15,332 results match your criteria Journal of Cell Science [Journal]


MreB promotes polar IcsA positioning for actin tail formation.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Section of Microbiology, MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, Armstrong Road, London, UK

is a paradigm to address key issues of cell and infection biology. Polar localisation of the autotransporter protein IcsA is essential for actin tail formation, yet how proteins are targeted to the bacterial cell pole is poorly understood. The bacterial actin homologue MreB has been extensively studied in broth culture using model organisms including and , but has never been visualised in rod-shaped pathogenic bacteria during infection of host cells. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.226217
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226217DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Connexin 43 maintains tissue polarity and regulates mitotic spindle orientation in the breast epithelium.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA

Cell-cell communication is essential for tissue homeostasis, but its contribution to disease prevention remains to be understood. We demonstrate the involvement of connexin 43 (Cx43) and related gap junction in epithelial homeostasis illustrated by polarity-mediated cell cycle entry and mitotic spindle orientation (MSO). Cx43 is restricted to the apicolateral membrane of phenotypically normal breast luminal epithelial cells in 3D culture and Chemically-induced blockade of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) as well as the absence of Cx43 disrupt the apicolateral distribution of polarity determinant, tight junction marker ZO-1 and lead to random MSO and cell multilayering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.223313DOI Listing

Homeostasis of soluble proteins and the proteasome post nuclear envelope reformation in mitosis.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Oncode Institute, Leiden University Medical Center LUMC, Leiden NL, USA

Upon Nuclear envelope (NE) fragmentation in the prometaphase the nuclear and cytosolic proteomes blend and must be redefined to reinstate homeostasis. Using a molecular GFP ladder, we show that in early mitosis, condensed chromatin excludes cytosolic proteins. When the NE reforms tightly around condensed chromatin in late mitosis, large GFP multimers are automatically excluded from the nucleus. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.225524
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225524DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Supracellular migration - beyond collective cell migration.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 15;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK

Collective cell migration is a highly complex process in which groups of cells move together. A fundamental question is how cell ensembles can migrate efficiently. In some cases, the group is no more than a collection of individual cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226142DOI Listing

A unique role for clathrin light chain a in cell spreading and migration.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Signaling Program of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA

Clathrin heavy chain is the structural component of the clathrin triskelion, but unique functions for the two distinct and highly conserved clathrin light chains (CLCa and CLCb) have been elusive. Here we show that following detachment and replating, CLCa is uniquely responsible for promoting efficient cell spreading and migration. Selective depletion of CLCa, but not of CLCb, reduced the initial phase of isotropic spreading of HeLa, H1299 and HEK293 cells by 60-80% compared to siRNA controls, and wound closure and motility by ≈50%. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.224030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224030DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

STIM1 phosphorylation at Y modulates its interaction with SARAF and the activation of SOCE and .

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Physiology, Cell Physiology Research Group, Institute of Molecular Pathology Biomarkers, University of Extremadura. 10003-Caceres. Spain

Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is one of the key elements for the activation of store- operated calcium entry (SOCE). Identification of the relevant phosphorylatable STIM1 residues with a possible role in the regulation of STIM1 function and SOCE might be of interest. Using computational analysis, we have identified that the Y residue is susceptible to be phosphorylated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226019DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Catabolic activity of osteoblast-lineage cells contributes to osteoclastic bone resorption .

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Clinical Cell Biology, Vejle Hospital/Lillebaelt Hospital, Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, 7100 Vejle, Denmark

Osteoblast-lineage cells in bone human were recently shown to colonize eroded bone surfaces and to closely interact with osteoclasts. They proved identical with reversal cells and are believed to differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts thereby coupling resorption and formation. However, they also exert catabolic activity that contributes to osteoclastic bone resorption, but this has not received much attention. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.229351
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.229351DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Transcytosis maintains CFTR apical polarity in the face of constitutive and mutation-induced basolateral missorting.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada

Apical polarity of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is essential for solute and water transport in secretory epithelia and can be impaired in human diseases. Maintenance of apical polarity in the face of CFTR non-polarized delivery and inefficient apical retention of mutant CFTRs lacking PDZ-domain protein (NHERF1) interaction, remains enigmatic. Here we show that basolateral CFTR delivery originates from biosynthetic (∼35%) and endocytic (∼65%) recycling missorting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226886DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The route of the visual receptor, rhodopsin, along the cilium.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurobiology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, USA

The photoreceptor outer segment is the most elaborate primary cilium, containing large amounts of rhodopsin (RHO) in disk membranes that grow from a connecting cilium. The movement of RHO along the connecting cilium precedes formation of the disk membranes. However, the route that RHO takes has not been clearly determined; some reports suggest that it follows an intracellular, vesicular route along the axoneme, possibly as an adaptation for the high load of delivery or the morphogenesis of the disk endomembranes. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.229526
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.229526DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Very-long-chain fatty acid elongase Elo2 rescues lethal defects associated with loss of the nuclear barrier function.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan

In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are confined to the nucleus, which is compartmentalized by the nuclear membranes. The nuclear membranes are continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Maintaining the homeostasis of these membranes is an important cellular activity performed by lipid metabolic enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.229021DOI Listing

Sexual dimorphism, estrous cycle and laterality determine intrinsic and synaptic properties of medial amygdala neurons.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 90170-050, RS, Brazil

The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a sex-steroid-sensitive area that modulates different social behavior by relaying chemosensorial information to hypothalamic nuclei. However, little is known about cell type diversity and their functional connectivity. Here, we have characterized neurons and synaptic inputs in the right and left MePD of adult male and cycling female (in diestrus, proestrus or estrus) rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.227793DOI Listing

ERK1/2 phosphorylates HIF-2α and regulates its activity by controlling its CRM1-dependent nuclear shuttling.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 8;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41500, Biopolis, Larissa, Greece

Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2) is a principal component of the cellular response to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). Its inducible subunit, HIF-2α (also known as EPAS1), is controlled by oxygen-dependent as well as oxygen-independent mechanisms, such as phosphorylation. We show here that HIF-2α is phosphorylated under hypoxia (1% O) by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2; also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) at serine residue 672, as identified by phosphorylation assays Mutation of this site to an alanine residue or inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway decreases HIF-2 transcriptional activity and causes HIF-2α to mislocalize to the cytoplasm without changing its protein expression levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225698DOI Listing

Survivin at a glance.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 4;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

The Wistar Institute Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Survivin (also known as BIRC5) is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein that is essential for cell division and can inhibit cell death. Normally it is only expressed in actively proliferating cells, but is upregulated in most, if not all cancers; consequently, it has received significant attention as a potential oncotherapeutic target. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we summarise our knowledge of survivin 21 years on from its initial discovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.223826DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Bacterial mechanosensing: the force will be with you, always.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear Dynamics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Whether bacteria are in the planktonic state, free-swimming or free-floating in liquid, or in the biofilm state, sessile on surfaces, they are always subject to mechanical forces. The long, successful evolutionary history of bacteria implies that they are capable of adapting to varied mechanical forces, and probably even actively respond to mechanical cues in their changing environments. However, the sensing of mechanical cues by bacteria, or bacterial mechanosensing, has been under-investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.227694DOI Listing

The N-end Rule Pathway and Ubr1 enforce protein compartmentalization via P2-encoded cellular location signals.

Authors:
Anthony Tran

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

National University of Singapore, Department of Biological Sciences, Singapore 117604

The Arg/N-end Rule Pathway and Ubr1, an E3 ligase conserved from yeast to humans, is involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins in the cytosol. However, the root physiological purpose of this activity is not completely understood. Through a systematic examination of single residue P2-position mutants of misfolded proteins, and global and targeted bioinformatic analyses of the yeast proteome, we determined that Ubr1 preferentially targets mistranslocated secretory and mitochondrial proteins in the cytosol. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.231662
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.231662DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Cortical mitochondria regulate insulin secretion by local Ca buffering.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, BMC Box 571, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden

Mitochondria play an essential role in regulating insulin secretion from beta cells by providing ATP needed for the membrane depolarization that results in voltage-dependent Ca influx and subsequent insulin granule exocytosis. Ca, in turn, is also rapidly taken up by the mitochondria and exerts important feedback regulation of metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine if the distribution of mitochondria within beta cells is important for the secretory capacity of these cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.228544DOI Listing

ArhGEF37 assists Dynamin2 during Clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

DFG Cluster of Excellence 'Cells in Motion', University of Muenster, Germany

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) engages over 30 proteins to secure efficient cargo and membrane uptake. While the function of most core CME components is well established, auxiliary mechanisms critical for fine-tuning and adaptation remain largely elusive. In this study, we identify ArhGEF37, a currently uncharacterized protein, as novel constituent of CME. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226530DOI Listing

New quantitative approach reveals heterogeneity in mitochondrial structure-function relations in tumor initiating cells.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA

Steady-state mitochondrial structure or morphology is primarily maintained by a balance of opposing fission and fusion events between individual mitochondria, which is collectively referred to as mitochondrial dynamics. The details of the bidirectional relationship between the status of mitochondrial dynamics (structure) and energetics (function) require methods to integrate these mitochondrial aspects. To study the quantitative relationship between the status of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, matrix continuity and diameter) and energetics (ATP and redox), we have developed an analytical approach called mito-SinCe After validating and providing proof of principal, we applied mito-SinCe on ovarian tumor initiating cells (ovTICs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.230755DOI Listing

Crosstalk of PD-1 signaling with SIRT1/FOXO-1 axis in progression of visceral leishmaniasis.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032, India

Earlier we documented the role of PD-1 pathway in macrophage apoptosis and the down-regulation of this signaling during infection by intra-macrophage parasite But, during late phase of infection, PD-1 expression was significantly increased without activating host cell apoptosis and its inhibition led to markedly decreased parasite survival, along with increased production of TNFα, IL-12, ROS and NO. Increased PD-1 led to inactivation of AKT resulting in nuclear sequestration of FOXO-1. Transfecting infected cells with constitutively active FOXO-1 (CA-FOXO) led to increased cell death thereby suggesting that nuclear FOXO-1 might be inactivated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226274DOI Listing

Evidence for a regulated Ca entry in proximal tubular cells and its implication in calcium stone formation.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Calcium Signaling Laboratory, Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 50 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC, USA

Calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals, which begin to form in the early segments of the loop of Henle (LOH), are known to act as precursors for calcium stone formation. Proximal tubule (PT), just upstream to LOH, a major site for Ca reabsorption, could be a regulator to such CaP crystal formation. However, PT Ca reabsorption is mostly described as paracellular. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.225268
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225268DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads
5.432 Impact Factor

Nucleotide exchange factor Rab3GEP requires DENN and non-DENN elements for activation and targeting of Rab27a.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK

Rab GTPases are compartment-specific molecular switches that regulate intracellular vesicular transport in eukaryotes. GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) control Rab activation, and current models propose that localised and regulated GEF activity is important in targeting Rabs to specific membranes. Here we investigated the mechanism of GEF function using the Rab27a-GEF, Rab3GEP, in melanocytes as a model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.212035DOI Listing

XMAP215 promotes microtubule-F-actin interactions to regulate growth cone microtubules during axon guidance.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA

It has long been established that neuronal growth cone navigation depends on changes in microtubule (MT) and F-actin architecture downstream of guidance cues. However, the mechanisms by which MTs and F-actin are dually-coordinated remain a fundamentally unresolved question. Here, we report that the well-characterized MT polymerase, XMAP215, plays an important role in mediating MT-F-actin interaction within the growth cone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224311DOI Listing

Genome-wide identification of alternative splicing events that regulate protein transport across the secretory pathway.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laboratory of RNA Biochemistry, Takustrasse 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany

Alternative splicing (AS) strongly increases proteome diversity and functionality in eukaryotic cells. Protein secretion is a tightly-controlled process, especially in a tissue-specific and differentiation-dependent manner. While previous work has focussed on transcriptional and post-translational regulatory mechanisms, the impact of AS on the secretory pathway remains largely unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.230201DOI Listing

β1D-integrin splice variant stabilizes integrin dynamics and reduces integrin signaling by limiting paxillin recruitment.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva, Centre Médical Universitaire, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland

Heterodimeric integrin receptors control cell adhesion, migration and extracellular matrix assembly. While the β-subunit determines extracellular ligand specificity, the β-integrin chain binds to an acidic residue of the ligand, and cytoplasmic adapter proteins like talin, kindlin and paxillin, to form mechanosensing cell-matrix adhesions. Alternative splicing of the β1-integrin cytoplasmic tail creates ubiquitously expressed β1A and the heart and skeletal muscle specific β1D-form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224493DOI Listing

Nuclear actin interactome analysis links actin to KAT14 histone acetyl transferase and mRNA splicing.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 17;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland

In addition to its essential functions within the cytoskeleton, actin also localizes to the cell nucleus, where it is linked to many important nuclear processes from gene expression to maintenance of genomic integrity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which actin operates in the nucleus remain poorly understood. Here, we have used two complementary mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, AP-MS and BioID, to identify binding partners for nuclear actin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226852DOI Listing

Message in a vesicle - trans-kingdom intercommunication at the vector-host interface.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 18;132(6). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA

Vector-borne diseases cause over 700,000 deaths annually and represent 17% of all infectious illnesses worldwide. This public health menace highlights the importance of understanding how arthropod vectors, microbes and their mammalian hosts interact. Currently, an emphasis of the scientific enterprise is at the vector-host interface where human pathogens are acquired and transmitted. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.224212
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451414PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 18;132(6). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W. State St., LILY G-227, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

We describe a method, termed cryoAPEX, which couples chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing of cells with peroxidase tagging (APEX) to allow precise localization of membrane proteins in the context of a well-preserved subcellular membrane architecture. Further, cryoAPEX is compatible with electron tomography. As an example, we apply cryoAPEX to obtain a high-resolution three-dimensional contextual map of the human FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein, HYPE (also known as FICD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.222315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451417PMC

suppression during the murine fetal period optimizes ovarian development by fine-tuning Notch signaling.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 15;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Medical Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

The nuclear receptor NR5A1 is equally expressed and required for development of the gonadal primordia of both sexes, but, after sex determination, it is upregulated in XY testes and downregulated in XX ovaries. We have recently demonstrated, in mice, that this downregulation is mediated by forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) and hypothesized that adequate suppression of is essential for normal ovarian development. Further, analysis of human patients with disorders/differences of sex development suggests that overexpression of can result in XX (ovo)testicular development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.223768DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
5.432 Impact Factor

Dynein activators and adaptors at a glance.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 15;132(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Cytoplasmic dynein-1 (hereafter dynein) is an essential cellular motor that drives the movement of diverse cargos along the microtubule cytoskeleton, including organelles, vesicles and RNAs. A long-standing question is how a single form of dynein can be adapted to a wide range of cellular functions in both interphase and mitosis. Recent progress has provided new insights - dynein interacts with a group of activating adaptors that provide cargo-specific and/or function-specific regulation of the motor complex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.227132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451413PMC

MYO1C stabilizes actin and facilitates arrival of transport carriers at the Golgi apparatus.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Molecular Mechanisms of Intracellular Transport group, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France

We aim to identify the myosin motor proteins that control trafficking at the Golgi apparatus. In addition to the known Golgi-associated myosins MYO6, MYO18A and MYH9 (myosin IIA), we identify MYO1C as a novel player at the Golgi. We demonstrate that depletion of MYO1C induces Golgi apparatus fragmentation and decompaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225029DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The juvenility-associated long noncoding RNA maintains cellular juvenescence.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 16;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center (MNRC), Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan

Juvenile animals possess distinct properties that are missing in adults. These properties include capabilities for higher growth, faster wound healing, plasticity and regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these juvenile physiological properties are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.227801DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Multiple feedback mechanisms fine-tune Rho signaling to regulate morphogenetic outcomes.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 17;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Cell and Developmental Biology Department, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19146, USA

Rho signaling is a conserved mechanism for generating forces through activation of contractile actomyosin. How this pathway can produce different cell morphologies is poorly understood. In the embryonic epithelium, we investigate how Rho signaling controls force asymmetry to drive morphogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224378DOI Listing

Troponin-I mediates the localization of selected apico-basal cell polarity signaling proteins.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 15;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, Instituto Cajal, C.S.I.C., Ave. Dr. Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain

Beyond its role in muscle contraction, Troponin I (TnI; also known as Wings up A) is expressed in epithelial cells where it controls proliferation. TnI traffics between nucleus and cytoplasm through a sumoylation-dependent mechanism. We address here the role of TnI in the cytoplasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225243DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Rho-family GEF FARP2 is activated by aPKCι to control polarity and tight junction formation.

J Cell Sci 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NE1 1AT, UK

The elaboration of polarity is central to organismal development and to the maintenance of functional epithelia. Amongst the controls determining polarity are the PAR proteins, PAR6/aPKCι/PAR3, regulating both known and unknown effectors. Here we identify FARP2 as a "RIPR" motif dependent partner and substrate of aPKCι that is required for efficient polarisation and junction formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.223743DOI Listing

Reliable imaging of ATP in living budding and fission yeast.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 17;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Gunma University Initiative for Advanced Research (GIAR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512, Japan

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a main metabolite essential for all living organisms. However, our understanding of ATP dynamics within a single living cell is very limited. Here, we optimized the ATP-biosensor QUEEN and monitored the dynamics of ATP with good spatial and temporal resolution in living yeasts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.230649DOI Listing

Nuclear speckle fusion via long-range directional motion regulates speckle morphology after transcriptional inhibition.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 17;132(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Biophysics and Quantitative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Although the formation of RNA-protein bodies has been studied intensively, their mobility and how their number and size are regulated are still poorly understood. Here, we show significantly increased mobility of nuclear speckles after transcriptional inhibition, including long-range directed motion of one speckle towards another speckle, terminated by speckle fusion, over distances up to 4 µm and with velocities between 0.2 µm/min and 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226563DOI Listing

A nuclear localization signal targets tail-anchored membrane proteins to the inner nuclear envelope in plants.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Protein targeting to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is one of the least understood protein targeting pathways. INM proteins are important for chromatin organization, nuclear morphology and movement, and meiosis, and have been implicated in human diseases. In opisthokonts, one mechanism for INM targeting is transport factor-mediated trafficking, in which nuclear localization signals (NLSs) function in nuclear import of transmembrane proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226134DOI Listing

Microtubule acetylation but not detyrosination promotes focal adhesion dynamics and astrocyte migration.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 5;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Cell Polarity, Migration and Cancer Unit, Institut Pasteur, UMR3691 CNRS, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, F-75015 Paris, France

Microtubules play a crucial role in mesenchymal migration by controlling cell polarity and the turnover of cell adhesive structures on the extracellular matrix. The polarized functions of microtubules imply that microtubules are locally regulated. Here, we investigated the regulation and role of two major tubulin post-translational modifications, acetylation and detyrosination, which have been associated with stable microtubules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225805DOI Listing

Talin-mediated force transmission and talin rod domain unfolding independently regulate adhesion signaling.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology and BioMediTech, Tampere University, Tampere 33014, Finland

Talin protein is one of the key components in integrin-mediated adhesion complexes. Talins transmit mechanical forces between β-integrin and actin, and regulate adhesion complex composition and signaling through the force-regulated unfolding of talin rod domain. Using modified talin proteins, we demonstrate that these functions contribute to different cellular processes and can be dissected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226514DOI Listing

Distinct functions of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase in nerve terminal growth and synaptic vesicle cycling.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 5;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada

Sustained neurotransmission requires the tight coupling of synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and endocytosis. The mechanisms underlying this coupling are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), encoded by the () gene in , is critical for this process using a null mutant, genomic rescues and tissue-specific rescues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.227165DOI Listing
April 2019
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SUMOylation of the nuclear pore complex basket is involved in sensing cellular stresses.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Pathologie et Virologie Moléculaire, INSERM, CNRS, Hôpital St. Louis, 75475 Paris, France

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the major conduit for nucleocytoplasmic transport and serves as a platform for gene regulation and DNA repair. Several nucleoporins undergo ubiquitylation and SUMOylation, and these modifications play an important role in nuclear pore dynamics and plasticity. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of these post-translational modifications of yeast nuclear basket proteins under normal growth conditions as well as upon cellular stresses, with a focus on SUMOylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224279DOI Listing
April 2019
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Organization and function of tension-dependent complexes at adherens junctions.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Waksman Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA

Adherens junctions provide attachments between neighboring epithelial cells and a physical link to the cytoskeleton, which enables them to sense and transmit forces and to initiate biomechanical signaling. Examination of the Ajuba LIM protein Jub in embryos revealed that it is recruited to adherens junctions in tissues experiencing high levels of myosin activity, and that the pattern of Jub recruitment varies depending upon how tension is organized. In cells with high junctional myosin, Jub is recruited to puncta near intercellular vertices, which are distinct from Ena-containing puncta, but can overlap Vinc-containing puncta. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224063DOI Listing

Ptp4E regulates vesicular packaging for monoamine-neuropeptide co-transmission.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

Many neurons influence their targets through co-release of neuropeptides and small-molecule transmitters. Neuropeptides are packaged into dense-core vesicles (DCVs) in the soma and then transported to synapses, while small-molecule transmitters such as monoamines are packaged by vesicular transporters that function at synapses. These separate packaging mechanisms point to activity, by inducing co-release as the sole scaler of co-transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.224568DOI Listing
April 2019
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NHX-type Na(K)/H antiporters are required for TGN/EE trafficking and endosomal ion homeostasis in .

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 8;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBiosciences, 5 Ring Road, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia

The regulation of ion and pH homeostasis of endomembrane organelles is critical for functional protein trafficking, sorting and modification in eukaryotic cells. pH homeostasis is maintained through the activity of vacuolar H-ATPases (V-ATPases) pumping protons (H) into the endomembrane lumen, and counter-action by cation/proton exchangers, such as the NHX family of Na(K)/H exchangers. In plants, V-ATPase activity at the -Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) is important for secretory and endocytic trafficking; however, the role of the endosomal antiporters NHX5 and NHX6 in endomembrane trafficking is unclear. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.226472
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226472DOI Listing
April 2019
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DSS-induced damage to basement membranes is repaired by matrix replacement and crosslinking.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 8;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37240-7935, USA

Basement membranes are an ancient form of animal extracellular matrix. As important structural and functional components of tissues, basement membranes are subject to environmental damage and must be repaired while maintaining functions. Little is known about how basement membranes get repaired. Read More

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http://jcs.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jcs.226860
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.226860DOI Listing
April 2019
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NIK-IKK complex interaction controls NF-κB-dependent inflammatory activation of endothelium in response to LTβR ligation.

J Cell Sci 2019 Apr 3;132(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, SE-431 83 Mölndal, Sweden.

NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK; also known as MAP3K14) is a central regulator of non-canonical NF-κB signaling in response to stimulation of TNF receptor superfamily members, such as the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR), and is implicated in pathological angiogenesis associated with chronic inflammation and cancer. Here, we identify a previously unrecognized role of the LTβR-NIK axis during inflammatory activation of human endothelial cells (ECs). Engagement of LTβR-triggered canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling promoted expression of inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules, and increased immune cell adhesion to ECs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.225615DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads