6,198 results match your criteria Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health [Journal]


Measuring the impact of step down intermediate care on delayed discharge: an interrupted time series analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Intermediate care (IC) acts as a bridging service between hospital and home, for those deemed medically fit for discharge but who are delayed in hospital. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of IC and a 72-hour discharge target on days delayed.

Methods: Rate of days delayed per 1000 population aged 75 years+ in Glasgow City was compared before and after onset of IC with a 6-month phase-in period, using segmented linear regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211628DOI Listing

Socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy gains among retired German men, 1997-2016.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Demographic Data, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

Background: Although estimates of socioeconomic mortality disparities in Germany exist, the trends in these disparities since the 1990s are still unknown. This study examines mortality trends across socioeconomic groups since the late 1990s among retired German men aged 65 and above.

Methods: Large administrative data sets were used to estimate mortality among retired German men, grouped according to their working-life biographies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211742DOI Listing

Association of binge drinking in adolescence and early adulthood with high blood pressure: findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2008).

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

Background: An investigation of the risk of high blood pressure (HBP) associated with heavy alcohol consumption in adolescence and early adulthood is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between binge drinking from adolescence to early adulthood and the risk of HBP in early adulthood.

Methods: We applied logistic regression to publicly available, population-representative data from waves I (1994-1995; ages 12-18) and IV (2007-2008; ages 24-32) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n=5114) to determine whether past 12-month binge drinking in adolescence (wave I) and early adulthood (wave IV) was associated with HBP in early adulthood after adjusting for covariates, including smoking and body mass index. Read More

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http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211594
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211594DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Moderating effect of the neighbourhood physical activity environment on the relation between psychosocial factors and physical activity in children: a longitudinal study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Background: Few studies have examined the moderating role of neighbourhood environments on the relation between psychosocial factors and physical activity, and results of these studies are mixed. This study examined this relationship in 636 fifth to seventh graders from South Carolina, USA.

Methods: From 2010 to 2013, children and their parent/guardian completed annual self-reported surveys assessing psychosocial factors, and children wore accelerometers for 1 week each year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211456DOI Listing

Early-life socioeconomic circumstances explain health differences in old age, but not their evolution over time.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Swiss NCCR 'LIVES - Overcoming Vulnerability: Life Course Perspectives', University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Early-life socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) are associated with health in old age. However, epidemiological evidences on the influence of these early-life risk factors on trajectories of healthy ageing are inconsistent, preventing drawing solid conclusion about their potential influence. Here, to fill this knowledge gap, we used a statistical approach adapted to estimating change over time and an outcome-wide epidemiology approach to investigate whether early-life SEC were associated with the level of and rate of decline of physical, cognitive and emotional functioning over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2019-212110DOI Listing

Associations between adult height and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark

Background: Although short adult height is generally associated with increased risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), there are large inconsistencies across studies. The aims of this study were to describe and quantify currently available evidence on the association between adult height and T2DM, to examine whether the reported associations differ by sex, and to examine the shapes of the height and T2DM associations.

Methods: Relevant literature was identified using PubMed (1966-May 2018), EMBASE (1947-May 2018) and Google Scholar (May 2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211567DOI Listing

Walk Score and objectively measured physical activity within a national cohort.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Background: There have been mixed findings regarding the relationship between walkability and level of physical activity in adults.

Methods: Participants from The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort (N=7561) were used to examine the association between Walk Score and physical activity measured via accelerometry. The subsample included geographically diverse adults, who identified as black or white, and were over the age of 45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210245DOI Listing

Early-life inequalities and biological ageing: a multisystem Biological Health Score approach in .

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK

Social position is known to play a role in the quality of ageing, notably through the stimulation/dysregulation of key physiological systems in response to external stresses. Using data from one wave of including 9088 participants, we defined, as an extension of the allostatic load, a synthetic Biological Health Score (BHS) capturing the wear-and-tear of four physiological systems (endocrine, inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic systems) and two organs (liver and kidney). We used 16 established blood-derived biomarkers of these systems to calculate the BHS and explored the relative contribution of socioeconomic position to the BHS and its main components across age groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-212010DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Effects of Superblocks on health and health inequities: a proposed evaluation framework.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Agència Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The following essay outlines the intervention and presents a framework that will serve as a guide in the evaluation of the different effects of the Superblocks. Superblocks consist of amalgamations of blocks throughout the city, with the goal of improving the habitability of public spaces, advancing sustainable mobility, increasing urban green, and promoting residents' participation and coresponsibility, while ultimately influencing residents' health and health inequities. The evaluation framework considers the following aspects: the interventions implemented in the Superblock strategy, the changes that occur at neighbourhood and individual level and the population turnover as intermediate factors and finally the health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211738DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms among adolescents followed into emerging adulthood.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods report higher levels of depressive symptoms; however, few studies have employed prospective designs during adolescence, when depression tends to emerge. We examined associations of neighbourhood social fragmentation, income inequality and median household income with depressive symptoms in a nationally representative survey of adolescents.

Methods: The NEXT Generation Health Study enrolled 10th-grade students from 81 US high schools in the 2009-2010 school year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-212004DOI Listing
March 2019
3.501 Impact Factor

Socioeconomic and gender inequalities in neonatal, postneonatal and child mortality in India: a repeated cross-sectional study, 2005-2016.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: In India, excess female under-5 mortality is well documented. Under-5 mortality is also known to be patterned by socioeconomic factors. This study examines sex differentials and sex-specific wealth gradients in neonatal, postneonatal and child mortality in India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211569DOI Listing

Exposure to work stress and use of psychotropic medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: There is good evidence that job stressors are prospectively related to mental health problems, particularly depressive symptoms. This review aimed to examine whether job stressors were also related to use of psychotropic medications.

Methods: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses approach, we examined seven electronic databases that indexed literature from a wide range of disciplines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211752DOI Listing

Direct healthcare costs of sedentary behaviour in the UK.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

School of Health Sciences, Ulster University, Newtownabbey, UK.

Background: Growing evidence indicates that prolonged sedentary behaviour increases the risk of several chronic health conditions and all-cause mortality. Sedentary behaviour is prevalent among adults in the UK. Quantifying the costs associated with sedentary behaviour is an important step in the development of public health policy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211758DOI Listing

Cigarettes at ¢35 a pack, in 2019….

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

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http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2019-212333
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2019-212333DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Gun laws and school safety.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Economics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: This paper examines the associations between state-level gun control and adolescent school safety overall and by student sex, age, and race.

Methods: We used data on 926 639 adolescents from 45 states in the 1999-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Students self-reported on weapon carrying at school, the number of times they experienced weapon threats or injuries at school, the number of school days missed due to feeling unsafe, and weapon carrying at any location. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211246DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Socioeconomic trajectories across the life course and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: prospective findings from the Moli-sani Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.

Background: A life course approach has been suggested as the most appropriate to establish the total impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on adult health outcomes; however, such an approach has been poorly used within Mediterranean populations. We aimed to examine the SES trajectories from childhood to adulthood associated with mortality risk in a large general population-based cohort and to test potential pathways (eg, inflammation) underlying such associations.

Methods: Longitudinal analyses on 22 194 subjects recruited in the Moli-sani Study, Italy (2005-2010). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211582DOI Listing

Prevalence and correlates of diabetes and its comorbidities in four Gulf Cooperation Council countries: evidence from the World Health Survey Plus.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Primary Care & Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.

Background: The Gulf Cooperation Council countries are witnessing unprecedented changes due to fast economic development and population growth. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its comorbidities; second, to examine the association of sociodemographic risk factors and healthcare service utilisation with diabetes.

Methods: Data from the World Health Survey Plus (WHS+) from Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211187DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Coding the Everyday Discrimination Scale: implications for exposure assessment and associations with hypertension and depression among a cross section of mid-life African American women.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Divisions of Epidemiology and Community Health Sciences, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: Studies suggest that racial discrimination impacts health via biological dysregulation due to continual adaptation to chronic psychosocial stress. Therefore, quantifying chronicity is critical for operationalising the relevant aetiological exposure and hence maximising internal validity. Using one of the most common discrimination scales in the epidemiological literature, we develop a novel approach for more accurately assessing chronicity and compare it with conventional approaches to determine whether coding influences differential exposure classification and associations with hypertension and depression among African American women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211230DOI Listing

The impact of New Labour's English health inequalities strategy on geographical inequalities in infant mortality: a time-trend analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Background: The English health inequalities strategy (1999-2010) aimed to reduce health inequalities between the most deprived local authorities and the rest of England. The multifaceted strategy included increased investment in healthcare, the early years, education and neighbourhood renewal. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the strategy was associated with a reduction in geographical inequalities in the infant mortality rate (IMR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211679DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular risk markers and total mortality in older men: cystatin C versus creatinine.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: It remains uncertain whether cystatin C is a superior marker of renal function than creatinine in older adults. We have investigated the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations based on creatinine (CKD-EPIcr) and cystatin C (CKD-EPIcys), and cardiovascular risk markers and mortality in older adults.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional and prospective study of 1639 British men aged 71-92 years followed up for an average of 5 years for mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211719DOI Listing

Factors across life associated with remaining free from functional limitations despite lifelong exposure to socioeconomic adversity.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, University College London, London, UK.

Background: There are substantial socioeconomic inequalities in functional limitations in old age. Resilience may offer new insights into these inequalities by identifying constellations of factors that protect some individuals from developing functional limitations despite socioeconomic adversity.

Methods: Data from 1973 participants in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (Great Britain), followed from birth until age 60-64, were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211736DOI Listing

Temporal trends in cognitive function of older US adults associated with population changes in demographic and cardiovascular profiles.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Recent estimates suggest that dementia incidence is decreasing in the US possibly due to better management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but these studies lack repeated cross-sectional assessment among a representative US sample. Our objective was to assess temporal trends in cognitive performance in relation to CVD risk factors among older National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants.

Methods: We used repeated cross-sectional assessment of 5711 participants ≥60 years of age from four NHANES cycles: 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211985DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Breastfeeding initiation and duration in Chile: understanding the social and health determinants.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Edinburgh School of Health in Social Science, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Given the support for the numerous benefits of breastfeeding, a better understanding of social and health determinants is necessary, particularly in under-researched populations. We examined determinants of breastfeeding initiation and duration using a national cohort of Chilean mothers.

Methods: Participants included 13 738 families enrolled in the Encuesta Longitudinal de la Primera Infancia cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211148DOI Listing

Exposure to environmental chemicals and type 1 diabetes: an update.

Authors:
Sarah G Howard

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Diabetes and Environment Program, Commonweal, Bolinas, CA 94924, USA

This narrative review summarises recently published epidemiological and in vivo experimental studies on exposure to environmental chemicals and their potential role in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). These studies focus on a variety of environmental chemical exposures, including to air pollution, arsenic, some persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, bisphenol A and phthalates. Of the 15 epidemiological studies identified, 14 include measurements of exposures during childhood, 2 include prenatal exposures and 1 includes adults over age 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210627DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads

Impact of obesity and physical inactivity on the long-term change in grip strength among middle-aged and older European adults.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China

Background: Grip strength is a well-established predictor of various chronic conditions and all-cause mortality. Body weight and physical activity (PA) are considered potential determinants of muscle strength. This study aimed to investigate gender-specific associations of baseline obesity and physical inactivity with long-term changes in grip strength among middle-aged and older European adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211601DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Relationship between children's cognitions and later educational progress in rural South Africa: a longitudinal study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 6;73(5):422-426. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Background: Children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) who remain in school have better health and employment outcomes. South Africa, like many LMICs, has a secondary school completion rate under 50%, leaving room for improvement if we can identify factors that affect educational attainment. This is the first longitudinal study to examine the effects of childhood mental health and cognitions on educational outcomes in LMIC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211361DOI Listing

Long work hours, weekend working and depressive symptoms in men and women: findings from a UK population-based study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 25;73(5):465-474. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Globalised and 24/7 business operations have fuelled demands for people to work long hours and weekends. Research on the mental health effects of these intensive temporal work patterns is sparse, contradictory or has not considered gender differences. Our objective was to examine the relationship between these work patterns and depressive symptoms in a large nationally representative sample of working men and women in the UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211309DOI Listing

Smoking and urinary cotinine by socioeconomic status in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Associations of socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking-related diseases depend on uniform validity of self-reported smoking habits in different SES groups. We investigated the influence of SES on validity of self-reported smoking status by means of urinary cotinine.

Methods: We determined total urinary cotinine in the baseline population of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211952DOI Listing
February 2019
3.501 Impact Factor

Baseline selection on a collider: a ubiquitous mechanism occurring in both representative and selected cohort studies.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 25;73(5):475-480. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin and CPO-Piemonte, Turin, Italy.

There is debate as to whether cohort studies are valid when they are based on a source population that is non-representative of a given general population. This baseline selection may introduce collider bias if the exposure of interest and some other outcome risk factors affect the probability of being in the source population, thus altering the associations between the exposure and those risk factors. We argue that this mechanism is not specific to 'selected cohorts' and also occurs in 'representative cohorts' due to the selection processes that occur in any population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211829DOI Listing

Effects of school environments on student risk-behaviours: evidence from a longitudinal study of secondary schools in England.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The theory of human functioning and school organisation proposes that schools with rigid 'boundaries' (weaker relationships), for example, between staff and students, or learning and broader development, engender weaker student school commitment and sense of belonging, particularly among disadvantaged students, leading to greater involvement in risk-behaviours. Existing studies provide some support but rely on a proxy exposure of 'value-added education' and have not explored effects by disadvantage.

