on the master fuel sensor in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Because prolonged starvation has been shown to increase AgRP and NPY, the expression level of these two orexigenic genes has been taken as an experimental readout for the presence or absence of hunger. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to a significant weight loss without inducing the associated hunger, indicating possible changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides and/or signaling. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-019-0328-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Dynamics of Dicyanamide in Ionic Liquids is Dominated by Local Interactions.

J Phys Chem B 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research , Ackermannweg 10 , 55128 Mainz , Germany.

The dynamics of probe molecules is commonly used to investigate the structural dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids; however, the extent to which this dynamics reflects the dynamics of the ionic liquids or is probe specific has remained debated. Here, we explore to what extent the vibrational and rotational dynamics of the dicyanamide anion, a common ionic liquid anion, correlates with the structural relaxation of ionic liquids. We use polarization-resolved, ultrafast infrared spectroscopy to probe the temperature- and probe-concentration-dependent dynamics of samples with small amounts of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([emim]) dicyanamide ([DCA]) dissolved in four [emim]-based ionic liquids with tetrafluoroborate ([BF]), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf]), ethylsufate ([EtSO]), and triflate ([OTf]) as anions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b10849DOI Listing
February 2019

Proteolysis and Nitrogen: emerging insights.

J Exp Bot 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Linnean Center for Plant Biology, Uppsala, Sweden.

Nitrogen (N) is a core component of fertilizers used in modern agriculture to alleviate worldwide hunger. This comes however at environmental costs, through excess N run-off due to inefficient N use efficiency (NUE) by crops. A possible remedy to this problem would thus be the improvement of NUE which requires furthering our understanding on N homeostasis, sensing and uptake. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erz024DOI Listing
January 2019

A role for taste receptors in (neuro)endocrinology?

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 3:e12691. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

The sense of taste is placed at the forefront when it comes to the interaction of our body with food-borne chemicals. However, the role of our taste system and, in particular its associated taste receptors, is not limited to drive food preferences leading to ingestion or rejection before other organs take over responsibility for nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolic regulation, taste sensory elements do much more. On the one hand extra-oral taste receptors from brain to gut continue to sense nutrients and noxious substances after ingestion and, on the other hand, the nutritional state is acting backwards on the taste system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12691DOI Listing
February 2019

Breakfast Omission Reduces Subsequent Resistance Exercise Performance.

J Strength Cond Res 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

National Center of Sport and Exercise Medicine, School of Sport Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Bin Naharudin, MN, Yusof, A, Shaw, H, Stockton, M, Clayton, DJ, and James, LJ. Breakfast omission reduces subsequent resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Although much research has examined the influence of morning carbohydrate intake (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003054DOI Listing
January 2019

Rested-Baseline Responsivity of the Ventral Striatum Is Associated With Caloric and Macronutrient Intake During One Night of Sleep Deprivation.

Front Psychiatry 2018 17;9:749. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States.

Sleep loss contributes to obesity through a variety of mechanisms, including neuroendocrine functioning, increased hunger, and increased food intake. Additionally, sleep loss alters functional activation within brain regions associated with reward and behavioral control. However, it remains unknown whether individual differences in baseline neural functioning can predict eating behaviors during total sleep deprivation (TSD). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00749
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344438PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Educator Perspectives: Selected Barriers to Implementation of School-Level Nutrition Policies.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Social Sciences (Public Health and Psychology), Yale-National University of Singapore College, Singapore.

Objective: To improve understanding about selected barriers to the implementation of 2 school food policies by examining the perceptions of those responsible for implementation.

Design: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted.

Setting: Policies were implemented in an urban district in the northeastern US. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14994046193000
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2018.12.011DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Integrated delivery of school health interventions through the school platform: Investing for the future.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 31;13(1):e0006449. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Partnership for Child Development, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

School health and nutrition (SHN) programmes are recognized as a significant contributor to both health and education sector goals. The school system offers an ideal platform from which to deliver basic health interventions that target the most common health conditions affecting school-age children (SAC) in low-income countries, leading to improved participation and learning outcomes. However, governments require evidence to cost, design, and implement these programmes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354954PMC
January 2019

New Neuroscience of Homeostasis and Drives for Food, Water, and Salt.

N Engl J Med 2019 01;380(5):459-471

From the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and the Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

Well-being requires the maintenance of energy stores, water, and sodium within permissive zones. The brain, as ringleader, orchestrates their homeostatic control. It senses disturbances, decides what needs to be done next, and then restores balance by altering physiological processes and ingestive drives (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1812053DOI Listing
January 2019

Food insecurity and self-reported cholera in Haitian households: An analysis of the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 30;13(1):e0007134. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Both cholera and food insecurity tend to occur in impoverished communities where poor access to food, inadequate sanitation, and an unsafe water supply often coexist. The relationship between the two, however, has not been well-characterized.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of household-level data from the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey in Haiti, a nationally and sub-nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted every five years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007134DOI Listing
January 2019

Importance and use of reliable food composition data generation by nutrition/dietetic professionals towards solving Africa's nutrition problem: constraints and the role of FAO/INFOODS/AFROFOODS and other stakeholders in future initiatives.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 30:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

INFOODS Coordinator,Regional Office for Latin America & the Caribbean, FAO/UN,Chile,Chile.

Despite the rich biodiversity of the African continent and the tremendous progress so far made in food production, Africa is still struggling with the problems of food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition. To combat these problems, the production and consumption of nutritious and safe foods need to be promoted. This cannot be achieved without reliable data on the quantity and quality of nutrients and other components provided through these foods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002926DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Oxo-Hydroxoferrate K FeO (OH) : Hydroflux Synthesis, Chemical and Thermal Instability, Crystal and Magnetic Structures.

ChemistryOpen 2019 Jan 24;8(1):74-83. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Faculty of Chemistry and Food Chemistry TU Dresden 01062 Dresden Germany.

The reaction of Fe(NO)⋅9 HO with KOH under hydroflux conditions at about 200 °C produces red crystals of K FeO (OH) in a quantitative yield. In the crystal structure, edge-sharing [FeO] octahedra form FeO] honeycomb nets. Pillars consisting of pairs of vertex-sharing [FeO] tetrahedra link the honeycomb layers and form columnar halls in which the potassium ions are located. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/open.201800229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345222PMC
January 2019

Dynamic Causal Modeling of Insular, Striatal, and Prefrontal Cortex Activities During a Food-Specific Go/NoGo Task.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the dynamic interactions among three neural systems that are implicated in substance and behavioral addictions in response to food cues in young adults. These include an impulsive system involving the striatum, a reflective system involving the prefrontal cortex, and a homeostasis sensing system involving the insular cortex.

Methods: College students (N = 45) with various levels of body mass index were recruited. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24519022183032
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Comparison Study of Iron Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements and Microencapsulated Preparations.

Nutrients 2019 Jan 26;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Institute of General Food Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.

Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition. Factors responsible for this so-called "hidden hunger" include poor diet, increased micronutrient needs and health problems such as diseases and infections. Body iron status can be increased by the intake of dietary supplements and fortified food. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020273DOI Listing
January 2019

The My Body Knows When Program Increased Intuitive Eating Characteristics in a Military Population.

Mil Med 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, 5000 Campanile Dr, MC 4162, San Diego, CA.

Introduction: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effectiveness of the revised My Body Knows When (MBKW) program to promote intuitive eating behaviors within a sample of a military population through an online or in-person delivery mode.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-six overweight or obese adults (70% female); military service members (20%), retirees (38%) and family (42%) participated in the 10-week MBKW program at two military installations from 2012 to 2014. Body Mass Index, Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2; 23-item) and Motivation for Eating scale (MFES; 43-item) were collected at baseline and 10-weeks. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy403DOI Listing
January 2019

Effects of ipragliflozin on glycemic control, appetite and its related hormones: a prospective, multicenter, open-label study (SOAR-KOBE Study).

J Diabetes Investig 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Aims: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors improve blood glucose control as well as reduce body weight by promoting urinary glucose excretion. The weight loss is less than expected from urinary glucose loss, however, likely because of an increase in food intake. To investigate whether SGLT-2 inhibitors might increase appetite by affecting related hormones, we examined the effects of the SGLT-2 inhibitor ipragliflozin, including those on appetite-regulating hormones, in individuals with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13015DOI Listing
January 2019

Dietary change, noncommunicable disease and local knowledge: results of a small-scale study of the views of older Malawians.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 11;3:158. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Malawi Epidemiology and Intervention Research Unit, MEIRU/KPS, Lilongwe, PO Box 148, Malawi.

