2,002,123 results match your criteria Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse [Journal]


[Different care models and symptom progression of Alzheimer's disease in China].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;99(7):532-536

Department of Psychiatry, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, China.

To compare the differences of cognitive function, daily living ability and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with sporadic type of Alzheimer's disease (AD) under different care modes, and find the most favorable care mode for delaying the progress of disease. One hundred and twenty cases of AD patients were divided into three groups: Spouse Care Group, Adult Child Care Group and Nursing Home Group. Medical history collection and scale evaluation were carried out by trained specialists on 3 groups of patients and caregivers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.07.011DOI Listing
February 2019

["Crystal" and Pregnancy - The Preliminary Results of a Retrospective Study on the Course of Pregnancy and Delivery of Women Consuming Methamphetamine].

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Dresden.

Introduction: It can be observed that there is an increase in the methamphetamine (MA) consumption in Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany). There is so far no data available in German speaking countries about the risk of MA consumption in pregnancy or delivery.

Methods: The data from all pregnant women who were examined or delivered at the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynaecology between 2010-2015 were retrospectively searched for MA consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0831-3642DOI Listing
February 2019

The ubiquitin ligase KBTBD8 regulates PKM1 levels via Erk1/2 and Aurora A to ensure oocyte quality.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Tight control of energy metabolism is essential for normal cell function and organism survival. PKM (pyruvate kinase, muscle) isoforms 1 and 2 originate from alternative splicing of PKM pre-mRNA. They are key enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis, respectively, and are essential for ATP generation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101802DOI Listing
February 2019

Using A Developmental Ecology Framework to Align Fear Neurobiology Across Species.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email: , , ,

Children's development is largely dependent on caregiving; when caregiving is disrupted, children are at increased risk for numerous poor outcomes, in particular psychopathology. Therefore, determining how caregivers regulate children's affective neurobiology is essential for understanding psychopathology etiology and prevention. Much of the research on affective functioning uses fear learning to map maturation trajectories, with both rodent and human studies contributing knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095727DOI Listing
February 2019

Kratom exposures reported to United States poison control centers: 2011-2017.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Feb 20:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

a Center for Injury Research and Policy , The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital , Columbus , OH , USA.

Context: Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia that has gained national attention in the United States for its increased use in the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain, as well as for concerns about its safety.

Methods: This study analyzes exposures to kratom reported to poison control centers (PCCs) in the United States during 2011-2017 from the National Poison Data System (NPDS).

Discussion: From 2011 through 2017, 1807 kratom exposures were reported to United States PCCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1569236DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploring the behavioral and cognitive phenotype of KBG syndrome.

Genes Brain Behav 2019 Feb 20:e12553. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands.

KBG syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, caused by dominant mutations in ANKRD11, that is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, mild craniofacial dysmorphisms, and short stature. Behavior and cognition have hardly been studied, but anecdotal evidence suggests higher frequencies of ADHD-symptoms and social-emotional impairments. In this study, behavioral and cognitive profile of KBG syndrome will be investigated in order to examine if and how cognitive deficits contribute to behavioral difficulties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12553DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy complications: An individual participant data meta-analysis of European, North American and Australian cohorts.

BJOG 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the separate and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with the risks of pregnancy complications and their population impact.

Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis of 39 cohorts.

Setting: Europe, North America and Oceania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.15661DOI Listing
February 2019

Psychotropic medication use trends in a large pediatric and young adult solid organ transplant population.

Pediatr Transplant 2019 Feb 20:e13380. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Boston Children's Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: This study describes psychotropic medication use in a pediatric and young adult solid organ transplant population.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the lifetime incidence of psychotropic medication use and associated characteristics in patients seen over a 6-year period at a large pediatric transplant center utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical analyses.

Results: The lifetime incidence of psychotropic medication use was 36. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13380DOI Listing
February 2019

Blastemal Predominant Type Wilms Tumors in Japan: Japan Children's Cancer Group.

Pediatr Int 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Persistence of blastemal components after chemotherapy is a marker of poor outcome in Wilms tumor. Recent reports from local Japanese areas have described prechemotherapy blastemal predominant type Wilms tumor to be also a risk factor for relapse. However, significance of blastemal predominant WT remains to be evaluated in a larger study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13811DOI Listing
February 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with sickle cell anemia: The parents' experience.

