30,878 results match your criteria Journal of Applied Physiology[Journal]


CORRIGENDUM.

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J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr;126(4):1173

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.zdg-3016-corr.2019DOI Listing

Letter to the Editor: Two of the significant omissions from a "general" model of respiratory energy transduction.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr;126(4):1171

Deviot Institute, Deviot, Tasmania, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00986.2018DOI Listing

CORRIGENDUM.

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J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr;126(4):1174

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.zdg-3015-corr.2019DOI Listing

Reply to "Letter to the Editor: Two of the significant omissions from a 'general' model of respiratory energy transduction".

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr;126(4):1172

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01055.2018DOI Listing

Effect of assuming constant tissue scattering on measured tissue oxygenation values during tissue ischemia and vascular reperfusion.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, United States.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of assuming constant tissue scattering properties on tissue oxygenation measurements during a vascular occlusion test (VOT). 21 subjects (21.8 ± 1. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.01138.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01138.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of short-term sprint interval and moderate-intensity continuous training on liver fat, lipoprotein profile and substrate uptake: a randomized trial.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland.

Aims/hypothesis: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and increased liver fat content (LFC) alter lipoprotein profile and composition and impair liver substrate uptake. Exercise training mitigates T2D and reduces LFC, but the benefits of different training intensities on lipoprotein classes and liver substrate uptake are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous (MICT) or sprint interval training (SIT) on LFC, liver substrate uptake, and lipoprotein profile in subjects with normoglycemia or prediabetes/T2D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00900.2018DOI Listing

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AND UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE IN DIAPHRAGM MUSCLE DYSFUNCTION OF PATIENTS WITH STABLE CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Pulmonology Department-Muscle and Respiratory System Research Unit (URMAR), CEXS, IMIM-Hospital del Mar, UPF, CIBERES, Spain.

Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic contractile activity induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response UPR in animals (animals and humans). We hypothesized that the respiratory muscle dysfunction associated with COPD may upregulate ER stress and UPR expression in diaphragm of stable patients with different degrees of airway obstruction and normal body composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00670.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Anti-apoptotic and Mitochondrial Biogenetic Effects of Exercise Training on Ovariectomized Hypertensive Rat Hearts.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

School of Physical Therapy, Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taiwan.

Background: This study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on anti-apoptotic pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis in ovariectomized hypertensive rats.

Methods: Histopathological analysis, TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which were divided into a sham-operated sedentary hypertensive (SHR-S), a sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHR-O), and hypertensive ovariectomized rats which underwent treadmill exercise training (SHR-OT, 60 min/day, 5 days/week) for 8 weeks, along with normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY).

Results: When compared with the WKY group, the SHR-S group exhibited decreased protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial OPA-1 (mitochondrial biogenesis) and decreased further in the SHR-O group. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00038.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00038.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Consecutive bouts of electrical stimulation-induced contractions alter ribosome biogenesis in rat skeletal muscle.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan.

Ribosome biogenesis has been implicated in resistance exercise training (RET)-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, it is unclear how increasing bouts of RET affects ribosome content and biogenesis. This was investigated in the present study using simulated RET where rat skeletal muscle is subjected to increasing bouts of electrical stimulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00665.2018DOI Listing

Efficacy and safety of 20% albumin fluid loading in healthy subjects: a comparison of four resuscitation fluids.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Flinders University, Australia.

Recently, buffered salt solutions and 20% albumin (small volume resuscitation) have been advocated as an alternative fluid for intravenous resuscitation. The relative comparative efficacy and potential adverse effects of these solutions have not been evaluated. In a randomized, double blind, cross over study of 6 healthy male subjects we compared the pulmonary and hemodynamic effects of intravenous administration of 30 ml/kg of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01058.2018DOI Listing

Oxygen dependence of glucose sensing: Role in glucose homeostasis and related pathology.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, United States.

In glucose homeostasis, glucose concentration is sensed by its metabolism through glucokinase (GCK) and oxidative phosphorylation. Since oxidative phosphorylation is an integral part of the sensory system, glucose sensing is necessarily dependent on oxygen pressure. Much of the dependence on oxygen is suppressed by location of glucose sensing cells in tissues with well regulated blood flow. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00047.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00047.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

EFFECTS OF TRAINING, DETRAINING, AND RETRAINING ON STRENGTH, HYPERTROPHY, AND MYONUCLEAR NUMBER IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway, Norway.

Previously trained mouse muscles acquire strength and volume faster than naïve muscles; it has been suggested that this is related to increased myonuclear density. The present study aimed to determine whether a previously strength-trained leg (mem-leg) would respond better to a period of strength training than a previously untrained leg (con-leg). Nine men and 10 women performed unilateral strength training (T1) for 10 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of detraining (DT) and a 5-week bilateral retraining period (T2). Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

The Alcohol Breath Test in Practice: Effects of Exhaled Volume.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Washington, United States.

Alcohol breath test (ABT) measurements are sensitive to the volume of the exhaled breath. While a minimum breath volume is required for a legally acceptable sample, any additional increase in the volume of exhaled air increases the measurement of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). Using a sample of 115 ABTs collected by police agencies for evidentiary purposes, we studied the influence of exhaled air volume on the measurement of BrAC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00726.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

micro(RNA)-managing muscle wasting.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

IACD, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Progressive skeletal muscle wasting is a natural consequence of aging and is common in chronic and acute diseases. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (strength) often leads to frailty, decreased independence and increased risk of hospitalization. Despite progress made in our understanding of mechanisms underlying muscle wasting, there is still no treatment available, with exercise training and dietary supplementation improving, but not restoring muscle mass and/or function. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00961.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00961.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Effects of PDE5 inhibition on dystrophic muscle following an acute bout of downhill running and endurance training.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, United States.

Lack of sarcolemma-localized neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ) contributes to muscle damage and fatigue in dystrophic muscle. In this study, we examined the effects of compensating for lack of nNOSμ with a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor in mdxmice following downhill running and endurance training.

Methods: Dystrophic mice ( mdx) were treated with sildenafil citrate and compared to untreated mdxand wild-type mice after an acute bout of downhill running and during a progressive low-intensity treadmill running program (five days/week, four weeks). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00664.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
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Delineating the age-related attenuation of vascular function:Evidence supporting the efficacy of the single passive leg movement technique.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

VA Medical Center, University of Utah, United States.

Continuous passive leg movement (PLM) is a promising clinical assessment of the age related decline in peripheral vascular function. To further refine PLM, this study evaluated the efficacy of a single PLM (sPLM), a simplified variant of the more established continuous movement approach, to delineate between healthy young and old males based on vascular function.

Methods: Twelve young (26±5 yr) and twelve old (70±7 yr) subjects underwent sPLM (a single passive flexion and extension of the knee joint through 90º), with leg blood flow (LBF, common femoral artery with Doppler ultrasound), blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography), and leg vascular conductance (LVC) assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01084.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Angiotensin II suppresses autophagy and disrupts the ultrastructural morphology and function of mitochondria in mouse skeletal muscle.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Medicine, University of Missouri, United States.

Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced skeletal muscle wasting is characterized by activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the potential involvement of the proteolytic system macroautophagy/autophagy in this wasting process remains elusive. Autophagy is precisely regulated to maintain cell survival and homeostasis, thus its dysregulation ( i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Mechanical properties, physiological behavior and function of aponeurosis and tendon.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences,, Denmark.

During human movement, the muscle and tendinous structures interact as a mechanical system in which forces are generated and transmitted to the bone, and energy is stored and released to optimize function and economy of movement and/or to reduce risk of injury. The present review addresses certain aspects of how the anatomical design and mechanical and material properties of the force transmitting tissues contribute to the function of the muscle-tendon unit and thus overall human function. The force bearing tissues are examined from a structural macroscopic point of view down to the nanoscale level of the collagen fibril. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00671.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Central Nervous System Signatures of Affect in Asthma: Associations with Emotion-Induced Bronchoconstriction, Airway Inflammation, and Asthma Control.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States.

Background: Effects of asthma on affect have been noted for some time but little is known about associated brain processes. We therefore examined whether emotion-induced bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and asthma control are related to specific patterns of brain activity during processing negative affective stimuli.

Methods: Fifteen adults with asthma viewed alternating blocks of distressing film clips (negative condition), affectively neutral film clips (neutral condition) and a crosshair image (baseline condition) while undergoing blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01018.2018DOI Listing

Phosphorylation of αB-crystallin and its cytoskeleton association differs in skeletal myofiber types depending on resistance exercise intensity and volume.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Exercise Science, University of Hildesheim, Germany.

αB-crystallin (CRYAB) is an important actor in the immediate cell stabilizing response following mechanical stress in skeletal muscle. Yet, only little is known regarding myofiber type-specific stress-responses of CRYAB. We investigated whether the phosphorylation of CRYAB at serine 59 (CRYAB) and its cytoskeleton association is influenced by varying load-intensity and -volume in a fiber type-specific manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01038.2018DOI Listing

Interaction between the respiratory system and cerebral blood flow regulation.

Authors:
Shigehiko Ogoh

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University, Japan.

This mini-review summarizes the interaction between the regulatory system of respiration and cerebral vasculature. Some clinical reports provide an evidence for the association between these two physiological regulatory systems. Physiologically, arterial carbon dioxide concentration is mainly regulated by two feedback control systems: respiration and cerebral blood flow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00057.2019DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Contact-free respiratory monitoring using bed-wheel sensors: A valid respiratory monitoring technique with significant potential impact on public health.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Anaesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Hospital, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00198.2019DOI Listing

Endurance exercise training restores atrophy-induced decreases of myogenic response and ionic currents in rat skeletal muscle artery.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Physiology, Hypoxic/Ischemc Disease Institute, Seoul National Unvirsity College of Medicine, Korea (South), Republic of.

Atrophic limbs exhibit decreased blood flow and histological changes in the arteries perfusing muscles. However, the effect of atrophy on vascular smooth muscle function is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of unilateral sciatic denervation on the myogenic response (MR) and the ionic currents in deep femoral artery (DFA) smooth muscles from Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00962.2018DOI Listing

Oxidative Pathophysiology following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury in a Porcine Model.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, United States.

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) occurs after severe orthopaedic trauma, and results in loss of muscle fibers and function which can leave patients permanently disabled. While animals models of VML are useful to test possible therapeutic strategies, the pathophysiological characteristics of remaining skeletal muscle and changes in metabolism are not thoroughly understood. Herein, alterations of neuromuscular function, muscle fiber morphology, myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and myofiber mitochondrial respiration were evaluated in an adult Yorkshire swine VML injury model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00026.2019DOI Listing

Sound-Evoked Vestibular Projections to the Splenius Capitis in Humans: Comparison with the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Prince of Wales Clinical School and Neuroscience Research Australia, University of New South Wales, Australia.

The short latency vestibulo-collic reflex in humans is well-defined for only the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) neck muscle. However, other neck muscles also receive input from the balance organs and participate in neck stabilization. We therefore investigated the sound-evoked vestibular projection to the splenius capitis (SC) muscles by comparing surface and single motor unit responses in the SC and SCM muscles in 10 normal volunteers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00711.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Last Word on Viewpoint: Managing the power grid: how myoglobin can regulate Po and energy distribution in skeletal muscle.

Authors:
Thomas L Clanton

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar;126(3):795

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, the University of Florida , Gainesville, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00046.2019DOI Listing

Reply to Drouin and Tschakovsky.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar;126(3):797

Department of Medicine, University of Utah , Salt Lake City, Utah.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00950.2018DOI Listing

The oxygen-conformer response and its contribution to task failure in exhaustive exercise.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar;126(3):796

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University , Kingston, Ontario , Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00888.2018DOI Listing

Elevated plasma homocysteine and cysteine are associated with endothelial dysfunction across menopausal stages in healthy women.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Medicine/Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, United States.

Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). We determined whether elevated homocysteine (Hcy) and markers of Hcy metabolism were associated with the previously reported endothelial dysfunction across stages of the menopause transition. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma concentrations of Hcy, cysteine and methionine were measured in healthy women (n=128) 22-70 years of age categorized as premenopausal (n=35), perimenopausal (early, n=16 and late, n=21) and postmenopausal (early, n=21 and late, n=35). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00819.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The impact of exercise-induced hypohydration on gastrointestinal integrity, function, symptoms, and systemic endotoxin and inflammatory profile.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Australia.

It is commonly believed that gastrointestinal issues during exercise are exacerbated by hypohydration. The study aimed to determine the effect of exercise-induced hypohydration on gastrointestinal integrity, function, symptoms, systemic endotoxin, and inflammatory profile. Using a randomised cross-over design, male endurance runners (n=11) performed 2h of running at 70% V ̇O in 25°C ambient temperature, with water provisions (euhydration (EuH)) and total water restriction (hypohydration (HypoH)) during running, which accounted for 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01032.2018DOI Listing

Seven days of cold acclimation substantially reduces shivering intensity and increases non-shivering thermogenesis in adult humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada.

Daily compensable cold exposure in humans reduces shivering by ~20% without changing total heat production, partly by increasing brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity and activity. Although acclimation and acclimatization studies have long suggested that daily reductions in core temperature are essential to elicit significant metabolic changes in response to repeated cold exposure, this has never directly been demonstrated. The aim of the present study is to determine whether daily cold-water immersion, resulting in a significant fall in core temperature, can further reduce shivering intensity during mild acute cold exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01133.2018DOI Listing

Prolonged low-frequency force depression is underestimated when assessed with doublets compared to tetani in the dorsiflexors.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

School of Health and Exercise Sciences, The University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Canada.

Prolonged low-frequency force depression (PLFFD) after damaging eccentric exercise may last for several days. Historically, PLFFD has been calculated from the tetanic force responses to trains of supramaximal stimuli. More recently, for methodological reasons, stimulation has been reduced to two pulses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00840.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cardiac perfusion and function after high intensity exercise training in late pre- and recent post-menopausal women - An MRI study.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: We examined the influence of recent menopause and aerobic exercise training in women on myocardial perfusion, left ventricular (LV) dimension and function.

Methods: Two groups (n=14 each) of healthy late pre- (50.2±2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01089.2017DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Task specific differences in respiration-related activation of the deep and superficial pelvic floor muscles.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Divison of Physiotherapy, The University of Queensland, Australia.

The female pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are arranged in distinct superficial and deep layers that function to support the pelvic/abdominal organs and maintain continence, but with some potential differences in function. Although general recordings of PFM activity show amplitude modulation in conjunction with fluctuation in intra-abdominal pressure such as that associated with respiration, it is unclear whether the activity of the two PFM layers modulate in a similar manner. This study aimed to investigate the activation of the deep and superficial PFM during a range of respiratory tasks in different postures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00704.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Compressive Air-trapping in Asthma: Effects of Age, Sex, and Severity.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, United States.

Air-trapping due to airway closure has been associated with unstable asthma. In addition to airway closure that occurs at lower lung volumes during slow expiration, there may be further closure during a forced expiration, due to airway compression. The purpose of this study was to define a reference range from a non-asthma population, and to investigate the characteristics of compressive air-trapping in asthma. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Plasma Free Fatty Acid concentration is closely tied to whole-body peak fat oxidation rate during repeated exercise.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department Of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Plasma Free Fatty Acids (FFA) are a major contributor to whole body fat oxidation during exercise. However, to what extent, manipulating plasma FFA concentrations will influence whole body peak fat oxidation rate (PFO) during exercise remains elusive. In this study we aimed to increase plasma FFA concentrations through a combination of fasting and repeated exercise bouts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00995.2018DOI Listing

CORP: Understanding near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and its application to skeletal muscle research.

Authors:
Thomas J Barstow

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, United States.

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful noninvasive tool with which to study the matching of oxygen delivery to oxygen utilization, and the number of new publications utilizing this technique has increased exponentially in the last 20 years. By measuring the state of oxygenation of the primary heme compounds in skeletal muscle (hemoglobin and myoglobin), greater understanding of the underlying control mechanisms which couple perfusive and diffusive oxygen delivery to oxidative metabolism can be gained, from the laboratory to the athletic field to the intensive care unit or emergency room. However, the field of NIRS has been complicated by the diversity of instrumentation, the inherent limitations of some of these technologies, the associated diversity of terminology, and a general lack of standardization of protocols. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00166.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00166.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Examining the acute effects of retrograde versus low mean shear rate on flow-mediated dilation.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Canada.

Arterial endothelial function is acutely and chronically regulated by blood flow-associated shear stress. An acute intervention employing modest forearm cuff-occlusion to simultaneously increase retrograde and decrease mean brachial artery shear rate for 30-minutes evokes transient impairments in flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the independent influence of low mean versus retrograde shear stress is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01065.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Menstrual cycle associated modulations in neuromuscular function and fatigability of the knee extensors in eumenorrheic females.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, United Kingdom.

Sex hormone concentrations of eumenorrheic females typically fluctuate across the menstrual cycle and can affect neural function such that oestrogen has neuro-excitatory effects, and progesterone induces inhibition. However, the effects of these changes on corticospinal and intracortical circuitry, and the motor performance of the knee-extensors, are unknown. The present two-part investigation aimed to i) determine the measurement error of an exercise task, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and motor nerve stimulation (MNS) derived responses in females ingesting a monophasic oral contraceptive pill (hormonally-constant), and ii) investigate whether these measures were modulated by menstrual cycle phase (MCP), by examining them before and after an intermittent isometric fatiguing task (60% of maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) with the knee-extensors until task failure in eumenorrheic females on days 2, 14, and 21 of the menstrual cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01041.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Laryngeal muscle biology in the Pink1-/- rat model of Parkinson disease.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Surgery, University of Wisoconsin, United States.

Introduction: Neuromuscular pathology is found in the larynx and pharynx in humans with Parkinson disease (PD), however, it is unknown when this pathology emerges. We hypothesized that pathology occurs in early (premanifest) stages. To address this, we used the Pink1 -/-rat model of PD, which shows age-dependent dopaminergic neuron loss, locomotor deficits, and deficits related to laryngeal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00557.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Sexual dimorphism in the control of skeletal muscle interstitial PO of heart failure rats: Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Kinesiology, Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, United States.

Sex differences in the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular pathophysiology of O transport in heart failure (HF) remain to be explored. In HF, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced and contributes to deficits in O delivery-to-utilization matching. Females may rely more on NO for cardiovascular control and as such experience greater decrements in HF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01004.2018DOI Listing

Effect of Trendelenburg and lower body positive pressure on neck fluid distribution.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada.

Fluid that shifts out of the legs and into the neck while supine can contribute to upper-airway (UA) narrowing. The present study investigates the relative contributions of vascular and extravascular fluid to the total accumulation of neck fluid volume (NFV). In 22 healthy awake participants (8 women), aged 42±9 years, we measured NFV with bioelectrical impedance, internal jugular vein volume (IJVV) with ultrasound, and extravascular NFV (NFV) as the difference between NFV and IJVV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00926.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Energy-saving walking mechanisms in obese adults.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Institut of Sport Sciences of the University of Lausanne, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Energy saving mechanisms are used in human walking. In obese adults the energy cost of walking (C) is higher compared to normal body mass adults. However, the biomechanical factors involved in this extra-cost should have resulted in a higher C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00473.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Oscillations in neural drive and age-related reductions in force steadiness with a cognitive challenge.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Apr 28;126(4):1056-1065. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

A cognitive challenge when imposed during a low-force isometric contraction will exacerbate sex- and age-related decreases in force steadiness, but the mechanism is not known. We determined the role of oscillations in the common synaptic input to motor units on force steadiness during a muscle contraction with a concurrent cognitive challenge. Forty-nine young adults (19-30 yr; 25 women, 24 men) and 36 old adults (60-85 yr; 19 women, 17 men) performed a cognitive challenge (counting backward by 13) during an isometric elbow flexion task at 5% of maximal voluntary contraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00821.2018DOI Listing

Effect of volume status on the estimation of mean systemic filling pressure.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Bern University Hospital (Inselspital) and University of Bern, Switzerland.

Various methods for indirect assessment of mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP) produce controversial results as compared to MSFP at zero blood flow. We recently reported that the difference between MSFP at zero flow, measured by right atrial balloon occlusion (MSFP) and MSFP estimated using inspiratory holds depends on the volume status. We now compare three indirect estimates of MSFP with MSFP in Euvolemia, Bleeding, and Hypervolemia, in a model of anesthetized pigs (n=9) with intact circulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00897.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Reply to Askew and Green.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb;126(2):512

Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, University of Portsmouth , Portsmouth , United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00939.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Confirming V̇o without bias.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb;126(2):511

School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University , Sydney , Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00883.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Motoneuron firing properties are modified by trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) in rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Neurobiology, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poland.

Spinal polarization evoked by direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a novel method for altering spinal network excitability; however, it remains not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether tsDCS influences spinal motoneuron activity. 20 Wistar rats under general pentobarbital anesthesia were subjected to 15 min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00803.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Effects of HIV-1 gp120 and TAT Derived Microvesicles on Endothelial Cell Function.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, United States.

The aims of this study were two-fold. The first was to determine if human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 gp120 and Tat stimulate the release of endothelial microvesicles (EMVs). The second was to determine whether viral protein induced EMVs are deleterious to endothelial cell function: inducing endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress and senescence, and increasing apoptotic susceptibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01048.2018DOI Listing
February 2019