30,828 results match your criteria Journal of Applied Physiology[Journal]


Inactivity Induces Resistance to the Metabolic Benefits Following Acute Exercise.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, United States.

Acute exercise improves postprandial lipemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, recent research suggests that prolonged sedentary behavior might abolish these healthy metabolic benefits. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of an acute bout of exercise on postprandial plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations after four days of prolonged sitting (~13. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00968.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Increased central cholinergic drive contributes to the apneas of serotonin-deficient rat pups during active sleep.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri - Columbia, United States.

Infant rat pups lacking CNS serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) have unstable breathing during prolonged periods of active sleep. Given that cholinergic neurons are drivers of active sleep and project to respiratory patterning regions in the brainstem, we hypothesized that 5-HT preserves respiratory stability in active sleep by dampening central cholinergic drive. We used whole-body plethysmography coupled with nuchal EMG to monitor the breathing pattern of 2-week-old TPH2+/+ and TPH2-/- pups in active sleep, before and after muscarinic blockade. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00909.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Disuse-induced insulin resistance susceptibility coincides with a dysregulated skeletal muscle metabolic transcriptome.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Utah, United States.

Short-term muscle disuse is characterized by skeletal muscle insulin resistance, though this response is divergent across subjects. The mechanisms regulating inactivity-induced insulin resistance between populations that are more or less susceptibile to disuse-induced insulin resistance are not known. RNA sequencing was conducted on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from subjects before and after bed rest (n=26) to describe the transcriptome of inactivity-induced insulin resistance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01093.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Chondroitin sulfate attenuates acid-induced augmentation of the mechanical response in rat thin-fiber muscle afferents in vitro.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Japan.

Exercise-induced tissue acidosis augments the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). One reason for this may be acid-induced mechanical sensitization in thin-fiber muscle afferents, which is presumably related to EPR. Acid-induced sensitization to mechanical stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in cultured primary-sensory neurons by exogenous chondroitin sulfate (CS) and chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that the extracellular-matrix CS proteoglycan is involved in this sensitization. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00633.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Tidal breathing flow volume profiles during sleep in wheezing infants measured by impedance pneumography.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Allergology, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Finland.

Overnight analysis of tidal breathing flow volume loops (TBFV), recorded by impedance pneumography (IP), has been successfully applied in the home monitoring of children with wheezing disorders. However, little is known on how sleep physiology modifies the relationship between TBFV profiles and wheeze. We studied such interactions in wheezing infants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01007.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Respiratory system reactance reflects communicating lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Respiratory Medicine, Woolcock Institute, University of Sydney, Australia.

Respiratory system reactance (Xrs) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) is theoretically and experimentally related to lung volume. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the absolute volume measured by body plethysmography includes a proportion which is inaccessible to pressure oscillations applied via the mouth - that is, a 'non-communicating' lung volume. We hypothesized that, in COPD, the presence of non-communicating lung would disrupt the expected Xrs-volume relationship when compared to plethysmographic functional residual capacity (FRC). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00503.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Inspiratory Muscle Activation via Ventral Lower Thoracic High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, United States.

In animals, high frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) applied on the ventral epidural surface at T2 level results in negative airway pressure generation consistent with inspiratory muscle activation. In the present study, in anesthetized dogs, we found that ventral HF-SCS (500Hz) applied at all thoracic levels resulted in negative airway pressure generation. In the region of the lower thoracic spinal cord, negative airway pressure generation was most pronounced at the T9 level. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01054.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Assessment of 2 methods to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems in racehorses.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Washington State University, United States.

A prospective, randomised, controlled study was designed to determine relative aerobic and anaerobic (lactic and alactic) contributions at supramaximal exercise intensities using 2 different methods. Thoroughbred racehorses (n=5) performed a V̇O test and 3 supramaximal treadmill runs (105%, 115% and 125%V̇O). Blood lactate concentration (BL) was measured at rest, every 15s during runs, and 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60mins post-exercise. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00983.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Contact-free unconstraint respiratory measurements with load cells under the bed in awake healthy volunteers: breath-by-breath comparison with pneumotachography.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan.