Pediatr Transplant 2019 Feb 20:e13376. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychopathology, Avicenne Hospital, Paris XIII University & Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Bobigny, France.

Genoidentical HSCT is currently the only curative treatment for SCA, preventing further vascular complications in high-risk children. Studies on the psychological implications of HSCT for recipient, sibling donor, and the rest of the family have been limited in SCA. This study enrolled ten families and used semi-structured interviews to explore the parents' experience at three time points: first before transplantation, then 3 months later, and 1 year later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13376DOI Listing
February 2019

Personal, Environmental, and Family Factors of Participation among Young Children.

Child Care Health Dev 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

CanChild, Department of Pediatrics, Institute for Applied Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the influences of environment, population characteristics, and service utilization on participation frequency and involvement in the home setting among children 0 to 5 years.

Method: Data was collected from parents of 236 children (mean age 3 years and 5 months, SD = 1.30, girls = 152, and boys = 84) using a children's treatment centre in Ontario through an online survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.12651DOI Listing
February 2019

Adrenal steroids in female hypothyroid neonates: Unraveling an association between thyroid hormones & adrenal remodeling.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, 1st Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Context: The adrenal gland undergoes significant remodeling during the neonatal period, an essential developmental process that still remains incompletely understood. With respect to control over the remodeling process and, specifically, the role of thyroid hormones (TH), no human studies have been published. The effect of both hypo- and hyper-thyroidism has only been evaluated in adults, focusing on the mature adrenal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02013DOI Listing
February 2019

FEMALE PATTERN HAIR LOSS AND ANDROGEN EXCESS: A REPORT FROM THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS COMMITTEE.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Dermatology and Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: To determine the current state of knowledge and provide evidence-based recommendations that could be valid for all specialists taking care of female pattern hair loss (FPHL), a common form of hair loss in women that is characterized by the reduction of hair density in the central area of the scalp, while the frontal hairline is generally well conserved.

Participants: An expert task force appointed by Androgen Excess and PPCOS society, which included specialists from dermatology, endocrinology, and reproductive endocrinology.

Evidence: Levels of evidence were assessed and graded from A to D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02548DOI Listing
February 2019

Health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children born preterm, low birthweight or small for gestational age: A nationwide cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0212130. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To examine health outcomes in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children experiencing perinatal risk and identify protective factors in the antenatal period.

Methods: Baby/Child cohorts of the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, born 2001-2008, across four annual surveys (aged 0-8 years, N = 1483). Children with 'mild' and 'moderate-to-high' perinatal risk were compared to children born normal weight at term for maternal-rated global health and disability, and body-mass-index measured by the interviewer. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212130PLOS
February 2019

Treatment cure rate and its predictors among children with severe acute malnutrition in northwest Ethiopia: A retrospective record review.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0211628. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: More than 29 million that is an estimated 5%, under-five children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) globally, with a nine times higher risk of mortality than that of well-nourished children. However, little is known regarding outcomes and predictors of SAM in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to determine treatment cure rate and its predictors among children aged 6-59 months with SAM admitted to a stabilization center. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211628PLOS
February 2019

Mapping the content of mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice towards universal newborn hearing screening for development of a KAP survey tool.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0210764. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Nelson Mandela School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Understanding mother's knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is essential for the success of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) as poor compliance and follow-up remains a global challenge. To determine content area for a questionnaire that measures PCHI-related KAP in rural mothers, we trained moderators who interviewed 145 pregnant women (17 groups) from 5 ante-natal clinics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, summarised and analysed using thematic framework analysis. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210764PLOS
February 2019

Immunogenicity and safety of the diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine when co-administered with the human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in healthy Japanese infants: a phase IV randomized study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 20:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

h Medicines Development Division , GSK , Tokyo , Japan.

Rotavirus infections have been reported to account for 40-50% of all hospitalized acute gastroenteritis cases in young children (<5 years) in Japan. Since 2011, Rotarix containing the live attenuated human rotavirus RIX4414 strain (HRV) has been licensed in Japan for infants. Vaccination against rotavirus is optional in Japan whereas administration of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and inactivated poliovirus (DPT-IPV) vaccine is part of the national routine immunization program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1564441DOI Listing
February 2019

Reflective Function and Borderline Traits in Adolescents.

J Pers Disord 2019 Feb 20:1-16. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Laval, Montreal, Canada.

Despite the developmental roots of the relation between attachment-based reflective function (RF) and borderline pathology, there is a lack of empirical studies examining this link in youth. We examined this link taking into account potential relations between RF and internalizing and externalizing pathology. A total of 421 clinical adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 completed the Child Attachment Interview (CAI; Shmueli-Goetz, Target, Fonagy, & Datta, 2008), which was coded using the Child and Adolescent Reflective Functioning Scale (CARFS; Ensink, Target, & Oandasan, 2013), alongside a self-report measure of borderline pathology and parent-reported measures of internalizing and externalizing pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2019_33_416DOI Listing
February 2019

Advancing the science of outcome measurement in paediatric palliative care.

Int J Palliat Nurs 2019 Feb;25(2):72-79

Professor and True Colours Chair in Palliative Care for Children and Young people, Louis Dundas Centre for Children's Palliative Care, Institute of Child Health, University College London.

Background:: There is a lack of appropriate, validated person-centred outcome measures (PCOM) for paediatric palliative care in the scientific literature, and as a result there is not a tool to drive and evaluate care of children and young people.

Methods:: In line with COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidance, an expert group was convened to elicit views on the domains/items to include in a PCOM, implementation challenges and requirements for use in routine care by practitioners. Data were content analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2019.25.2.72DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy vs Monotherapy With Psychiatric Rehospitalization Among Adults With Schizophrenia.

JAMA Psychiatry 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Importance: The effectiveness of antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia relapse prevention is controversial, and use of multiple agents is generally believed to impair physical well-being.

Objective: To study the association of specific antipsychotic combinations with psychiatric rehospitalization.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this nationwide cohort study, the risk of psychiatric rehospitalization was used as a marker for relapse among 62 250 patients with schizophrenia during the use of 29 different antipsychotic monotherapy and polypharmacy types between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2015, in a comprehensive, nationwide cohort in Finland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4320DOI Listing
February 2019

Mortality on the first day of life: trends, causes of death and avoidability in eight Brazilian Federative Units, between 2010 and 2015.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2019 Feb 18;28(1):e2018132. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Objective: to calculate mortality rates on the first day of life from 2010 to 2015 in eight Brazilian Federative Units providing better quality information, to assess associated factors and to classify deaths by underlying causes and avoidability.

Methods: this was a descriptive study; mortality rates were compared according to maternal and child characteristics; avoidability analysis used the 'Brazilian list of avoidable causes of death'.

Results: 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742019000100006DOI Listing
February 2019

Functionality of the support to the family of children with pneumonia.

Rev Gaucha Enferm 2019 Feb 18;40:e20180118. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Departamento de Enfermagem, Programa de Pós-Graduação. São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil.

Objective: To know the composition and functioning of the social support used by the family of children with pneumonia.

Methods: A qualitative study was carried out with fourteen families of children under five years old hospitalized for pneumonia, coming from regions of greater social vulnerability in a city in the state of São Paulo, from November 2015 to May 2016. The theoretical reference used was the Calgary Family Assessment Model, and the Bardin Thematic Content Analysis was used as method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2018.20180118DOI Listing
February 2019

EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOR OF LEVELS OF HMGB1 AND IL6 AS PREDICTORS OF INFECTION, ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AND MORTALITY IN CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS WITH VARICEAL BLEEDING.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):338-342

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Hospital das Clínicas, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Background: Gastroesophageal varices and associated bleeding are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients.

Objective: To evaluate the potential role of the biomarkers HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) and IL-6 (Interleukin-6) as predictors of infection, acute kidney injury and mortality in these patients.

Methods: It is a prospective, observational study that included 32 cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-2803.201800000-75DOI Listing

The effect of hirudin on antagonisting thrombin induced apoptosis of human microvascular endothelial cells1.

Acta Cir Bras 2019 Feb 14;34(1):e20190010000006. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

MD, Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision.