Interviews were conducted with a small group of Malawians over the age of 60 in rural Karonga district and in Area 25 of the capital, Lilongwe. We asked their views on the changes in diet that had taken place over their lifetimes and also on the causes of 'noncommunicable' diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes and hypertension in their communities. Their answers generally confirmed research showing that dietary diversity is decreasing in Malawi, but many of our interviewees also recalled that hunger was more frequently experienced in the past. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14887.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338127PMC
December 2018

Potentially modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults: A systematic review.

Clin Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre Microbiome Irelan, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Malnutrition in older adults results in significant personal, social, and economic burden. To combat this complex, multifactorial issue, evidence-based knowledge is needed on the modifiable determinants of malnutrition. Systematic reviews of prospective studies are lacking in this area; therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.12.007DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Neuropeptides in the microbiota-brain axis and feeding behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 27;61:43-48. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

A combination of altered social and feeding behaviors is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Nevertheless, it has been established that several specific neuropeptides are critically involved in the regulation of both feeding and social behavior, such as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and oxytocin, respectively. Moreover, recent data implicated gut microbiota in regulation of host feeding and emotion and revealed its dysbiosis in ASD, suggesting a mechanistic role of altered microbiota-brain axis in ASD. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.030DOI Listing
October 2018

A participatory epidemiological study of major cattle diseases amongst Maasai pastoralists living in wildlife-livestock interfaces in Maasai Mara, Kenya.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

International Livestock Research Institute, (ILRI), P. O BOX 30709, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya.

Livestock-wildlife interactions promote the transmission of a wide range of infectious diseases that constraint livestock production. We used a participatory appraisal approach to find out and rank infectious diseases of concern to pastoralists in a zone of intense wildlife-livestock interaction and another zone with limited interactions. Four villages were selected purposively in areas with intensive cattle-wildlife interactions (zone 1), and another two in areas with low to moderate cattle-wildlife interactions (zone 2). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-01790-1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Dietary changes and its psychosocial moderators during the university examination period.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 4K3 De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Stress is thought to stimulate unhealthy dietary choices towards fat and sweet foods. Nevertheless, individual vulnerabilities might exist depending on psychological factors. We wanted to check dietary change during examination stress via a longitudinal study, while identifying risk groups via moderation by eating behavior (emotional/external/restrained), food choice motive, taste preference, reward/punishment sensitivity, impulsivity, coping strategies, sedentary behavior, social support, living in a student home and being a first-year student. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00394-019-01906-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01906-9DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

US military medical ethics in the War on Terror.

J R Army Med Corps 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Center for Health Law, Ethics and Human Rights, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Military medical ethics has been challenged by the post-11 September 2001 ''. Two recurrent questions are whether military physicians are officers first or physicians first, and whether military physicians need a separate code of ethics. In this article, we focus on how the War on Terror has affected the way we have addressed these questions since 2001. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2018-001062DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Network for Computing Value Equilibrium in the Human Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

Neuron 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6AE, UK.

Humans and other animals make decisions in order to satisfy their goals. However, it remains unknown how neural circuits compute which of multiple possible goals should be pursued (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.029DOI Listing
January 2019

Test-retest reliability of attention bias for food: Robust eye-tracking and reaction time indices.

Appetite 2019 Jan 22;136:86-92. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK; Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

This study assessed internal reliability and test-retest reliability of attention bias scores for food derived from the dot probe task. A visual dot probe task with food and non-food pictures (presented for 3000 ms) was administered to 53 healthy women on two occasions. Attention bias scores for food were calculated based on manual response latencies (reaction time bias) and concurrent assessment of eye-movements (direction bias and dwell-time bias). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01956663183168
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.01.020DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Improving nutritional status of children with Cerebral palsy: a qualitative study of caregiver experiences and community-based training in Ghana.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jan 15;7(1):35-43. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

International Centre for Evidence in Disability London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London UK.

Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood disability worldwide, and evidence shows that children with CP are at an increased risk of malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. This qualitative study explores caregiver experiences of feeding before and after a community-based training program in Ghana.

Methods: Thirteen caregivers of children with CP, who were severely undernourished, were interviewed at the start of the training program. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341142PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Flexible communication within bird families-The consequences of behavioral plasticity for parent-offspring coadaptation.

Ecol Evol 2019 Jan 19;9(1):693-702. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Biology, Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Research Group University of Antwerp Antwerp Belgium.

Offspring are selected to demand more resources than what is optimal for their parents to provide, which results in a complex and dynamic interplay during parental care. Parent-offspring communication often involves conspicuous begging by the offspring which triggers a parental response, typically the transfer of food. So begging and parental provisioning reciprocally influence each other and are therefore expected to coevolve. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342095PMC
January 2019

Obesity therapy: how and why?

Curr Med Chem 2019 01 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology and Oncology Section, University of Florence, Florence. Italy.

Background: Obesity represents the second preventable mortality cause worldwide, and is very often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The first line treatment is lifestyle modification to weight-loss, but for who fails the goal or has difficulty in maintaining achieved results, pharmacological treatment is needed. Few drugs are available up today, because of their side effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867326666190124121725DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Understanding Human Physiological Limitations and Societal Pressures in Favor of Overeating Helps to Avoid Obesity.

Authors:
Katarina T Borer

Nutrients 2019 Jan 22;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Exercise Endocrinology Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2013, USA.

Fat gain in our United States (US) environment of over-abundant, convenient, and palatable food is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and increased mortality. Fuller understanding of physiological and environmental challenges to healthy weight maintenance could help prevent these morbidities. Human physiological limitations that permit development of obesity include a predilection to overeat palatable diets, inability to directly detect energy eaten or expended, a large capacity for fat storage, and the difficulty of losing body fat. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020227DOI Listing
January 2019

Whey Proteins Reduce Appetite, Stimulate Anorexigenic Gastrointestinal Peptides and Improve Glucometabolic Homeostasis in Young Obese Women.

Nutrients 2019 Jan 23;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Experimental Laboratory for Auxo-endocrinological Research, 28824 Piancavallo (VB), Italy.

Introduction: Proteins, particularly whey proteins, represent the most satiating macronutrient in animals and humans. A dietetic regimen based on proteins enriched preload before eating might be a strategy to counteract obesity.

Aims And Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an isocaloric drink containing whey proteins or maltodextrins (preload) on appetite (satiety/hunger measured by a visual analogue scale or VAS), glucometabolic control (blood glucose/insulin), and anorexigenic gastrointestinal peptides (pancreatic polypeptide or PP, glucagon-like peptide 1 or GLP-1 and peptide YY or PYY) in a cohort of obese young women ( = 9; age: 18. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020247DOI Listing
January 2019

Motilin: from gastric motility stimulation to hunger signalling.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Translational Research in Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

After the discovery of motilin in 1972, motilin and the motilin receptor were studied intensely for their role in the control of gastrointestinal motility and as targets for treating hypomotility disorders. The genetic revolution - with the use of knockout models - sparked novel insights into the role of multiple peptides but contributed to a decline in interest in motilin, as this peptide and its receptor exist only as pseudogenes in rodents. The past 5 years have seen a major surge in interest in motilin, as a series of studies have shown its relevance in the control of hunger and regulation of food intake in humans in both health and disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0155-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41574-019-0155-0DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

From sensory circumventricular organs to cerebral cortex: neural pathways controlling thirst and hunger.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Jan 23:e12689. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Vic, Australia.

Much progress has been made during the past thirty years elucidating neural and endocrine pathways by which bodily needs for water and energy are brought to conscious awareness through the generation of thirst and hunger. One way that circulating hormones influence thirst and hunger is by acting on neurons within sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs). This is possible because the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the sensory CVOs in the forebrain, and the area postrema in the hindbrain, lack a normal blood-brain barrier so that neurons within them are exposed to blood-borne agents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12689DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Vegetables: New Zealand Children Are Not Eating Enough.

Front Nutr 2018 8;5:134. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Child Health Research Centre, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

We know that eating a variety of vegetables every day is associated with favorable health across the lifecourse. Internationally, food-based dietary guidelines encourage the consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit but globally,people are not eating enough vegetables to meet the three-or-more-a-day guideline. Vegetables are good sources of vitamins and minerals, fiber, and many bioactive compounds that promote health and provide energy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnut.2018.00134/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2018.00134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331678PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Uncontrolled eating: A unifying heritable trait linked with obesity, overeating, personality, and the brain.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Many eating-related psychological constructs have been proposed to explain obesity and over-eating. However, these constructs, including food addiction, disinhibition, hedonic hunger, emotional eating, binge eating, and the like all have similar definitions, emphasising loss of control over intake. As questionnaires measuring the constructs correlate strongly (r>0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14352DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads