6,158 results match your criteria Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health [Journal]


Multiple risk exposures for reading achievement in childhood and adolescence.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

The University of Western Australia, Telethon Kids Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Literacy is championed as a pathway out of poverty, yet it is vulnerable to the risk circumstances it seeks to mitigate. This study explored the developmental circumstances that gave rise to stark inequalities in reading achievement in Australian children across 6 years of school.

Methods: We used data from : the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children linked to Australia's National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy across school years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211323DOI Listing
February 2019

Labour market marginalisation among refugees from different countries of birth: a prospective cohort study on refugees to Sweden.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The aim was to elucidate if the risk of labour market marginalisation (LMM), measured as long-term unemployment, long-term sickness absence, disability pension and a combined measure of these three measures, differed between refugees and non-refugee migrants with different regions of birth compared with native Swedes.

Methods: All non-pensioned individuals aged 19-60 years who were resident in Sweden on 31 December 2009 were included (n=4 441 813, whereof 216 930 refugees). HRs with 95% CIs were computed by Cox regression models with competing risks and time-dependent covariates with a follow-up period of 2010-2013. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211177DOI Listing
February 2019

Burden of hospitalisation among older people in the Brazilian public health system: a big data analysis from 2009 to 2015.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Information Technology, Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The world's population is progressively ageing, and this trend imposes several challenges to society and governments. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden generated by the hospitalisation of older (60 years) compared with non-older population, as well as the epidemiology of these hospital admissions.

Methods: Using the Brazilian Unified Health System (known as 'Sistema Único de Saúde' (SUS)), an analysis of all hospital admissions of adult patients in the SUS from 2009 to 2015 was undertaken. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210783DOI Listing
February 2019

Social determinants of health among residential areas with a high tuberculosis incidence in a remote Inuit community.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant health burden among Inuit in Canada. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a key role in TB infection, disease and ongoing transmission in this population. The objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of social determinants of Inuit health as they relate to latent TB infection (LTBI) among people living in residential areas at high risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211261
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211261DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Examining intervention mechanisms of action using mediation analysis within a randomised trial of a whole-school health intervention.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Interventions to modify school environments are effective in promoting young people's health across outcomes, but mechanisms are poorly understood. We assessed mediation in a trial of the Learning Together intervention, building on the recent publication of results of effectiveness for reducing bullying and benefits across secondary outcomes and generally good implementation fidelity.

Methods: Within a cluster-randomised trial involving 40 English schools, we examined student-reported and staff-reported school climate and student-reported involvement with delinquent peers at 24-month and 36-month follow-up, assessing the reliability of measures and whether these mediated health outcomes at a final follow-up. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211443DOI Listing
February 2019

Public health responses to the opioid crisis in North America.

Authors:
Thomas Kerr

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210599DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of smoking, high alcohol consumption and drug use later in life.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: While compromised stress resilience constitutes a recognised risk factor for somatic and psychiatric disease development in general, the knowledge about how individual variation in vulnerability to stress may specifically influence the long-term risks of disadvantageous health behaviours is limited.

Methods: In this Swedish cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between stress resilience in late adolescence and adult use of addictive substances. We included 9381 men with information on psychological stress resilience measured during military conscription examinations, who later responded to an extensive health survey (mean age 34. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211815DOI Listing
February 2019

Socioeconomic inequality in drug reimbursement during end-of-life care: a nationwide study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: In Denmark, patients who are terminally ill have the right to drug reimbursement due to terminal illness (DRTI). DRTI, a proxy marker of planned end-of-life care, is intended to be equally accessible regardless of socioeconomic position. This study examined social and socioeconomic differences in DRTI among Danish patients who are terminally ill. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211580DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Association between allostatic load and health behaviours: a latent class approach.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Los Angeles Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Allostatic load (AL) has been characterised in many ways throughout the literature; however, its relationship to health behaviours has only been studied in limited populations. We aimed to uncover qualitative patterns of biological indicators in AL and determine if those patterns were associated with certain health behaviours.

Methods: We conducted latent class analysis using biological indicators from a multiethnic population. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211289DOI Listing
January 2019

Macroeconomic fluctuations, changes in lifestyles and mortality from diabetes: a quasiexperimental study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Public Health & Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: To evaluate trends in diabetes-related health behaviours and mortality from diabetes and other chronic diseases in the Spanish population before, during and after the 2008 economic crisis.