Purpose: To investigate whether hirudin exerts its antithrombin action to decrease the ratio of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVECs) apoptosis.

Methods: Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) cultured in the third and fifth generations were used. HMVECs were divided into normal group, thrombin group (T group), natrual hirudin group (H group), thrombin + natrual hirudin group (T + H group), AG490 group, thrombin + AG490 group (T + AG490 group), natrual hirudin + AG490 group (H + AG490 group), thrombin + natural hirudin + AG490 (T + H + AG490 group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020190010000006DOI Listing
February 2019

Effective vancomycin concentrations in children: a cross-sectional study.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2019 Feb 14;17(1):eAO4396. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Divinópolis, MG, Brazil.

Objective: Analyze the microbiological effectiveness, based on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics correlation of vancomycin in pediatric patients, and to propose dose adjustment.

Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in a pediatric hospital, over a 1-year period (2016 to 2017). Children of both sexes, aged 2 to 12 years, were included in the study; burn children, and children in renal replacement therapy were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2019AO4396DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of breastfeeding, maternal anthropometry and body composition in women at 30 years of age.

Cad Saude Publica 2019 Feb 18;35(2):e00122018. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brasil.

This study aimed at assessing the association of breastfeeding with maternal body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass index, fat free mass index, android/gynoid fat ratio and bone mineral density. In 1982, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were daily visited and all live births were identified and examined. These subjects underwent follow-up for several times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00122018DOI Listing
February 2019

The Namibian Children's Heart Project: a South-South partnership to provide cardiac care.

Cardiol Young 2019 Feb;29(2):206-213

2Division of Paediatric Cardiology,Department of Paediatrics and Child Health,University of Cape Town,Cape Town,South Africa.

IntroductionCongenital and acquired heart diseases are highly prevalent in developing countries despite limited specialised care. Namibia established a paediatric cardiac service in 2009 with significant human resource and infrastructural constraints. Therefore, patients are referred for cardiac interventions to South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951118002172DOI Listing
February 2019

"A complex interface: Exploring sickle cell disease from a parent's perspective, after moving from Sub-Saharan Africa to North America".

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2019 Feb 20:1-12. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

b Stollery Children's Hospital , Alberta Health Services , Edmonton , AB , Canada.

Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited, multi-system, chronic disease with the highest prevalence affecting people of Sub-Saharan African descent. While major advances in SCD care have occurred over the last few decades in many African countries these advances are not readily available. Prior literature from Ghana and Kenya describe stigma, despair, and economic burden as well as hope when a child has SCD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2018.1541949DOI Listing
February 2019

Shrunken pore syndrome, preeclampsia, and markers of NO metabolism in pregnant women during the first trimester.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2019 Feb 20:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

i Kantonsspital Graubünden , Zentrallabor , Chur , Switzerland.

Shrunken pore syndrome (SPS) is a condition that manifests itself as the decreased renal clearance of low-molecular-weight proteins but normal clearance of creatinine. Pregnant women with evidence of SPS during the first trimester have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia (PE). The nitric oxide (NO) metabolism markers arginine and ADMA, especially their ratio (Arg/ADMA), are recognized markers of endothelial dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365513.2019.1568150DOI Listing
February 2019

How Do Nutrition Guidelines Compare for Industry to Market Food and Beverage Products to Children? World Health Organization Nutrient Profile Standards Versus the US Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative.

Child Obes 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

3 Recipe for Success Foundation, Houston, TX.

Background: Food and beverage advertising targeting children influences their food choices, diets, and health. Experts have suggested that efforts on food marketing to children would be more effective if self-regulatory nutrition criteria were stronger. The US self-regulatory program, the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI), and the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe nutrient profile model use different approaches to set nutrition criteria for food marketing to children, making comparing the strength of their criteria challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2018.0256DOI Listing
February 2019

High Stimulation Index for Quail Egg Yolk After an Allergen-Specific Lymphocyte Stimulation Test in a Child With Quail Egg-Induced Food Protein- Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;29(1):66-68

Department of Allergy, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18176/jiaci.0334DOI Listing
February 2019

Anal tear in a girl due to the penetration of a dog's penis. Unusual case report.

J Forensic Leg Med 2019 Feb 6;62:112-114. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay.

