7,193 results match your criteria Japanese Encephalitis

Spatial distribution of Culex mosquito abundance and associated risk factors in Hanoi, Vietnam.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 21;15(6):e0009497. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Hanoi, Vietnam.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the major cause of viral encephalitis (VE) in most Asian-Pacific countries. In Vietnam, there is no nationwide surveillance system for JE due to lack of medical facilities and diagnoses. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui, and Culex quinquefasciatus have been identified as the major JE vectors in Vietnam. Read More

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Precise localization and dynamic distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus in the rain nuclei of infected mice.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 21;15(6):e0008442. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a pathogen that causes severe vector-borne zoonotic diseases, thereby posing a serious threat to human health. Although JEV is potentially neurotropic, its pathogenesis and distribution in the host have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an infected mouse model was established using a highly virulent P3 strain of JEV. Read More

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Economic and disease burden of Japanese encephalitis in Zhejiang Province, 2013-2018.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 21;15(6):e0009505. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease and associated with high mortality and disability rate among symptomatic cases. In the absence of local data, this study estimated the economic burden and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to JE in Zhejiang Province, China during 2013-2018, to increase disease awareness and provide evidence for effective health policy.

Methodology/principle Findings: We merged multiple data sources, including National Notifiable Disease Registry System (NNDRS), patient interviews and medical records from corresponding hospitals for JE cases which occurred during 2013-2018 in Zhejiang Province. Read More

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Microneedle-based devices for point-of-care infectious disease diagnostics.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as COVID-19 and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis to initiate treatment and curb transmission. Successful diagnostic strategies critically depend on the efficiency of biological sampling and timely analysis. However, current diagnostic techniques are invasive/intrusive and present a severe bottleneck by requiring specialist equipment and trained personnel. Read More

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February 2021

Curcumin inhibits classical swine fever virus replication by interfering with lipid metabolism.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 12;259:109152. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Although previous reports have shown that Curcumin inhibits many viruses, including some important members of different genera of Flaviviridae family (Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus), the antiviral activity of curcumin against Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which belongs to Pestivirus genus, is still unclear. In this study, we found that curcumin inhibited CSFV replication in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on virus adsorption and entry. Furthermore, the results showed that curcumin inhibited the expression of FASN, one of the key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis pathway, thereby, causing the reduction of the production of LDs upon infection. Read More

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C-type lectins and extracellular vesicles in virus-induced NETosis.

J Biomed Sci 2021 Jun 11;28(1):46. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128, Academia Road, Sec. 2, Nankang District, Taipei, 115, Taiwan.

Dysregulated formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is observed in acute viral infections. Moreover, NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of acute viral infections, including those caused by the dengue virus (DV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, excessive NET formation (NETosis) is associated with disease severity in patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2-induced multiple organ injuries. Read More

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Long-Term Outcomes in Children Surviving Tropical Arboviral Encephalitis: A Systematic Review.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 05;67(2)

Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, The University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA.

Background: Survivors of childhood encephalitis often suffer from physical and neurocognitive sequelae, particularly in tropical, resource-limited areas with a large burden of arboviral, neurotropic pathogens and limited resources with which to address chronic morbidities. Research into overall and pathogen-specific outcomes following childhood encephalitis may help identify risk factors for poor outcomes, quantify the burden of sequelae, assist with resource allocation and help focus rehabilitative efforts. However, such research is limited. Read More

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Berbamine inhibits Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) infection by compromising TPRMLs-mediated endolysosomal trafficking of Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR).

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 8:1-43. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the genus, is an important pathogen that causes human and animal infectious diseases in Asia. So far, no effective antiviral agents are available to treat JEV infection. Here, we found that LDLR is a host factor required for JEV entry. Read More

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Limitations of immunization registers at community health centers for measuring immunization coverage: a case study of the Japanese encephalitis mass immunization program in Bali Province, Indonesia.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the coverage of Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunization obtained from a recall survey and immunization registers at community health centers (CHCs) in Bali Province, Indonesia.