Methods: Annual population measurements were obtained from national surveys and administrative registries for 2004-2016. Using segmented regression analysis, we calculated the annual percentage change (APC) in 2004-2007, 2008-2010, 2011-2013 and 2014-2016 in risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and meals away from home), in healthy behaviours (fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity) and in mortality rates from diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211464DOI Listing
January 2019

Neighbourhood walkability and the incidence of diabetes: an inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: People living in highly walkable neighbourhoods tend to be more physically active and less likely to be obese. Whether walkable urban design reduces the future risk of diabetes is less clear.

Methods: We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to compare 10-year diabetes incidence between residents living in high-walkability and low-walkability neighbourhoods within five urban regions in Ontario, Canada. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210510DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of chronic headache on workdays, unemployment and disutility in the general population.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Head and Neck Research Group, Research Centre, Akershus Universitetssykehus HF, Lorenskog, Norway.

Background: Data on the socioeconomic burden of chronic headache (≥15 days/last month or 180 days/year) is lacking. This study investigated the impact of chronic headache on sickness absence, unemployment and disutility in the general population in Norway.

Methods: 30 000 persons aged 30-44 from the general population were screened for chronic headache by a screening questionnaire. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211127DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of a youth-led social marketing intervention run by adolescents to encourage healthy lifestyles among younger school peers (EYTO-Kids project): a parallel-cluster randomised controlled pilot study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Medicine and Surgery and Basical Medical Sciences, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Functional Nutrition, Oxidation, and Cardiovascular Diseases Group (NFOC-Salut), Health Education and Promotion, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, Reus (43201), Spain, Reus, Spain.

Background: Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children is a challenge. This project aimed to improve lifestyles of younger peers by engaging adolescent creators (ACs) to design and implement peer-led and social marketing (SM) health-promoting activities.

Methods: A 10-month parallel-cluster randomised controlled school-based pilot study was performed in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Reus (Spain) spanning two academic years (2015-2016/2016-2017). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210163DOI Listing
January 2019

Contribution of smoking and alcohol consumption to income differences in life expectancy: evidence using Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish register data.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Despite being comparatively egalitarian welfare states, the Nordic countries have not been successful in reducing health inequalities. Previous studies have suggested that smoking and alcohol contribute to this pattern. Few studies have focused on variations in alcohol-related and smoking-related mortality within the Nordic countries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211640DOI Listing
January 2019

Can green space quantity and quality help prevent postpartum weight gain? A longitudinal study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Health and Society, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Postpartum weight gain is a well-known challenge for many mothers, but associations with green space quantity and quality have not been investigated.

Methods: This longitudinal study used data on 3843 mothers living in Australia tracked biennially for 15 years post partum from 2004 onwards. Multilevel growth curve models adjusted for confounding were used to examine the patterning of body mass index (BMI) in relation to green space quantity, measured by percentage land use, and green space quality, measured by self-report. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211133DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Body size, non-occupational physical activity and the chance of reaching longevity in men and women: findings from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 21;73(3):239-249. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The rising number of obese and/or physically inactive individuals might negatively impact human lifespan. This study assessed the association between height, body mass index (BMI) and non-occupational physical activity and the likelihood of reaching 90 years of age, in both sexes separately.

Methods: Analyses were conducted using data from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211410
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211410DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Developmental origins of endometriosis: a Swedish cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 19. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with multiple health burdens. Yet, findings regarding its 'developmental origins' are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the associations of birth characteristics with endometriosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211811DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Characteristics of the built environment and spatial patterning of type 2 diabetes in the urban core of Durham, North Carolina.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 19. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Children's Environmental Health Initiative, Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Few studies examine relationships between built environment (BE) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using spatial models, investigate BE domains apart from food environment or physical activity resources or conduct sensitivity analysis of methodological choices made in measuring BE. We examine geographic heterogeneity of T2DM, describe how heterogeneity in T2DM relates to BE and estimate associations of T2DM with BE.

Methods: Individual-level electronic health records (n=41 203) from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse (2007-2011) were linked to BE based on census block. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211064
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211064DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Differential vulnerability to neighbourhood disorder: a gene×environment interaction study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 19. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is preventable, it is increasing in prevalence and it is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Importantly, residents of neighbourhoods with high levels of disorder are more likely to develop T2D than those living in less disordered neighbourhoods and neighbourhood disorder may exacerbate genetic risk for T2D.

Method: We use genetic, self-reported neighbourhood, and health data from the Health and Retirement Study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211373DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Housing and health: new evidence using biomarker data.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 14;73(3):256-262. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: The link between housing and health is well established and long-standing, however much of the evidence relies on self-reported health measures. While these are useful, the availability of biomarker data allows us to add to this evidence using objective indicators of health.

Methods: In this paper, we use C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker associated with infection and stress, alongside information relating to housing details, demographic characteristics and health behaviours taken from the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211431DOI Listing

Scope-of-practice laws and expanded health services: the case of underserved women and advanced cervical cancer diagnoses.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 11;73(3):278-284. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Background: Underserved women (rural, minority or poor) are disproportionally diagnosed with late-stage cervical cancer, indicative of inadequate access to, and use of, preventative healthcare. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has proposed that nurse practitioners (NP) can address provider shortages among underserved populations, but to reduce shortages, scope-of-practice laws that restrict the delivery of care, must be revised. We examined the IOM recommendation of NP expanded scope-of-practice laws on reducing the disparity of underserved women diagnosed with late-stage cervical cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-210709
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210709DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Long-term effects of compulsory schooling on physical, mental and cognitive ageing: a natural experiment.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Longer schooling is associated with better physical, mental and cognitive functioning, but there is controversy as to whether these associations are causal. We examine the long-term health impact of a policy that increased compulsory schooling by 2 years in France for cohorts born on or after January 1953, offering a natural experiment.

Methods: Data came from Constances, a randomly selected cohort of the French population assessed for cognition, depressive symptoms and physical functioning at ages 45 and older (n=18 929). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211746DOI Listing
January 2019

Parental education and adolescent health problems due to violence, self-harm and substance use: what is the role of parental health problems?

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 11;73(3):225-231. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Adolescent health problems are more prevalent in families with low socioeconomic position, but few studies have assessed the role of parental health in this association. This study examines the extent to which parental health problems, particularly those related to high-risk health behaviour, might explain the association between parental education and adolescent health problems due to violence, self-harm and substance use.

Methods: We used longitudinal register data on a 20% representative sample of all families with children aged 0-14 years in 2000 in Finland with information on parental social background and parental and offspring health problems based on hospital discharge data. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211316
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211316DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

New approaches to cope with possible harms of low-dose environmental chemicals.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 11;73(3):193-197. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Low-dose environmental chemicals including endocrine-disrupting chemicals can disturb endocrine, nervous and immune systems. Traditional chemical-focused approaches, strict regulation and avoidance of exposure sources, can help protect humans from individual or several chemicals in the high-dose range, but their value in the low-dose range is questionable. First, exposure sources to problematic environmental chemicals are omnipresent, and many common pollutants present no safe level. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-210920
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210920DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Estimating effects of Uber ride-sharing service on road traffic-related deaths in South Africa: a quasi-experimental study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 11;73(3):263-271. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Political Science, Texas Christian University AddRan College of Liberal Arts, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Background: Road traffic deaths are a substantial barrier to population health improvement in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In South Africa, the road-traffic injury mortality (RTM) rate of 27 per 100 000 population is twice the global average, over 60% of which are alcohol-related. Recent US studies suggest the Uber ride-sharing service may reduce alcohol-related RTM, however RTM burden in the USA is relatively low and transport behaviours differ from LMICs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211006DOI Listing

Estimating the performance of three cardiovascular disease risk scores: the Estonian Biobank cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 11;73(3):272-277. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Background: We aim to investigate the predictive ability of PCE (Pooled Cohort Equations), QRISK2 and SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Estimation) scoring systems for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk prediction in Estonia, a country with one of the highest ASCVD event rates in Europe.

Methods: Seven-year risk estimates were calculated in risk score-specific subsets of the Estonian Biobank cohort. Calibration was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and discrimination by Harrell's C-statistics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2017-209965
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-209965DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Renovations of neighbourhood parks: long-term outcomes on physical activity.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 3;73(3):214-218. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, USA.

Background: Neighbourhood parks are places designed to support physical activity, but are often underutilised. Park renovations are major improvements to the quality of these spaces and usually attract more park users. This study assessed changes in the use of six San Francisco neighbourhood parks and park-based physical activity levels over a 6-year period, during which five of the six parks were renovated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210791DOI Listing

Who benefits from social investment? The gendered effects of family and employment policies on cardiovascular disease in Europe.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 2;73(3):206-213. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Newcastle University, Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: In the context of fiscal austerity in many European welfare states, policy innovation often takes the form of 'social investment', a contested set of policies aimed at strengthening labour markets. Social investment policies include employment subsidies, skills training and job-finding services, early childhood education and childcare and parental leave. Given that such policies can influence gender equity in the labour market, we analysed the possible effects of such policies on gender health equity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211283DOI Listing

Trust and mortality in the contemporary United States.