We present the case of a six year and two months old girl who showed a large anal tear, attributed to the penetration of pet dog's penis. After several interviews with the child, as well as her parents, the paediatric psychiatrist assessed the account of events as authentic, understanding by that her narration of events approaches to the subject's truth. According with the guidelines the patient was discharged home with strict follow up by her paediatrician. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

miR-16 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by directly targeting TLR4 in acute lung injury.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 19;112:108664. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Neonatal Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of human death, and it is widely accepted that the runaway inflammation is an important risk for the development of ALI. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of miR-16 on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice, especially focusing on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-kB signaling pathway as well as NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. We established in vivo and in vitro model of ALI using LPS and demonstrated that miR-16 expression was down-regulated in lung tissue as well as A549 cells after 8 h of LPS treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108664DOI Listing
February 2019

Implementation and effectiveness of free health insurance for the poor pregnant women in Tanzania: A mixed methods evaluation.

Soc Sci Med 2019 Feb 10;225:17-25. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Demand side financing strategies have been a popular means of increasing coverage and availability of effective maternal and child health services in low and middle income countries (LMIC). However, most research to date has focused on the effects of demand side financing on the use and costs of care with less attention being paid to how they work to achieve outcomes. This study used a mixed methods evaluation to determine the effect of a targeted health insurance scheme on access to affordable quality maternal and child care, and assess implementation fidelity and how this affected programme outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Atrioventricular Valve Failure in Fontan Palliation.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 Feb;73(7):810-822

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Heart Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Atrioventricular valve failure (moderate or greater regurgitation, or valve operation) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients undergoing Fontan palliation.

Objectives: This study determined the incidence of atrioventricular valve failure and its clinical impact on patients undergoing Fontan palliation.

Methods: A retrospective cohort longitudinal study was conducted using patient data extracted from an existing bi-national, population-based registry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.12.025DOI Listing
February 2019

Integrating an early childhood development programme into Bangladeshi primary health-care services: an open-label, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Mar;7(3):e366-e375

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Poor development in young children in developing countries is a major problem. Child development experts are calling for interventions that aim to improve child development to be integrated into health services, but there are few robust evaluations of such programmes. Previous small Bangladeshi trials that used individual play sessions with mothers and their children (at home or in clinics), which were predominantly run by employed women, found moderate improvements on child development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30535-7DOI Listing

The effect of the Alive & Thrive initiative on exclusive breastfeeding in rural Burkina Faso: a repeated cross-sectional cluster randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Mar;7(3):e357-e365

MARCH Centre for Maternal, Adolescent, Reproductive & Child Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The benefits of exclusive breastfeeding on mortality, health, and development of children have been well documented. In Burkina Faso, the Alive & Thrive initiative combined interpersonal communication and community mobilisation activities with the aim of improving knowledge, beliefs, skills, and, ultimately, breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the Alive & Thrive initiative on exclusive breastfeeding in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30494-7DOI Listing

Scaling up child psychosocial stimulation programmes for young children.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Mar;7(3):e294-e295

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30018-XDOI Listing

Improving breastfeeding practices at scale.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Mar;7(3):e292-e293

Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland; Health Systems Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30557-6DOI Listing

Human and Extracellular DNA Depletion for Metagenomic Analysis of Complex Clinical Infection Samples Yields Optimized Viable Microbiome Profiles.

Cell Rep 2019 Feb;26(8):2227-2240.e5

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98105, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98105, USA; Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. Electronic address:

Metagenomic sequencing is a promising approach for identifying and characterizing organisms and their functional characteristics in complex, polymicrobial infections, such as airway infections in people with cystic fibrosis. These analyses are often hampered, however, by overwhelming quantities of human DNA, yielding only a small proportion of microbial reads for analysis. In addition, many abundant microbes in respiratory samples can produce large quantities of extracellular bacterial DNA originating either from biofilms or dead cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.091DOI Listing
February 2019

Transgender Children and the Right to Transition: Medical Ethics When Parents Mean Well but Cause Harm.

Authors:
Maura Priest

Am J Bioeth 2019 Feb;19(2):45-59

a Arizona State University.

In this article, I argue that (1) transgender adolescents should have the legal right to access puberty-blocking treatment (PBT) without parental approval, and (2) the state has a role to play in publicizing information about gender dysphoria. Not only are transgender children harmed psychologically and physically via lack of access to PBT, but PBT is the established standard of care. Given that we generally think that parental authority should not go so far as to (1) severally and permanently harm a child and (2) prevent a child from access to standard physical care, then it follows that parental authority should not encompass denying gender-dysphoric children access to PBT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2018.1557276DOI Listing
February 2019

A role for the microbiome in mother-infant interaction and perinatal depression.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2019 Feb 20:1-15. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

a Department of Psychiatry , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.

Perinatal depression is a significant public health problem, due to its negative impact on maternal well-being and long-term adverse effects for children. Mother-infant interaction and maternal responsiveness and sensitivity are a hypothesized mechanism by which perinatal depression effects child development, and increasing research in the microbiota-gut-brain axis may provide a new avenue of investigation. There is limited efficacy for treatment of perinatal depression for improving the mother-infant relationship and child outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2018.1548431DOI Listing
February 2019

Computerized versus manual versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Implications with typically developing and ADHD children.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2019 Feb 20:1-16. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

b Department of Humanities , Education and Social Sciences of the Adventista del Plata University , Entre Ríos , Argentina.

The aims of Study 1 (S1) were (a) to compare the task performance of 361 typically developing (TD) children aged 7 to 12 years, according to the mode of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) administration (manual vs. computerized) and b) to examine the contributions of executive functions (EFs) (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2019.1570198DOI Listing
February 2019

Multimodal prevention of first psychotic episode through N-acetyl-l-cysteine and integrated preventive psychological intervention in individuals clinically at high risk for psychosis: Protocol of a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Aim: Meta-analyses indicate positive effects of both antipsychotic and cognitive-behavioural interventions in subjects clinically at high risk (CHR) for psychosis in terms of a delay or prevention of psychotic disorders. However, these effects have been limited regarding social functioning and the relative efficacy of both types of interventions remains unclear. Furthermore, neuroprotective substances seem to be a promising alternative agent in psychosis-prevention as they are associated with few and weak side-effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12781DOI Listing
February 2019

Defining the role of surgical drainage in paediatric deep neck space infections.

Clin Otolaryngol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Eaton Road, Liverpool, L12 2AP.

Objectives: Surgical drainage is the traditional mainstay of treatment of paediatric deep neck space infection (DNSI), but recently non-operative management in selected cases has been advocated. We sought to identify any characteristics predictive of requirement for surgical intervention.

Design: Retrospective cohort study using receiver-operating characteristics analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13315DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessing the cost-effectiveness of a fluoride varnish programme in Chile: The use of a decision analytic model in dentistry.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: This study illustrates the use of a decision analytic model (DAM) to evaluate whether fluoride varnish application (FV) increases the proportion of caries-free children in the Chilean preschool population, at an acceptable cost.

Methods: Different FV interventions were compared with an oral health counselling-only intervention. The FV interventions were tested (with and without screening) every 6 months over 2 years, in either a preschool setting or during a well-child programme appointment in a primary care setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12447DOI Listing
February 2019

Practices That Support and Sustain Health in Schools: An Analysis of SHPPS Data.

J Sch Health 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE (Mailstop F-78), Atlanta, GA 30329.

Background: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model provides an organizing framework for schools to develop and implement school health policies, practices, and programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of practices that support school health for each component of the WSCC model in US schools.

Methods: Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2014 were analyzed to determine the percentage of schools with practices in place that support school health for WSCC components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josh.12742DOI Listing
February 2019

Intra-articular mucilages: behavioural and histological evaluations for a new model of articular pain.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

NEUROFARBA - Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Objectives: The creation of a new valid preclinical model of articular pain by the intra-articular (i.a.) injection of mucilages for the screening of new treatments against arthritis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13078DOI Listing
February 2019

Clinical and biological features of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with primary induction failure in the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study.

Br J Haematol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The prognosis of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with primary induction failure (PIF) is extremely poor, and effective treatment strategies have not been established. We investigated the clinical and biological features of paediatric AML patients with PIF registered to the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study. The 3-year overall survival rate of the 41 PIF patients was 19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15799DOI Listing
February 2019
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