35,231 results match your criteria Iris Prolapse
Int J Retina Vitreous 2018 30;4:45. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California Irvine, 850 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease caused by loss of expression of the paternally inherited copy of several genes on the long arm of chromosome 15. Ophthalmic manifestations of PWS include strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, hypopigmentation of the iris and choroid, diabetic retinopathy, cataract and congenital ectropion uvea. An overlap between PWS and oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) has long been recognized and attributed to deletion of OCA2 gene located in PWS critical region (PWCR). Read More
J Belg Soc Radiol 2017 Nov 18;101(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Nov 18.
Hôpitaux Iris et Iris Sud, BE.
Recent improvements in fetal therapies and perinatal care and the multidisciplinary involvement in fetal medicine have increased the demand for more accurate prenatal diagnosis. Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a complementary imaging technique for the assessment of thoraco-abdominal anomalies for which Ultrasonography (US) is not conclusive. It is indicated in selected situations to precise the prognosis in diaphragmatic hernia, to characterise the nature and extension of a pulmonary malformation, to locate a bowel atresia or to better depict an abdominal cystic lesion or tumoural extension. Read More
Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Dec 15;137:688-694. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
OLMAN-RL, Faculté Pluridisciplinaire de Nador (FPN), Université Mohammed 1er, B.P: 300, Selouane, 62700, Nador, Morocco. Electronic address:
Heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Co, and Pb were investigated in soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis coming from an aquaculture farm in Cala Iris sea of AlHoceima. Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected monthly during the period January to December 2016. The seasonal variations were affected significantly the concentrations of metals (Cd, Fe and Cr) in M. Read More
Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre. Electronic address:
Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, CASIA SS-1000, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) for angle closure detection, in comparison with gonioscopy in a community setting.
Design: Reliability analysis.
Methods: A total of 2027 phakic subjects aged ≥50 years, with no previous history of glaucoma, laser (including peripheral iridotomy), intraocular surgery or ocular trauma, were consecutively recruited from a community polyclinic in Singapore. Read More
Eur J Rheumatol 2018 Dec 12;5(4):240-243. Epub 2018 Oct 12.
Deparment of Health Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the contributing factors for oral ulcer activity in Behçet's disease (BD).
Methods: Ninety-two patients with BD (F/M: 42/50, mean age: 38.7±10. Read More
J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2018 Dec 4;8(1):22. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Baba Kharak Singh Marg, New Delhi, 110001, India.
Background: Syphilitic uveitis is an infective uveitis and a great mimicker. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in the specific treatment resulting in deterioration of uveitis and loss of vision.
Findings: A 38-year-old unmarried female presented with pain, redness, and blurring of vision in the left eye for the last 5 days. Read More
Ophthalmologe 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Universität zu Köln, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Köln, Deutschland.
Background: Benign iridal tumors rarely necessitate a therapeutic intervention. In contrast, malignant tumors of the iris can threaten the patient's life and eyesight and require early treatment to prevent the development of metastases.
Objective: Presentation of current treatment options for iridal tumors with special emphasis on iridal melanoma. Read More
Vet Rec 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Pet Nutrition Center, Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc, Topeka, Kansas, USA.
A prospective, randomised, 6-month feeding trial was performed in 28 adult cats with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD). All cats were assigned to either a control food: Royal Canin Renal Support A Feline, dry or a test food: Hill's Prescription Diet k/d Feline with chicken, dry. Food intake was recorded daily; body weight weekly; and serum, urine, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and body condition assessments were performed at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. Read More
Nutrients 2018 Dec 1;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 680 North Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
Coffee is widely consumed and contains many bioactive compounds, any of which may impact pathways related to disease development. Our objective was to identify individual lipid changes in response to coffee drinking. We profiled the lipidome of fasting serum samples collected from a previously reported single blinded, three-stage clinical trial. Read More
Rev Prat 2016 May;66(5):508-513
Institut du glaucome, hôpital Saint-Joseph, Paris, France.
Glaucomas treatment. Glaucoma is the first cause of blindness in Europe. The purposes of its treatment are lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), but also getting a good patient compliance with a good tolerance and a good ratio cost/effectiveness. Read More
Rev Prat 2017 Jan;67(1):107-108
Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Mère-Enfant, CHU de Limoges, Limoges, France.
Rev Prat 2017 Jan;67(1):105-106
Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Mère-Enfant, CHU de Limoges, Limoges, France.