Authors:
Milagros A Ruiz

J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211602DOI Listing
December 2018

High-sensitivity C reactive protein and risk of cardiovascular disease in China-CVD study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 7;73(2):188-192. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Prevention and Community Health, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, Pecking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: This study aimed to assess the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in middle-aged Chinese population.

Methods: The baseline was collected 2009-2010, and follow-up was conducted in 2016-2017. Data of hs-CRP were from baseline examination and re-examination in 2016-2017 using transmission turbidimetry with a measurement range of 0-42 000. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211433DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Associations of literacy with diabetes indicators in older adults.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 7;73(3):250-255. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Literacy, the ability to access, understand and utilise information and concepts from diverse sources in ways that promote good outcomes is key to successful ageing. Domain-specific health and financial literacy are particularly relevant to older adults as they face increasingly complex health and financial demands including those related to chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the associations of literacy, including health and financial literacy, with diabetes indicators (ie, haemoglobin A1c and blood glucose) in a community-based cohort study of ageing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210977DOI Listing

Influence of chronic diseases on societal participation in paid work, volunteering and informal caregiving in Europe: a 12-year follow-up study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 26;73(2):136-141. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: This study aims to provide insight into (1) the associations between having a chronic disease and participation in paid work, volunteer activities or informal care, (2) the associations between the onset of a chronic disease and these forms of societal participation, and (3) whether these associations differ across educational level and gender.

Methods: The study population consisted of n=21 875 respondents of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe aged between 50 years and the country-specific retirement age. The influence of having and the onset of a chronic disease on societal participation was analysed using a hybrid Poisson regression model, combining fixed and random effects, and presented by relative risks (RRs). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211107
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211107DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Employment trajectories in midlife and cognitive performance in later life: longitudinal study of older American men and women.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 23;73(3):232-238. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Although being employed during midlife is positively associated with cognitive function in later life, little is known with respect to cumulative trajectories or durations of time spent in different kinds of work.

Methods: We investigated the relationships between employment trajectory from ages 31 years to 50 years and cognitive skills at ages 50-78 years among 2521 adults in the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1968 to 2016. Sequence analysis was used to identify prototypical employment trajectories, capturing employment status and high versus lower job skill level at each year of age from 31 years to 50 years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211153DOI Listing

Evaluating effects of recent changes in NHS resource allocation policy on inequalities in amenable mortality in England, 2007-2014: time-series analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 23;73(2):162-167. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Public Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Health investment in England post-2010 has increased at lower rates than previously, with proportionally less being allocated to deprived areas. This study seeks to explore the impact of this on inequalities in amenable mortality between local areas.

Methods: We undertook a time-series analysis across 324 lower-tier local authorities in England, evaluating the impact of changes in funding allocations to health commissioners from 2007 to 2014 on spatial inequalities in age-standardised under-75 mortality rates for conditions amenable to healthcare for men and women, adjusting for trends in household income, unemployment and time-trends. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211141DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

The EU referendum and mental health in the short term: a natural experiment using antidepressant prescriptions in England.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 21;73(2):168-175. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Previous research has highlighted the impact of economic conditions and uncertainty on physical and mental health. The unexpected result of the Brexit referendum in 2016 triggered high levels of economic uncertainty.

Objective: To examine whether prescriptions for antidepressants increased after the referendum result, benchmarking them against other drug classes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210637DOI Listing
February 2019
15 Reads

High school personality traits and 48-year all-cause mortality risk: results from a national sample of 26 845 baby boomers.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 20;73(2):106-110. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

American Institute for Research, Washington DC, District of Columbia, USA.

Background: It is unclear if adolescent personality predicts mortality into late life, independent of adolescent socioeconomic status (SES).

Methods: Over 26 000 members of Project Talent, a US population cohort of high school students, completed a survey including 10 personality scales and SES in 1960. Multi-source mortality follow-up obtained vital status data through an average 48-year period ending in 2009. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211076DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Community collective efficacy is associated with reduced physical intimate partner violence (IPV) incidence in the rural province of Mpumalanga, South Africa: findings from HPTN 068.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 19;73(2):176-181. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a human rights violation and is associated with a variety of adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Collective efficacy, defined as mutual trust among community members and willingness to intervene on the behalf of the common good, has been associated with reduced neighbourhood violence. Limited research has explored whether community collective efficacy is associated with reduced incidence of IPV. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211357
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211357DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Why caesarean is more unequally concentrated among better-off people in Tehran? A concentration index decomposition approach.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 15;73(2):182-187. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Iran, as one of the low-income and middle-income countries, has experienced a remarkable increase in the caesarean section (CS) rate during the past three decades. Although several studies have been conducted on the prevalence and risk factors affecting CS, but few studies were done regarding socioeconomic factors influencing the CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify socioeconomic inequalities and its determinants in CS in Tehran, capital of Iran. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2017-210432
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210432DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Government social assistance programmes are failing to protect the health of low-income populations: evidence from the USA and Canada (2003-2014).

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Mar 15;73(3):198-205. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Social policies that improve the availability and distribution of key socioeconomic resources such as income, wealth and employment are believed to present the most promising avenue for reducing health inequalities. The present study aims to estimate the effect of social assistance recipiency on the health of low-income earners in the USA and Canada.

Methods: Drawing on nationally representative survey data (National Health Interview Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey), we employed propensity score matching to match recipients of social assistance to comparable sets of non-recipient 'controls'. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-211351
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211351DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Age-related inequalities in colon cancer treatment persist over time: a population-based analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 8;73(1):34-41. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Older people experience poorer outcomes from colon cancer. We examined if treatment for colon cancer was related to age and if inequalities changed over time.

Methods: Data from the UK population-based Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry on 31 910 incident colon cancers (ICD10 C18) diagnosed between 1999-2010 were obtained. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-210842
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210842DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Patterns of BMI development between 10 and 42 years of age and their determinants in the 1970 British Cohort Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 8;73(1):79-85. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

School of Sport, Exercise and Heath Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Background: Mixture modelling is a useful approach to identify subgroups in a population who share similar trajectories. We aimed to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories between 10 and 42 years and investigate how known early-life risk factors are related to trajectories.

Methods: Sample: 9187 participants in the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study, with BMI observations between 10 and 42 years and data on birth weight, parental BMI, socioeconomic status, breast feeding and puberty. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211051DOI Listing
January 2019

Are inequalities in cancer diagnosis through emergency presentation narrowing, widening or remaining unchanged? Longitudinal analysis of English population-based data 2006-2013.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Jan 8;73(1):3-10. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

ECHO (Epidemiology of Cancer Healthcare and Outcomes) Research Group, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Health, Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Diagnosis of cancer through emergency presentation is associated with poorer prognosis. While reductions in emergency presentations have been described, whether known sociodemographic inequalities are changing is uncertain.

Methods: We analysed 'Routes to Diagnosis' data on patients aged ≥25 years diagnosed in England during 2006-2013 with any of 33 common or rarer cancers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2017-210371
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210371DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Correction: .

Authors:

J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 Dec;72(12):1174

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210086corr1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252365PMC
December 2018

Association of community food environment and obesity among US adults: a geographical information system analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 5;73(2):148-155. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Background: Emerging studies have investigated the contribution of food environment to obesity in the USA. However, the findings were inconsistent. Methodological explanations for the inconsistent findings included: (1) using individual store/restaurant exposure as food environment indicator, and (2) not accounting for non-stationarity assumption. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jech.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jech-2018-210838
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-210838DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Socioeconomic inequalities in health and the use of healthcare services in Catalonia: analysis of the individual data of 7.5 million residents.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 2;73(2):97-99. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Center for Research in Health and Economics (CRES), Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211360DOI Listing
February 2019

The prospective relationship between social cohesion and depressive symptoms among older adults from Central and Eastern Europe.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 1;73(2):117-122. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Social cohesion has a potential protective effect against depression, but evidence for Central and Eastern Europe is lacking. We investigated the prospective association between social cohesion and elevated depressive symptoms in the Czech Republic, Russia and Poland, and assessed whether alcohol drinking and smoking mediated this association.

Methods: Cohort data from 15 438 older urban participants from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe project were analysed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211063DOI Listing
February 2019

Intergenerational social mobility and allostatic load in Great Britain.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2019 Feb 1;73(2):100-105. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Centre for Social Investigation, Nuffield College and Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Intergenerational social mobility is hypothesised to be a stressful process that has a negative effect on health. By examining the relationship between own socioeconomic position, parental socioeconomic position and allostatic load (AL) in a representative sample of the British population, we test this hypothesis.

Methods: Our study uses cross-sectional data from 9851 adult participants of waves 2 and 3 of Understanding Society. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-210171DOI Listing
February 2019