7,490 results match your criteria Japanese Encephalitis


[Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as a stroke-like episode following a migraine attack: a case report].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital.

A 23-year-old woman, who had been suffering from migraine since primary school age, presented with left arm paralysis three days after one such migraine attack. On admission, brain MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated high-signal-intensity lesions in the white matter of the right fronto-parietal lobe, and no abnormal lesions were evident in the limbic system. Although the patient had a fever of 38. Read More

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Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses and Current Therapeutic Advances.

Viruses 2022 Jun 5;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Mosquito-borne flavivirus infections affect approximately 400 million people worldwide each year and are global threats to public health. The common diseases caused by such flaviviruses include West Nile, yellow fever, dengue, Zika infection and Japanese encephalitis, which may result in severe symptoms and disorders of multiple organs or even fatal outcomes. Till now, no specific antiviral agents are commercially available for the treatment of the diseases. Read More

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Cross-Reactive Immunity among Five Medically Important Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Related to Human Diseases.

Viruses 2022 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Microbiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Flaviviruses cause a spectrum of potentially severe diseases. Most flaviviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks and are widely distributed all over the world. Among them, several mosquito-borne flaviviruses are co-epidemic, and the similarity of their antigenicity creates abundant cross-reactive immune responses which complicate their prevention and control. Read More

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The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia in 2022: Existing Knowledge of Mosquito Vectors.

Viruses 2022 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

In early 2022, the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was identified as the cause of stillborn and mummified piglets in pig farms in southeastern Australia. Human cases and additional pig farms with infected piglets were subsequently identified across a widespread area encompassing four states. To inform surveillance and control programs, we synthesized existing information on Australian vectors of JEV, much of which was generated in response to incursions of JEV into the northern state of Queensland between 1995 and 2005. Read More

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Protective Immune Responses Induced by an mRNA-LNP Vaccine Encoding prM-E Proteins against Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, which causes central nervous system symptoms in humans and reproductive disorders in swine. It has led to severe impacts on human health and the swine industry; however, there is no medicine available for treating yet. Therefore, vaccination is the best preventive measure for this disease. Read More

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Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Administered Simultaneously with Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine, Group A Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Measles-Rubella Combined Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in China.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of the enterovirus 71 vaccine (EV71 vaccine) administered alone or simultaneously.

Methods: A multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial was performed involving 1080 healthy infants aged 6 months or 8 months from Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hunan provinces. These infants were divided into four simultaneous administration groups and EV71 vaccine separate administration group. Read More

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Flavivirus NS1 Triggers Tissue-Specific Disassembly of Intercellular Junctions Leading to Barrier Dysfunction and Vascular Leak in a GSK-3β-Dependent Manner.

Pathogens 2022 May 24;11(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3370, USA.

The flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted from infected cells and contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction and vascular leak in a tissue-dependent manner. This phenomenon occurs in part via disruption of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) lining the endothelium. Additionally, we and others have shown that soluble DENV NS1 induces disassembly of intercellular junctions (IJCs), a group of cellular proteins critical for maintaining endothelial homeostasis and regulating vascular permeability; however, the specific mechanisms by which NS1 mediates IJC disruption remain unclear. Read More

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The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis in Australia and the Implications for a Vaccination Strategy.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 May 29;7(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Until 2022, only six locally transmitted human JE cases had been reported in Australia; five in northern Queensland and one in the Northern Territory. Thus, JE was mainly considered to be a disease of travellers. Read More

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Development and Application of a Duplex Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection and Differentiation of EP402R-Deleted and Wild-Type African Swine Fever Virus.

Front Vet Sci 2022 6;9:905706. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal porcine disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), and resulting in huge economic losses across the globe. ASF has been raging in China for 3 years, and recently EP402R-deleted ASFV strains emerged, showing sub-acute or chronic symptoms in pigs and providing novel difficulties to monitor and control the disease as EP402R-deleted strains possess no hemadsorption (HAD) ability. In addition, the gene deletion virus with low viral load is prone to results retest or false negative due to the high cycle threshold (Ct) value under the current real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method. Read More

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Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) NS1' Enhances the Viral Infection of Dendritic Cells (DCs) and Macrophages in Pig Tonsils.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 22:e0114722. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural Universitygrid.27871.3b, Nanjing, China.

Pigs are the amplifying hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Currently, the safe and effective live attenuated vaccine made of JEV strain SA14-14-2, which does not express NS1', is widely used in humans and domestic animals to prevent JEV infection. In this study, we constructed the NS1' expression recombinant virus (rA66G) through a single nucleotide mutation in of JEV strain SA14-14-2. Read More

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MIS-C with clinically mild encephalitis with a reversible splenial lesion in a Japanese boy.

Pediatr Int 2022 Jan;64(1):e15198

Department of Pediatrics, Iwaki City Medical Center, Iwaki-shi, Japan.

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January 2022

miR-451a Regulates Neuronal Apoptosis by Modulating 14-3-3ζ-JNK Axis upon Flaviviral Infection.

mSphere 2022 Jun 21:e0020822. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana, India.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)/West Nile Virus (WNV)-induced encephalitis, although observed in selective cases, is associated with fatal consequences ranging from decline in cognitive abilities among recovered patients to coma/death. Loss of neuronal cells following viral infection-induced neuronal death imposes significant challenge to the central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis eventually resulting in loss of CNS tissue integrity and poor disease outcome in patients. In our present study, we aim to evaluate the role played by miRNA in modulating neuronal death upon neurotropic flaviviral infections. Read More

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Acute neurologic emerging flaviviruses.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2022 Jan-Dec;9:20499361221102664. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Division of Critical Care and Hospitalist Neurology, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP), 177 Fort Washington Avenue, Milstein Hospital, 8GS-300, New York, NY 10032, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the challenges we face as a global society in preventing and containing emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Multiple intersecting factors, including environmental changes, host immunological factors, and pathogen dynamics, are intimately connected to the emergence and re-emergence of communicable diseases. There is a large and expanding list of communicable diseases that can cause neurological damage, either through direct or indirect routes. Read More

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Childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region (the SouthEast Asia Encephalitis Project): a multicentre prospective study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 Jul;10(7):e989-e1002

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and identifying clinical characteristics related to patients' conditions.

Methods: In this multicentre, observational, prospective study of childhood encephalitis, four referral hospitals in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar recruited children (aged 28 days to 16 years) who presented with altered mental status lasting more than 24 h and two of the following minor criteria: fever (within the 72 h before or after presentation), one or more generalised or partial seizures (excluding febrile seizures), a new-onset focal neurological deficit, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count of 5 per mL or higher, or brain imaging (CT or MRI) suggestive of lesions of encephalitis. Read More

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Adenovirus vector-based vaccines as forefront approaches in fighting the battle against flaviviruses.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Jun 17:2079323. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Molecular Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that have been recently considered among the significant public health problems in defined geographical regions. In this line, there have been vaccines approved for some flaviviruses including dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), although the efficiency of such vaccines thought to be questionable. Surprisingly, there are no effective vaccine for many other hazardous flaviviruses, including West Nile and Zika viruses. Read More

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Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus to Japanese encephalitis virus.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 16;15(1):210. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Vector Borne Diseases, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK.

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the principal cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in human populations within Asia. If introduced into new geographic areas, it could have further implications for public and animal health. However, potential mosquito vectors for virus transmission have not been fully investigated. Read More

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Increased Cleavage of Japanese Encephalitis Virus prM Protein Promotes Viral Replication but Attenuates Virulence.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 13:e0141722. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural Universitygrid.35155.37, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

In flavivirus, the furin-mediated cleavage of prM is mandatory to produce infectious particles, and the immature particles containing uncleaved prM cannot undergo membrane fusion and release to the extracellular environment. However, the detailed relationship between viral replication or pathogenicity and furin in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) hasn't been clarified. Here, JEV with the mutations in furin cleavage sites and its nearby were constructed. Read More

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Metabolomic Analysis of Key Regulatory Metabolites in the Urine of Flavivirus-Infected Mice.

J Trop Med 2022 1;2022:4663735. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases, Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Research Unit of Critical Infection, Children, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Laboratory of Infection and Virology, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, National Center for Children's Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are several important flaviviruses, and infections caused by these flaviviruses remain worldwide health problems. Different flaviviruses exhibit different biological characteristics and pathogenicity. Metabolomics is an emerging research perspective to uncover and observe the pathogenesis of certain infections. Read More

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Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Antibodies to Arboviruses (Dengue, Chikungunya and Japanese Encephalitis): A Prospective Study of 95 Patients Form a Tertiary Care Centre in Southern India.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2022 Mar-Apr;25(2):203-206. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India.

Objective: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of IgM antibodies against dengue (DEN), chikungunya (CHIK) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the serum and CSF of patients with Guillaine-Barre syndrome (GBS).

Methods: GBS patients (>12 years of age) were included after informed consent. Data on history, clinical manifestations, treatment details, and outcome were collected. Read More

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October 2021

Infectious causes of acute encephalitis syndrome hospitalizations in Central India, 2018-20.

J Clin Virol 2022 May 28;153:105194. Epub 2022 May 28.

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Telangana, India.

Background: We enhanced surveillance of hospitalizations of all ages for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) along with infectious aetiologies, including the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

Methods: From October 2018 to September 2020, we screened neurological patients for AES in all age groups in Maharashtra and Telangana States. AES cases were enrolled at study hospitals along with other referrals and sampled with cerebrospinal fluid, acute and convalescent sera. Read More

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Integrative RNA profiling of TBEV-infected neurons and astrocytes reveals potential pathogenic effectors.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2022 30;20:2759-2777. Epub 2022 May 30.

Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Branišovská 1760, České Budějovice 370 05, Czech Republic.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the most medically relevant tick-transmitted flavivirus in Eurasia, targets the host central nervous system and frequently causes severe encephalitis. The severity of TBEV-induced neuropathogenesis is highly cell-type specific and the exact mechanism responsible for such differences has not been fully described yet. Thus, we performed a comprehensive analysis of alterations in host poly-(A)/miRNA/lncRNA expression upon TBEV infection in human primary neurons (high cytopathic effect) and astrocytes (low cytopathic effect). Read More

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An evaluation of adverse events following an immunization campaign with the live, attenuated SA14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Cambodia.

PLoS One 2022 9;17(6):e0269480. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Introduction: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia. The SA14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by Chengdu Institute of Biological Products has been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials and childhood routine immunization programs. However, there are few published reports describing results of surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) when the vaccine is used in mass campaigns. Read More

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Lipases secreted by a gut bacterium inhibit arbovirus transmission in mosquitoes.

PLoS Pathog 2022 06 9;18(6):e1010552. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Arboviruses are etiological agents of various severe human diseases that place a tremendous burden on global public health and the economy; compounding this issue is the fact that effective prophylactics and therapeutics are lacking for most arboviruses. Herein, we identified 2 bacterial lipases secreted by a Chromobacterium bacterium isolated from Aedes aegypti midgut, Chromobacterium antiviral effector-1 (CbAE-1) and CbAE-2, with broad-spectrum virucidal activity against mosquito-borne viruses, such as dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV) and Sindbis virus (SINV). The CbAEs potently blocked viral infection in the extracellular milieu through their lipase activity. Read More

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Orofacial Dyskinesia and Intractable Hiccups in a Patient with Varicella-Zoster Virus Encephalomyelitis.

Intern Med 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Departments of Neurology, Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Japan.

A 73-year-old Japanese man with diabetic complications presented with involuntary lip movements and long-lasting hiccups after developing zoster rash. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions involving the medial temporal lobe and C1 level of the spinal cord. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalomyelitis was diagnosed. Read More

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Epidemiological investigation of swine Japanese encephalitis virus based on RT-RAA detection method.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 7;12(1):9392. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

JEV is one of the zoonotic pathogens that cause serious diseases in humans. JEV infection can cause abortion, mummified foetus and stillbirth in sows, orchitis and semen quality decline in boars, causing huge economic losses to pig industry. In order to investigate the epidemiology of JEV in pigs in Sichuan province, a rapid and efficient fluorescent Reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RT-RAA) detection method was established. Read More

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A High-Throughput Yellow Fever Neutralization Assay.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 7:e0254821. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

KU Leuvengrid.5596.f Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, Virology and Chemotherapy, Molecular Vaccinology & Vaccine Discovery, Leuven, Belgium.

Quick and accurate detection of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against yellow fever is essential in serodiagnosis during outbreaks for surveillance and to evaluate vaccine efficacy in population-wide studies. All of this requires serological assays that can process a large number of samples in a highly standardized format. Albeit being laborious, time-consuming, and limited in throughput, the classical plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is still considered the gold standard for the detection and quantification of nAbs due to its sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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QKI deficiency in macrophages protects mice against JEV infection by regulating cell migration and antiviral response.

Mol Immunol 2022 Aug 2;148:34-44. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, NO.17, Changle West Road, Xincheng District, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major reason to cause viral encephalitis, with 50% patients suffering from severe neuro-inflammation and permanent neural injury. Effective anti-viral treatment is urgently needed. Here, we found RNA binding protein quaking (QKI) was involved in the progression of JE by regulating migration and anti-viral response of macrophages. Read More

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Human Guanylate-Binding Protein 1 Positively Regulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication in an Interferon Gamma Primed Environment.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 19;12:832057. Epub 2022 May 19.

Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India.

RNA virus infection triggers interferon (IFN) receptor signaling, leading to the activation of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) belong to one such IFN inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that have been reported to exert broad anti-microbial activity and regulate host defenses against several intracellular pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of human GBP1 (hGBP1) in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection of HeLa cells in both an IFNγ unprimed and primed environment. Read More

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Molecular pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis and possible therapeutic strategies.

Arch Virol 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Center for Bioinformatics, Computational and Systems Biology, Pathfinder Research and Training Foundation, Greater Noida, India.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus, is a health concern across Asian countries, associated with severe neurological disorders, especially in children. Primarily, pigs, bats, and birds are the natural hosts for JEV, but humans are infected incidentally. JEV requires a few host proteins for its entry and replication inside the mammalian host cell. Read More

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