Prevention of depression in patient with age-related macular degeneration. Depression of the elderly may be increased by the feeling of vulnerability when a chronic disabling disease is diagnosed. The discovery of age-related macular degeneration often induces for the patient a fear of evolution, and the begining of a long-lasting ophthalmologic treatment. Read More
PLoS Med 2018 Dec 4;15(12):e1002706. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, individuals infected with HIV who are severely immunocompromised have high mortality (about 10%) shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). This group also has the greatest risk of morbidity and mortality associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a paradoxical response to successful ART. Integrase inhibitors lead to significantly more rapid declines in HIV viral load (VL) than all other ART classes. Read More
Clin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, 226014, India.
Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have high expression levels of hsa-miR-132-3p, hsa-miR-146a-5p, and hsa-miR-155-5p in peripheral blood. We studied if baseline blood levels of these microRNAs (miRNAs) could predict response to methotrexate (MTX).
Methods: RA patients (the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria) with active disease (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) > 3. Read More
J Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan.
Objective: In the present study, we analyzed the inflammatory profiles of brain tissues obtained from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to John Cunningham (JC) virus infection to identify potential prognostic factors.
Methods: The study included seven patients (two men, five women) who had been pathologically diagnosed with PML, and all of whom were HIV negative. Fixed brain samples were analyzed via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Klüver-Barrera (KB) staining. Read More
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019 Mar 14;13:32-33. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Purpose: To describe a child with primary congenital glaucoma found to have pigment tissue proliferation in the angle following multiple applications of trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation.
Observations: During examination under anaesthesia, a 4-year-old girl was found to have pigmented tissue overlying the trabecular meshwork. Anterior segment ocular coherence tomography confirmed mounds of abnormal tissue in the angle. Read More
Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2018 29;2018:2534042. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.
Purpose: Iris mammillations are related to oculodermal melanosis and iris nevi. We report a rare case of bilateral simple iris mammillations without ocular melanosis or systemic neuronal disorders.
Case Report: A healthy 10-year-old Japanese girl was found incidentally to have bilateral iris mammillations while being treated for amblyopia. Read More
Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 28;2018:6870768. Epub 2018 Oct 28.
Department of Medicine, Poona Hospital and Research Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Parasitic infections such as and HIV have been reported to coexist, particularly in resource-limited settings such as India. In an immunocompromised host, can progress to strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS). However, SHS is not common in patients with advanced HIV disease. Read More
J Cataract Refract Surg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
From the 2nd Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Purpose: To compare the incidence of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome (IFIS) between male and female patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery, evaluate risk factors for its appearance in each sex, and assess any differences in the final visual outcomes.
Setting: 2nd Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
Design: Comparative retrospective case-control study. Read More
J Phys Condens Matter 2019 Jan;31(1):014002
Physics Department, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
We present a comprehensive first-principles investigation of the electronic and optical properties of CsKSb, a semiconducting material for ultra-bright electron sources for particle accelerators. Our study, based on density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory, provides all the ingredients to model the emission of this material as a photocathode, including band gap, band dispersion, and optical absorption. An accurate description of these properties beyond the mean-field picture is relevant to take into account many-body effects. Read More
Cornea 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Chiba, Japan.
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of iris damage on endothelial cell loss in the early phase after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP).
Methods: This prospective consecutive study included 74 patients who underwent PKP without graft rejection during the follow-up period. Endothelial cell density (ECD) was measured using specular microscopy at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after PKP. Read More
Vestn Oftalmol 2018 ;134(5):86-91
Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, 14/19 Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 105062.
The article describes a clinical case of a giant post-traumatic iris cyst occupying the anterior chamber in a 3-year-old child successfully treated with laser methods (YAG-laser and diode-pumped laser with doubled frequency). Cyst scarring was achieved with preservation of visual acuity of 1.0. Read More
Beilstein J Org Chem 2018 9;14:2812-2821. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Department of Chemistry & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Straße 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany.
The electrochemical behavior of stiff dithienylethenes, undergoing double bond isomerization in addition to ring-closure, has been investigated. Electrochromism was observed in almost all cases, with the major pathway being the oxidatively induced cyclization of the open isomers. The influence of the ring size (to lock the reactive antiparallel conformation) as well as substituents (to modulate the redox potential) on the electrocyclization was examined. Read More
Lond Med Phys J 1828 Apr;4(22):281-285
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
Med Phys J 1809 Dec;22(130):468-478
Med Phys J 1806 Jul;16(89):55-62
Med Phys J 1807 May;17(99):403-422
late of Coleman Street, now of Finsbury Square, Surgeon.
J Vis 2018 Nov;18(12):15
UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Using synthetic 3D head and eye models, we examined the relationship between perceived gaze direction and the information within the image eye region across changes in head orientation. For each stimulus head and eye orientation, we rendered gray-scale images with realistic pigmentation and shading, and two-tone images depicting the regions corresponding to the iris, pupil, or eye-opening. Behavioural experiments using the gray-scale images as stimuli showed that perceived gaze direction was more strongly biased opposite to head orientation (repulsive effect) in the far-eye visible condition than in the near-eye visible condition. Read More
Nord J Psychiatry 2018 Nov 29:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
b Department of Psychosis Studies , King's College , London , UK.
Background: Religion and psychiatry may be both considered to be two different ways of explaining the unknown, of responding to questions about the meaning of life, and of bringing healing.
Aims: To discuss the border between religion and psychiatry.
Method: This lecture explores the interface between religion and psychiatry and discusses the border between soul and mind. Read More
Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Depto. de Ingeniería Mecánica, Energética y de los Materiales and Instituto de Computación Científica Avanzada (ICCAEx), Universidad de Extremadura, 06006, Badajoz, Spain.
We study numerically the influence of an iris-fixed phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) on the transport of nutrients by the aqueous humor across a realistic model of the human eye. The Boussinesq equations are solved to calculate the velocity field both in the anterior and posterior chambers. The transport of the nutrient is modeled as that of a passive scalar convected by that velocity field and diffused by the concentration gradient. Read More
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India.
Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Nov 29;16(1):116. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
TDR, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 avenue Appia, 1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Background: A review of research priorities completed by WHO technical units was undertaken. Results of the mapping were recorded in a database that was used to generate analysis and compare research priorities and the different methodological approaches used in their development.
Methods: A total of 116 documents were reviewed for this study. Read More
Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Background: Exogenous endophthalmitis is a potential complication of intraocular surgery and frequently results in visual impairment. Current treatment involves administration of intravitreal (IVT) antibiotics with or without vitrectomy surgery. Evidence for the use of adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents is conflicting. Read More
Case Rep Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec;9(3):449-456. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
Purpose: To investigate iris morphological features in 360° angle-closure neovascular glaucoma (NVG) by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT).
Patients And Methods: In this retrospective, clinic-based, comparative study, 14 patients with 360° angle-closure NVG and 14 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled. All patients enrolled had no prior glaucoma surgery but underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Read More
Phytochemistry 2018 Nov 24;158:86-90. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
University of Palermo, Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Viale delle Scienze, 90128, Palermo, Italy.
Iris species can adopt different pollination strategies to attract their pollinators, generalized shelter-mimicking, specialized deceptive sexual-mimicking or food-rewarding. As attractive stimuli, Iris flowers may use their colours, large-size, symmetry, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, relatively few studies investigated Iris floral olfactory cues in the context of plant-visitor/pollinator interactions. Read More
Antiviral Res 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA. Electronic address:
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a significant pathogen that affects vision by targeting multiple regions in the human eye including iris. Using a focused library of synthetic non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics (NSGMs), we identified sulfated pentagalloylglucoside (SPGG) as a potent inhibitor of HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell spread in the primary cultures of human iris stromal (HIS) cells isolated from eye donors. Using in vitro β-galactosidase reporter assay and plaque reduction assay, SPGG was found to inhibit HSV-1 entry in a dosage-dependent manner (IC ∼6. Read More
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Nov;59(13):5641-5647
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States.
Purpose: Intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuates with a robust circadian rhythm, which is synchronized to organismal rhythmicity through the master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The mechanisms maintaining circadian synchrony between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and IOP rhythms are presently unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity and sufficiency of adrenal and glucocorticoid function for the entrainment of iris-ciliary body (iris-CB) and IOP circadian rhythms in mice. Read More
PLoS One 2018 27;13(11):e0208086. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy with CyberKnife for prostate cancer has long treatment times compared with conventional radiotherapy. This arises the need for designing treatment plans with short execution times. We propose an objective function for plan quality evaluation, which was used to determine an optimal combination between small and large collimators based on short treatment times and clinically acceptable dose distributions. Read More
Ophthalmologe 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Universität zu Köln, Kerpenerstr. 62, 50924, Köln, Deutschland.
Background: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) has become the standard surgical treatment for Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) in Germany. In addition to classical FECD, there are endothelial disorders amenable to DMEK associated with complex changes in the anterior segment of the eye, such as anterior synechia of the iris, larger iris defects, after glaucoma surgery, after vitrectomy and after trauma.
Objective: This article provides an overview of the possibilities to treat patients with complex anterior segment situations in the presence of corneal endothelial decompensation with DMEK. Read More
PLoS One 2018 26;13(11):e0207710. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Purpose: To present a novel non-parametric algorithm for detecting the position of the human eye limbus in three dimensions and a new dynamic method for measuring the full 360° visible iris boundary known as white-to-white distance along the eye horizontal line.
Methods: The study included 88 participants aged 23 to 65 years (37.7±9. Read More
J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2018 May-Aug;12(2):90-93. Epub 2018 Aug 1.
Clinical Lead and Consultant, Department of Ophthalmology, Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre, UK.
We describe a new modified technique to release the peripheral iridocorneal adhesions that formed after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. The usual technique of goniosynechialysis was modified and performed using endoscopic fiber-optic light and camera probe to aid visualization of the adherent iris tissue and carry out uneventful 270 degrees release of adhesions. The iris tissue was gently pulled away using micro forceps. Read More
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
Department of Business Psychology, (Head: Ulrike Starker, PhD), Harz University of Applied Sciences, Friedrichstrasse 57-59, 38855, Wernigerode, Germany. Electronic address:
Introduction: While periorbital and -ocular surgery ranks amongst the most frequently performed plastic surgical procedures, only scarce information exists regarding the contributing factors of aging and its systematic anatomic assessment. The presented study, based on measuring distinct physical landmarks, aimed to gather data to provide a foundation of in-depth periorbital analysis in order to more clearly define female eye attractiveness.
Methods: 80 probands (age range: 30-50 years, M = 38. Read More
Environ Int 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Health Sciences Centre, Room 2C14, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Health Sciences Centre, Room 2C14, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada. Electronic address:
The objective of this paper is to explain how to apply, interpret, and present the results of a new instrument to assess the risk of bias (RoB) in non-randomized studies (NRS) dealing with effects of environmental exposures on health outcomes. This instrument is modeled on the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) instrument. The RoB instrument for NRS of exposures assesses RoB along a standardized comparison to a randomized target experiment, instead of the study-design directed RoB approach. Read More
J Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Ophthalmology department, hôpital Charles-Nicolle, 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen, France. Electronic address:
Introduction: Corneal tattooing is a noninvasive technique which appears relatively well-tolerated in the medium term. We report the cases of 3 patients with a significant change in the color of their tattoos performed over 5 years previously.
Patients And Methods: Three patients with a history of intracorneal tattooing several years previously were studied because of a significant change from their initial color. Read More
Phys Ther Sport 2018 Nov 17;35:79-88. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Ireland; Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Ireland.
Objectives: To describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive injury surveillance system.
Design: The four phases; i) A survey of 58 medical professionals working in amateur rugby. ii) The design of a web-based injury surveillance system (IRISweb). Read More
Pol J Vet Sci 2018 Sep;21(3):507-515
Department of Veterinary Medicine (DIMEVET), University of Milan, via Celoria 10, 20133 Milan, Italy.
In humans, iron deficiency represents a relevant occurrence in heart failure (HF), with or without anaemia, and is associated with the worst outcome. Moreover, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a well-known comorbidity of HF and is strongly associated with the risk of developing anaemia. The most common cause of HF in dogs is myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Read More
Transl Psychiatry 2018 Nov 22;8(1):251. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Clinical & Biological Psychology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
The probability to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), characterized by vivid, intrusive emotional memories of the encountered traumatic events, depends - among other factors - on the number of previous traumatic experiences (traumatic load) and individual genetic vulnerability. So far, our knowledge regarding the biological underpinnings of PTSD is relatively sparse. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by independent replication might help to discover novel, so far unknown biological mechanisms associated with the development of traumatic memories. Read More
Mar Environ Res 2018 Nov 12;142:214-233. Epub 2018 Oct 12.
Le CEDRE, Brest, France.
This paper concerns the migration of oil through sea-ice and the biodegradation of different hydrocarbons in sea-ice and seawater following in situ oil spills in megacosms exposed to winter and spring conditions in Svalbard (80°N). Hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were detected in ice cores and the analysis of metabolically active bacterial populations in the different layers of sea-ice indicate significant population shifts following oil exposure, whether dispersant addition or oil burning was carried out or not. The presence of dispersant in the system was associated with the most pronounced and fastest population shifts out of all exposures, as well as lower bacterial diversity as measured by the Shannon index. Read More