Methods: A population-based survey was conducted, and random 2-staged selection of clusters of sub-villages was performed. The sample consisted of households with children aged 9 months to 15 years old. Read More

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Comparative analysis of neuroinvasion by Japanese encephalitis virulent and vaccine viral strains in an in vitro model of human blood-brain barrier.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252595. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Unité de Recherche et d'Expertise Environnement et Risques Infectieux, Groupe Arbovirus, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of viral encephalitis in South East Asia. It has been suggested that, as a consequence of the inflammatory process during JEV infection, there is disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) tight junctions that in turn allows the virus access to the central nervous system (CNS). However, what happens at early times of JEV contact with the BBB is poorly understood. Read More

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Operational research capacity building through the Structured Operational Research Training Initiative (SORT-IT) in China: implementation, outcomes and challenges.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jun 1;10(1):80. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) introduced the Structured Operational Research Training Initiative (SORT IT) into China to build a special capacity and equip public health professionals with an effective tool to support developing countries in strengthening their operational research. The paper aims to investigate and analyze the implementation, outcomes and challenges of the first cycle of SORT IT in China.

Main Text: As a result of the successful implementation, SORT IT China, Cycle 1 has demonstrated fruitful outputs as exemplified by the 18-month follow-up to the post-training initiatives of the twelve participants, who all achieved the four milestones required by SORT IT. Read More

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Effectiveness of the SA 14-14-2 Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine in Myanmar.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 31;9(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine and Leading Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan.

Myanmar is an endemic country for the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and the SA-14-14-2 live-attenuated JEV vaccine was first introduced as a catch-up vaccination campaign in 2017. To determine the effectiveness of vaccination by means of neutralizing antibody titers against JEV, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among five to 15-year-old monastic school children in Mandalay, Myanmar. A total of 198 students who had received vaccines were recruited, and single-time investigation of anti-JEV IgG and neutralizing antibodies against wild-type JEV were determined using anti-JEV IgG ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Read More

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Japanese Encephalitis in Small-Scale Pig Farming in Rural Cambodia: Pig Seroprevalence and Farmer Awareness.

Pathogens 2021 May 10;10(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Cambodia, but circulation of JE virus (JEV) among domestic pigs has previously only been studied in the southern part of the country. The main purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of JEV antibodies in smallholder pigs held in rural areas of Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Ratanakiri, and Stung Treng provinces, northeastern Cambodia. Another purpose was to identify possible associations between serologic status and other factors, such as reproductive disorders, and to investigate the farmers' knowledge of mosquito-borne diseases and use of preventive measures. Read More

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Molecular Insights into the Flavivirus Replication Complex.

Viruses 2021 May 21;13(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 636921, Singapore.

Flaviviruses are vector-borne RNA viruses, many of which are clinically relevant human viral pathogens, such as dengue, Zika, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. Millions of people are infected with these viruses around the world each year. Vaccines are only available for some members of this large virus family, and there are no effective antiviral drugs to treat flavivirus infections. Read More

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Intradermal Vaccination: A Potential Tool in the Battle Against the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 20;14:2079-2087. Epub 2021 May 20.

Primary Care Unit ASL RM 1, Rome, Italy.

This narrative review is the final output of an initiative of the SIM (Italian Society of Mesotherapy). A narrative review of scientific literature on the efficacy of fractional intradermal vaccination in comparison with full doses has been conducted for the following pathogens: influenza virus, rabies virus, poliovirus (PV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis bacterias (DTP), human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JE), meningococcus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and yellow fever virus. The findings suggest that the use of the intradermal route represents a valid strategy in terms of efficacy and efficiency for influenza, rabies and HBV vaccines. Read More

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Selenium to selenoproteins - role in COVID-19.

EXCLI J 2021 16;20:781-791. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur, India.

The disruption of antioxidant defense has been demonstrated in severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SARS-CoV infection. Selenium plays a major role in decreasing the ROS produced in response to various viral infections. Selenoprotein enzymes are essential in combating oxidative stress caused due to excessive generation of ROS. Read More

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Management of Japanese Encephalitis: A Current Update.

Cureus 2021 Apr 20;13(4):e14579. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Texas, USA.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) continues to be one of the world's most serious infections with no definitive treatment or guidelines. The high morbidity and mortality rate among symptomatic patients warrant the need for further investigation in this regard. Our review focuses on the recent updates on Japanese encephalitis treatment. Read More

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Immature ovarian teratoma with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis in a 13-year-old Japanese female patient.

Med J Malaysia 2021 May;76(3):436-437

Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Paediatrics, Tochigi, Japan.

We report a 13-year-old Japanese female with ovarian teratoma due to anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The patient was admitted with psychiatric symptoms, including memory impairment, insomnia, binge eating and mouth and hand twisting, associated with constipation. Serum alphafetoprotein and neopterin levels were elevated 102 ng/mL and 19 pmol/mL, respectively. Read More

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Long-Term Morbidity and Functional Outcome of Japanese Encephalitis in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Indian Pediatr 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, KPC Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal.