Methods: We used longitudinal data from English secondary schools from the control arm of a trial, assessing school-level measures of rigid boundaries, and student commitment and belonging at age 11/12, and student risk-behaviours at age 14/15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211866DOI Listing
February 2019

Postpartum emergency department use among women with intellectual and developmental disabilities: a retrospective cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UMass Memorial Health Care; Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: An emerging body of evidence underscores the often-intensive perinatal healthcare needs of women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). However, population-based research examining postpartum experiences of US women with IDD is sparse. We examined emergency department (ED) use in the postpartum period among Massachusetts mothers with IDD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211589DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Developmental vulnerabilities in children of chronically ill parents: a population-based linked data study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 21;73(5):393-400. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

School of Psychological Science, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Currently, there is mixed evidence regarding the effects on children when a parent is chronically ill. Research has also primarily been conducted with adolescent samples. This study investigated developmental vulnerabilities in young children of parents with chronic illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210992DOI Listing

Incidence of head injury and traumatic brain injury among people with Alzheimer's disease.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 19;73(5):451-454. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Injuries caused by falling are a major health concern among older population. For older people, falls are the leading cause of head injuries; especially, persons with cognitive disorders have an increased risk of falling.

Objective: To compare the incidence of head injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with persons without AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211960DOI Listing

Change in the distribution of body mass index in Brazil: analysing the interindividual inequality between 1974 and 2013.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusets, USA.

Background: Brazil is among the 10 countries with the highest prevalence of overweight in the world. The aim was to analyse the changes in the dispersion of body mass index (BMI) in the Brazilian population from the 1970s to 2013 in specific population groups.

Methods: Data were extracted from five national household surveys between 1974-1975 and 2013, including adults aged 20 to 64. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211664DOI Listing
February 2019

Projecting long-term trends in mobility limitations: impact of excess weight, smoking and physical inactivity.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 18;73(5):443-450. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Policy makers need disability projections for planning adequate services and measures for health promotion. The aim of this study is to provide projections on severe mobility limitations up to year 2044 and illustrate how the projected prevalence and the number of persons with severe mobility limitations are affected by potential changes in the modifiable risk factors, namely excess weight, physical inactivity and smoking.

Methods: We analysed the nationally representative, repeated measures Health 2000 and 2011 Surveys (BRIF8901) with 8615 and 6740 participants, respectively, aged 18 years and older. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210413DOI Listing

Effects of Housing First approaches on health and well-being of adults who are homeless or at risk of homelessness: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 18;73(5):379-387. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Homelessness is associated with poor health. A policy approach aiming to end homelessness across Europe and North America, the 'Housing First' (HF) model, provides rapid housing, not conditional on abstinence from substance use. We aimed to systematically review the evidence from randomised controlled trials for the effects of HF on health and well-being. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210981DOI Listing

Glossary of health equity concepts for public health action in the Canadian context.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Despite increased interest in addressing health equity through public health initiatives, practitioner and decision maker comprehension of core concepts is limited and inconsistent. Absence of a shared understanding of equity and related terminology contributes to lack of coordinated solutions as practitioners focus on individual level issues, unrelated to social justice. Taking action to decrease population health inequities requires a comprehension of where inequities are rooted, who is affected and interventions that consider the complexity of inequities being addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210851DOI Listing
February 2019

Bullying and bystander behaviour and health outcomes among adolescents in Ireland.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 13;73(5):416-421. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Children's Studies, School of Languages, NUI Galway, Ireland.

Background: Little is known about the impact of being a bystander to bullying. This study compared health outcomes among bullies, victims and bystanders, and investigated actions taken by bystanders when they saw bullying.

Method: Participants included 7522 students aged 12-18 years that completed self-report questionnaires in the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211350DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Multiple risk exposures for reading achievement in childhood and adolescence.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 13;73(5):427-434. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

The University of Western Australia, Telethon Kids Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Literacy is championed as a pathway out of poverty, yet it is vulnerable to the risk circumstances it seeks to mitigate. This study explored the developmental circumstances that gave rise to stark inequalities in reading achievement in Australian children across 6 years of school.