Rate of respiration is a fundamental vital sign. Accuracy and precision of respiratory rate measurements with contact-free load cell sensors under the bed legs were assessed by breath-by-breath comparison with the pneumotachography technique during two different dynamic breathing tasks in 16 awake human adults resting on the bed. The subject voluntarily increased and decreased the respiratory rate between 4 to 16 bpm (n=8), and 10 to 40 bpm (n=8) at every 2 breaths in 6 different lying postures such as supine, left lateral, right lateral, and 30-degree, 45-degree, and 60-degree sitting postures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00730.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Running ground reaction forces across footwear conditions are predicted from the motion of two body mass components.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Applied Phsyiology and Wellness, Southern Methodist University, United States.

Although running shoes alter foot-ground reaction forces, particularly during impact, how they do so is incompletely understood. Here, we hypothesized that footwear effects on running ground reaction force-time patterns can be accurately predicted from the motion of two components of the body's mass ( m): the contacting lower-limb ( m=0.08• m) and the remainder ( m=0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00925.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Coagulation Changes induced by Lower Body Negative Pressure in Men and Women.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Austria.

We investigated whether lower body negative pressure (LBNP) application leads to coagulation activation in whole blood (WB) samples in healthy men and women. Twenty-four women and twenty-one men, all healthy young participants, with no histories of thrombotic disorders and not on medications, were included. LBNP was commenced at -10 mmHg and increased by -10 mmHg every-five minutes until a maximum of -40 mmHg. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00940.20
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00940.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Age-related differences in water and sodium handling following commercial hydration beverage ingestion.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

Aging is associated with altered water, electrolyte, and glucose handling. Alternative beverages to those containing carbohydrate (CHO) should be considered for older adults. We hypothesized that reduced sodium (CNa) and/or water (CHO) clearance would underlie greater beverage retention in older compared to young adults, secondary to reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01094.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Microparticle-induced vascular injury in mice following decompression is inhibited by hyperbaric oxygen: Effects on microparticles and interleukin-1β.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States.

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) became a mainstay for treating decompression sickness (DCS) because bubbles are associated with the disorder. Inflammatory processes including production of circulating microparticles (MPs) have now been shown to occur with DCS, leading to questions regarding pathophysiology and the role for HBO. We investigated effects of HBO on mice exposed to 790 kPa air pressure for 2 hours, which triggers elevations of MPs ladened with interleukin (IL)-1β that cause diffuse vascular injuries. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01109.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Nasal High Flow Reduces Minute Ventilation During Sleep Through a Decrease of Carbon Dioxide Re-breathing.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, New Zealand.

Rationale: Nasal high flow (NHF) is an emerging therapy for respiratory support but knowledge of the mechanisms and applications is limited. It was previously observed that NHF reduces the tidal volume but does not affect the respiratory rate during sleep. The authors hypothesized that the decrease in tidal volume during NHF is due to a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO) re-breathing from dead space. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01063.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of post-exercise temperature elevation on post-exercise glycogen metabolism of isolated mouse soleus muscle.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Ariel University, Israel.

The effects of temperature elevation after intense repeated contractions on glycogen and energy metabolism, as well as contractile function of isolated mouse soleus muscle (slow-twitch, oxidative) were investigated. Muscles were stimulated electrically to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 10 min at 25°C, which reduced tetanic force by ~85% and glycogen by 50%. After 120 min recovery at 25°C, glycogen was fully restored (~125% of basal), whereas after recovery at 35°C, glycogen decreased further (~25% of basal). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01121.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Diaphragm shear modulus reflects transdiaphragmatic pressure during isovolumetric inspiratory efforts and ventilation against inspiratory loading.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Groupe hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service de Pneumologie, Paris, France, France.

Aim: The reference method for the assessment of diaphragm function relies on the measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi). Local muscle stiffness measured using ultrafast shear wave elastography (SWE) provides reliable estimates of muscle force in locomotor muscles. This study aimed at investigating whether SWE could be used as a surrogate of Pdi to evaluate diaphragm function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01060.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Case studies in physiology: oxygenation during general anesthesia and thoracic surgery in a patient with Titusville low-oxygen affinity hemoglobin.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Emergency, Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Italy.

The purpose of this case study is to describe the physiologic characteristics of a patient with the low-oxygen affinity Titusville hemoglobin variant. A 46-year-old man with exertional dyspnea was diagnosed with a mediastinal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin and, to obtain definitive diagnosis by biopsy, underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirate under sedation and video-assisted thoracoscopy under general anesthesia. High inspired fraction of oxygen (FIO) was used to guarantee adequate oxygenation even during the one-lung ventilation needed for thoracoscopy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00860.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Voluntary wheel running in the late dark phase ameliorates diet-induced obesity in mice without altering insulin action.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes are associated with perturbed circadian rhythms. However, exercise appears to ameliorate circadian disturbances as it can phase-shift or reset the internal clock system. Evidence is emerging that exercise at a distinct time of day can correct misalignments of the circadian clock and influence energy metabolism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00737.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Morning exercise mitigates the impact of prolonged sitting on cerebral blood flow in older adults.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Preventing declines in cerebral blood flow is important for maintaining optimal brain health with aging. We compared the effects of a morning bout of moderate-intensity exercise, with and without subsequent light-intensity walking breaks from sitting, on cerebral blood flow velocity over 8-hours in older adults. In a randomized crossover trial, overweight/obese older adults (n=12, 2♀, 70±7 years; 30. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00001.2019DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Reduced corticospinal responses in older compared to younger adults during submaximal isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to assess differences in motor performance, as well as corticospinal and spinal responses to transcranial magnetic and percutaneous nerve stimulation, respectively, during submaximal isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions between younger and older adults. Fifteen younger (26 ± 4 yrs, 7 females) and 14 older (64 ± 3 yrs, 5 females) adults performed isometric, and shortening and lengthening dorsiflexion on an isokinetic dynamometer (5°·s) at 25 and 50% of contraction type specific maximums. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and H-reflexes were recorded at anatomical zero. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00987.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

The Historical Context and Scientific Legacy of John O. Holloszy.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department Nutrition and Dietetics, Saint Louis University, United States.

John O. Holloszy, as perhaps the world's pre-eminent exercise biochemist/physiologist, published >400 papers over his 50+ year career and they have been cited >41,000 times. In 1965 Holloszy showed for the first time that exercise training in rodents resulted in a doubling of skeletal muscle mitochondria, ushering in a very active era of skeletal muscle plasticity research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00669.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Longitudinal free-breathing MRI measurement of murine lung physiology in a progressive model of lung fibrosis.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, United States.

To longitudinally monitor progressive fibrosis in the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) transgenic mouse model of lung fibrosis, we used retrospective self-gating UTE MRI to image mouse lung at baseline, after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of fibrosis initiation via doxycycline administration. Only bitransgenic mice were used in this study and divided into two cohorts: 6 mice were fed doxycycline food to induce lung fibrosis (referred to as Dox cohort) and 5 other mice were fed normal food (referred to as control cohort). Lung mechanics, histology, and hydroxyproline were assessed after the final MRI. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00993.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Cardiac Remodeling in Aortic and Mitral Valve Disease - a Simulation Study with Clinical Validation.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

ECMO Department, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Remodeling is an important long-term determinant of cardiac function throughout the progression of heart disease. Numerous biomolecular pathways for mechanosensing and transduction are involved. However, we hypothesize that biomechanical factors alone can explain changes in myocardial volume and chamber size in valve disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00791.20
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00791.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHEST WALL DISPLACEMENTS IN INFANTS DURING HIGH FREQUENCY VENTILATION (HFV).

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

Background: The distribution of ventilation during HFV is asynchronous, non-homogeneous and frequency dependent. We hypothesized that differences in the regional distribution of ventilation at different oscillatory frequencies may affect gas exchange efficiency.

Methods: We studied 15 newborn infants with a median (IQR) gestational age of 28. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01086.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Costal and crural diaphragm function during sustained hypoxia in awake canines.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada.

In humans and other mammals, isocapnic hypoxia sustained for 20-60 minutes, exhibits a biphasic ventilation pattern - initial increase followed by a significant ventilatory decline ("roll-off") to a lesser intermediate plateau. During sustained hypoxia, the mechanical action and activity of the diaphragm has not been studied; thus we assessed diaphragm function in response to hypoxic breathing. Thirteen spontaneously breathing awake canines were exposed to moderate levels of sustained isocapnic hypoxia lasting 20-25 minutes (80±2% SpO: pulse oximeter oxygen saturation). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Role of heat shock proteins 70/90 in exercise physiology, exercise immunology and their diagnostic potential in sports.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institute of Biophysics and Center of Biomolecular Drug Research (BMWZ), Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones facilitating the unfolding or folding of secondary structures of proteins, their client proteins, in cellular stress situations. Various internal and external physiological and mechanical stress factors induce a homeostatic imbalance followed by an increased expression of HSP70 and HSP90. Exercise is a stress factor, too, and its cumulative physiological perturbation manifests at a cellular level by threatening the protein homeostasis of various cell types. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01052.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Seasonal differences in rhythmicity of salivary cortisol in healthy adults.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Pathophysiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

The existence of seasonal changes in secretion of stress hormones and inflammatory mediators by humans is not certain. Here, we aimed to determine whether concentrations of cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) display daily and seasonal rhythmicity. The study was performed in Poznan, Poland (52°N, 16°E) in 7 healthy female volunteers (aged 22. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00972.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

High intensity intermittent training is as effective as moderate continuous training, and not deleterious, in cardiomyocyte remodeling of hypertensive rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

MOVE EA 6314, Université de Poitiers, France.

Exercise training offers possible non-pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. High intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has been shown to have as much or even more beneficial cardiovascular effect in patients with cardiovascular diseases than moderate intensity continuous exercise (CMIE) training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the two types of training on cardiac remodeling of SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) induced by hypertension. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00131.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Early onset of airway de-recruitment assessed using the forced oscillation technique in subjects with asthma.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Australia.

De-recruitment of airspaces in the lung occurs when airways close during exhalation, and is related to ventilation heterogeneity and symptoms in asthma. The forced oscillation technique has been used to identify surrogate measures of airway closure via the reactance (Xrs) versus lung volume relationship. This study, used a new algorithm to identify de-recruitment from the Xrs versus lung volume relationship from a slow vital capacity maneuver. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00534.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Sex differences in the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain function in older adulthood.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Psychology, York University, Canada.

We investigated sex differences in the association between a measure of physical health, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and brain function using resting state functional connectivity fMRI. We examined these sex differences in the default, frontoparietal control, and cingulo-opercular networks, assemblies of functionally connected brain regions known to be impacted by both age and fitness level. Forty-nine healthy older adults (29 female) were scanned to obtain measures of intrinsic connectivity within and across these three networks. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01046.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Last Word on Viewpoint: Rejuvenation of the term sarcopenia.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan;126(1):263

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Denmark.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00815.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Reply to Cooper.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan;126(1):265

Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, University of Portsmouth , Portsmouth , United Kingdom.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00839.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Supramax exercise testing in cystic fibrosis: not ready for prime time.

Authors:
Dan M Cooper

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan;126(1):264

Pediatric Exercise and Genomics Research Center, University of California at Irvine, California.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00782.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Accumulation of intramyocyte TRPV1-mediated calcium during heat stress is inhibited by concomitant muscle contractions.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Engineering Science, Bioscience and Technology Program, University of Electro-Communications, Japan.

Heat stress promotes intramyocyte calcium [Ca]accumulation via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. We tested the hypothesis that muscle contractile activity concomitant with heat stress would accelerate the increase in [Ca]via TRPV1, further impairing [Ca]homeostasis. Spinotrapezius muscles of adult Wistar rats were exteriorized in vivoand loaded with the fluorescent Ca probe Fura-2 AM. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00668.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Tensiomyography detects early hallmarks of bed-rest-induced atrophy before changes in muscle architecture.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom.

In young and older people skeletal muscle mass is reduced after as little as seven days of disuse. The declines in muscle mass after such short periods are of high clinical relevance, particularly in older people who show higher atrophy rate, and a slower, or even a complete lack of muscle mass recovery after disuse. Ten men (24. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/japplphysiol.00880.20
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00880.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Patient-specific targeted bronchial thermoplasty: predictions of improved outcomes with structure-guided treatment.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Australia.

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent treatment for asthma in which ablative thermal energy is delivered to specific large airways according to clinical guidelines. Current practice is therefore effectively 'blind' as it is not informed by patient-specific data. The present study seeks to establish whether a patient-specific approach based on structural or functional patient data can improve outcomes and/or reduce the number of procedures required for clinical efficacy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00951.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Effect of Heat Stress on Vascular Outcomes in Humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Canada.

In addition to its role as an environmental stressor, recently, scientists have demonstrated the potential for heat to be a therapy for improving or mitigating declines in arterial health. Many studies at both ends of the scientific controls spectrum (tightly controlled, experimental vs. practical) have demonstrated the beneficial effects of heating on microvascular function (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00682.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Quadriceps miR-542-3p and 5p are elevated in COPD and reduce function by inhibiting ribosomal and protein synthesis.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, United Kingdom.

Reduced physical performance reduces quality of life in patients with COPD. Impaired physical performance is, in part, a consequence of reduced muscle mass and function, which is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. We recently showed that miR-542-3p and miR-542-5p were elevated in a small cohort of COPD patients and more markedly in critical care patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00882.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Reduced Frequency of Resistance-Type Exercise Training Promotes Adaptation of the Aged Skeletal Muscle Microenvironment.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

HELD/TMBB, CDC/NIOSH, United States.

The purpose of this study was to characterize the growth and remodeling molecular signaling response in aged skeletal muscle following one month of "resistance-type exercise" training. Male Fisher344x Brown Norway hybrid rats aged 3 (young) and 30 months (old) underwent stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) loading two or three days per week; muscles were removed 72 hours post-training. Young rats SSC-loaded three (Y3x) or two days per week (Y2x) adapted via increased work performance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00582.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Micro-scale to Meso-scale Analysis of Parenchymal Tethering: The Effect of Heterogeneous Alveolar Pressures on the Pulmonary Mechanics of Compliant Airways.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, United States.

In the healthy lung, bronchi are tethered open by the surrounding parenchyma; for a uniform distribution of these peri-bronchial structures, the solution is well known. An open question remains regarding the effect of a distributed set of collapsed alveoli, as can occur in disease. Here we address this question by developing and analyzing micro-scale finite-element models of systems of heterogeneously inflated alveoli to determine the range and extent of parenchymal tethering effects on a neighboring collapsible airway. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00178.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Role of mTORC1 in Mechanically-Induced Increases in Translation and Skeletal Muscle Mass.

Authors:
Craig A Goodman

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Institute of Health and Sport, Victoria University, Australia.

Skeletal muscle mass is, in part, regulated by the rate of mRNA translation (i.e. protein synthesis). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01011.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Modulation of Cardiac Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and PGC-1α with Regular Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion of Rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Biological sciences, Yarmouk University, Jordan.

Myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis and vascular angiogenesis biomarkers responses to post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is lacking. Therefore, to determine those cardiac adaptations, male adult Spargue-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: post-exercise CWI (CWI; n = 13), exercise only (Ex; n = 12), and untreated control (CON; n = 10). CWI and Ex were trained for 10 weeks, 5 sessions/week, 30-60 min/session. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00918.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Shortening-induced residual force depression in humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada.

When an isometric muscle contraction is immediately preceded by an active shortening contraction, a reduction in steady-state isometric force is observed relative to an isometric reference (ISO) contraction at the same muscle length and level of activation. This shortening-induced reduction in isometric force - termed 'residual force depression' (rFD), has been under investigation for over a half century. Various experimental models have revealed the positive relationship between rFD and the force and displacement performed during shortening, with rFD values ranging from 5-39% across various muscle groups, which appears to be due to a stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00931.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Two Weeks of Ischemic Conditioning Improves Walking Speed and Reduces Neuromuscular Fatigability in Chronic Stroke Survivors.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Physical Therapy, Marquette University, United States.

This pilot study examined if ischemic conditioning (IC), a non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy to administer intervention, could improve gait speed and paretic leg muscle function in stroke survivors. We hypothesized that two weeks of IC training would increase self-selected walking speed, increase paretic muscle strength, and reduce neuromuscular fatigability in chronic stroke survivors. 22 chronic stroke survivors received either IC or IC sham on their paretic leg every other day for two weeks (7 total sessions). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00772.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Exercise intensity independently modulates thermal behavior during exercise recovery, but not during exercise.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, United States.

We tested the hypothesis that thermal behavior is greater during and following high compared to moderate intensity exercise. In a 27°C, 20% relative humidity environment, 20 participants (10 females) cycled for 30 min at moderate (53±6% VOpeak) or high (78±6% VOpeak) intensity, followed by 120 min recovery. Mean skin and core temperatures and mean skin wettedness were recorded continuously. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00992.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Local arginase inhibition does not modulate cutaneous vasodilation or sweating in young and older men during exercise.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Canada.

Age-related impairments in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate (SR) during exercise may result from increased arginase activity, which can attenuate endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production. We therefore evaluated whether arginase inhibition modulates these heat loss responses in young (n=9, 23±3 years) and older (n=9, 66 ± 6 years) men during two 30-min bouts of moderate-intensity cycling (Ex1 and Ex2) in the heat (35°C). CVC and SR were measured at forearm skin sites perfused with: 1) lactated Ringer's (Control); 2) N-nitro--arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase-inhibited); or 3) N-hydroxy-nor-Arginine and S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (Nor-NOHA + BEC, arginase-inhibited). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00657.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Prestrain and Cholinergic Receptor-Dependent Differential Recruitment of Mechanosensitive Energy Loss and Energy Release Elements in Airway Smooth Muscle.

Authors:
Chi-Ming Hai

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology & Biotechnology, Brown University, United States.

We tested the hypothesis that oscillatory ASM mechanics is governed by mechanosensitive energy loss and energy release elements that can be recruited by prestrain and cholinergic stimulation. We measured mechanical energy loss and mechanical energy release in unstimulated and carbachol-stimulated bovine ASM held at prestrains ranging from 0.3 to 1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01008.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Increases Accumulated Oxygen Deficit in Middle-Distance Runners.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, United States.

The mediators underlying the putative benefits of remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on dynamic whole body exercise performance have not been widely investigated. Our objective here was to test the hypothesis that remote IPC improves supramaximal exercise performance in NCAA Division I middle-distance runners by increasing accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), an indicator of glycolytic capacity. A randomized sham-controlled crossover study was employed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00585.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Functional and biochemical responses of skeletal muscle following a moderate degree of systemic iron loading in mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Exercise Science, Syracuse University, United States.

Excessive iron loading may cause skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness due to its free radical generating properties. To determine whether a clinically relevant degree of iron loading impairs skeletal muscle function, young male mice received injections (i.p. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00237.2018DOI Listing
January 2019