Objective: To describe the long term morbidity and functional outcome of Japanese encephalitis in children.

Methods: Laboratory confirmed Japanese encephalitis cases were enrolled in the study from January, 2016 to September, 2017 and surviving cases were prospectively followed up for 2.5 years to document various morbidities. Read More

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Rapid testing requires clinical evaluation for accurate diagnosis of dengue disease: A passive surveillance study in Southern Malaysia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 20;15(5):e0009445. Epub 2021 May 20.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia.

Background: Dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne infection worldwide where an expanding surveillance and characterization of this infection are needed to better inform the healthcare system. In this surveillance-based study, we explored the prevalence and distinguishing features of dengue fever amongst febrile patients in a large community-based health facility in southern peninsular Malaysia.

Methods: Over six months in 2018, we recruited 368 adults who met the WHO 2009 criteria for probable dengue infection. Read More

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[A case of autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center.

A 46-year-old man developed acute meningo-encephalitis with confusion, headache, fever, intractable hiccups, dysuria, myoclonus/tremor, and ataxia. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed elevated levels of cell counts and protein. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple linear increased FLAIR signals in bilateral basal ganglia and corona radiata. Read More

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[Target antigen of the autoantibody required for the diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis].

Motomi Arai

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital.

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[Novel Autoantibody-Related Encephalitis: anti-mGluR1 encephalitis, anti-IgLON5 disease, autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy].

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):631-639

Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

Various neurological syndromes are associated with autoimmune encephalitis. Anti-mGluR1 antibody encephalitis presents mainly as subacute cerebellar ataxia, while behavioral changes and involuntary movements also occur. Anti-IgLON5 disease presents mainly as a sleep disorder. Read More

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[Anti-VGKC Complex Antibodies and Limbic Encephalitis].

Keiko Tanaka

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):605-610

Department of Animal Model Development, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies are now understood to be antibodies against associated proteins leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and are detected using a cell-based assay. Anti-LGI1 or anti-CASPR2 antibody-positive patients present characteristics of limbic encephalitis, which is usually seen in middle-aged men and women who present with mainly amnesia and seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures are seen specifically in LGI1 antibody-positive patients, and neuromyotonia is predominantly seen in CASPR2 antibody-positive patients. Read More

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[Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis].

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):595-604

Department of Neurology, Kitasato University.

Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against the extracellular conformational epitope of the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR (GluN1 antibodies). A series of autoantibodies directed against neuronal surface (NS) or synaptic proteins play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of post-herpes simplex encephalitis (post-HSE), overlapping autoimmune encephalitis and demyelinating syndrome, epileptic seizures, psychosis, involuntary movements (orofacial and limb dyskinesias, catatonia, dystonia, chorea, myoclonus, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and faciobrachial dystonic seizures), postpartum psychosis, stiff-person spectrum disorder (including progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus [PERM]), cerebellar ataxia, and sleep behavior disorders. These NS antibodies are identified with cell-based assays and immunohistochemistry using nonperfused paraformaldehyde-fixed rodent brain tissue. Read More

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[Hashimoto Encephalopathy].

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):544-551

Faculty of Nursing and Social Welfare Sciences, Fukui Prefectural University.

Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) has been recognized as a new clinical disease based on an autoimmune mechanism associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. HE is successfully treated with steroids. In 2005, we discovered serum autoantibodies against the NH-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) as a highly specific diagnostic biomarker for HE. Read More

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[Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody Associated Disease].

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):483-488

Division of Neurology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University.

Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease belongs to a new spectrum of disease entities that cause acute inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system. MOG antibody-associated disease presents with several phenotypes including optic neuritis, myelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, brain stem encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalitis, and cortical encephalitis. For the diagnosis, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid studies are required to prove inflammatory demyelination apart from the identification of anti-MOG antibodies using cell-based assays. Read More

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[Therapeutic Apheresis in Neurological Disorders].

Yuji Nakatsuji

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):425-430

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama.

Therapeutic apheresis is a valuable therapeutic option for various immune-mediated human disorders. Its therapeutic rationale is based on the removal of pathogenic autoantibodies and inflammatory molecules, such as complements, cytokines, and chemokines, that accelerate the disease activity. At the same time, other mechanisms of immune-modulatory effects have also been suggested. Read More

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