Methods: We used data from : the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children linked to Australia's National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy across school years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211323DOI Listing

Labour market marginalisation among refugees from different countries of birth: a prospective cohort study on refugees to Sweden.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 12;73(5):407-415. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The aim was to elucidate if the risk of labour market marginalisation (LMM), measured as long-term unemployment, long-term sickness absence, disability pension and a combined measure of these three measures, differed between refugees and non-refugee migrants with different regions of birth compared with native Swedes.

Methods: All non-pensioned individuals aged 19-60 years who were resident in Sweden on 31 December 2009 were included (n=4 441 813, whereof 216 930 refugees). HRs with 95% CIs were computed by Cox regression models with competing risks and time-dependent covariates with a follow-up period of 2010-2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211177DOI Listing

Burden of hospitalisation among older people in the Brazilian public health system: a big data analysis from 2009 to 2015.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Information Technology, Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The world's population is progressively ageing, and this trend imposes several challenges to society and governments. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden generated by the hospitalisation of older (60 years) compared with non-older population, as well as the epidemiology of these hospital admissions.

Methods: Using the Brazilian Unified Health System (known as 'Sistema Único de Saúde' (SUS)), an analysis of all hospital admissions of adult patients in the SUS from 2009 to 2015 was undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210783DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Social determinants of health among residential areas with a high tuberculosis incidence in a remote Inuit community.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 6;73(5):401-406. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant health burden among Inuit in Canada. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a key role in TB infection, disease and ongoing transmission in this population. The objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of social determinants of Inuit health as they relate to latent TB infection (LTBI) among people living in residential areas at high risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Read More

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http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211261
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211261DOI Listing
May 2019
12 Reads

Examining intervention mechanisms of action using mediation analysis within a randomised trial of a whole-school health intervention.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 5;73(5):455-464. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Interventions to modify school environments are effective in promoting young people's health across outcomes, but mechanisms are poorly understood. We assessed mediation in a trial of the Learning Together intervention, building on the recent publication of results of effectiveness for reducing bullying and benefits across secondary outcomes and generally good implementation fidelity.

Methods: Within a cluster-randomised trial involving 40 English schools, we examined student-reported and staff-reported school climate and student-reported involvement with delinquent peers at 24-month and 36-month follow-up, assessing the reliability of measures and whether these mediated health outcomes at a final follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211443DOI Listing

Public health responses to the opioid crisis in North America.

Authors:
Thomas Kerr

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 5;73(5):377-378. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459709PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of smoking, high alcohol consumption and drug use later in life.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: While compromised stress resilience constitutes a recognised risk factor for somatic and psychiatric disease development in general, the knowledge about how individual variation in vulnerability to stress may specifically influence the long-term risks of disadvantageous health behaviours is limited.

Methods: In this Swedish cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between stress resilience in late adolescence and adult use of addictive substances. We included 9381 men with information on psychological stress resilience measured during military conscription examinations, who later responded to an extensive health survey (mean age 34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211815DOI Listing
February 2019

Socioeconomic inequality in drug reimbursement during end-of-life care: a nationwide study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 May 2;73(5):435-442. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: In Denmark, patients who are terminally ill have the right to drug reimbursement due to terminal illness (DRTI). DRTI, a proxy marker of planned end-of-life care, is intended to be equally accessible regardless of socioeconomic position. This study examined social and socioeconomic differences in DRTI among Danish patients who are terminally ill. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211580DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Association between allostatic load and health behaviours: a latent class approach.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 30;73(4):340-345. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Los Angeles Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Allostatic load (AL) has been characterised in many ways throughout the literature; however, its relationship to health behaviours has only been studied in limited populations. We aimed to uncover qualitative patterns of biological indicators in AL and determine if those patterns were associated with certain health behaviours.

Methods: We conducted latent class analysis using biological indicators from a multiethnic population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211289DOI Listing

Macroeconomic fluctuations, changes in lifestyles and mortality from diabetes: a quasiexperimental study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Apr 30;73(4):317-323. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Public Health & Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: To evaluate trends in diabetes-related health behaviours and mortality from diabetes and other chronic diseases in the Spanish population before, during and after the 2008 economic crisis.

Methods: Annual population measurements were obtained from national surveys and administrative registries for 2004-2016. Using segmented regression analysis, we calculated the annual percentage change (APC) in 2004-2007, 2008-2010, 2011-2013 and 2014-2016 in risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and meals away from home), in healthy behaviours (fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity) and in mortality rates from diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211464DOI Listing