4,132 results match your criteria Ionizing Radiation Exposure Medical Imaging


A semantic database for integrated management of image and dosimetric data in low radiation dose research in medical imaging.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:492-501. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute of Translational Molecular Imaging, Genève.

Medical ionizing radiation procedures and especially medical imaging are a non negligible source of exposure to patients. Whereas the biological effects of high absorbed doses are relatively well known, the effects of low absorbed doses are still debated. This work presents the development of a computer platform called Image and Radiation Dose BioBank (IRDBB) to manage research data produced in the context of the MEDIRAD project, a European project focusing on research on low doses in the context of medical procedures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Students' and Qualified Radiographers' Perspectives and Understanding on Occupational Dose Monitoring and Prevention Strategies.

Health Phys 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Abstract: Effective implementation and ongoing monitoring of occupational radiation safety and protection is key for radiographers as prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation can increase the risk of long-term ill health effects. It is important that radiographers are aware of what is required of them to remain within the permitted dose limit. Topics and training on dose monitoring and occupational practice safety and practice are embedded in both undergraduate and postgraduate courses and ongoing as part of continuous professional development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ultra-low-dose lung multidetector computed tomography in children - Approaching 0.2 millisievert.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 22;139:109699. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

University Children's Hospital Zurich, Department of Imaging, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare objective and subjective parameters in image quality and radiation dose of two MDCTs (helical 64 detector CT vs. axial 256 detector CT) in paediatric lung CT.

Methods: Radiation dose and image quality were compared between non-enhanced lung CT from a helical 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT 1) and a 256-slice scanner (MDCT 2) with axial wide-cone acquisition and using deep learning image reconstruction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection and monitoring of early dental caries and erosion using three-dimensional enhanced truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography imaging.

J Biomed Opt 2021 Apr;26(4)

Quantum Dental Technologies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Significance: Dental caries is the most common oral disease, with significant effects on healthcare systems and quality of life. Developing diagnostic methods for early caries detection is key to reducing this burden and enabling non-invasive treatment as opposed to the drill-and-fill approach.

Aim: The application of a thermophotonic-based 3D imaging modality [enhanced truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (eTC-PCT)] to early dental caries is investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recognition of brain tumors in MRI images using texture analysis.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 29;28(4):2381-2387. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, College Of Science & Humanities, Computer Science department, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Brain neoplasms or intracranial tumors, which are more common in older adults, can affect individuals of any age including pediatric and children. Exposure to carcinogenic agents including ionizing radiation and family history is one of the main causes of the disease. Early diagnosis is crucial to avoid prolonged. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PET/MRI for staging patients with Hodgkin lymphoma: equivalent results with PET/CT in a prospective trial.

Ann Hematol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University Medical School, Via Sergio Pansini, 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

To compare FDG-PET/unenhanced MRI and FDG-PET/diagnostic CT in detecting infiltration in patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The endpoint was equivalence between PET/MRI and PET/CT in correctly defining the revised Ann Arbor staging system. Seventy consecutive patients with classical-HL were prospectively investigated for nodal and extra-nodal involvement during pretreatment staging with same-day PET/CT and PET/MRI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ultrasound Frequency-Based Monitoring for Bone Healing.

Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine School of Medicine Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 538585, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan;

Correct assessment of the bone healing process is required for the management of limb immobilization during the treatment of bone injuries, including fractures and defects. Although the monitoring of bone healing using ultrasound poses several advantages regarding cost and ionizing radiation exposure compared with other dominant imaging methods, such as radiography and CT, traditional ultrasound B-mode imaging lacks reliability and objectivity. However, the body structures can be quantitatively observed by ultrasound frequency-based methods, and therefore, the disadvantages of B-mode imaging can be overcome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Burden of Ionizing Radiation in the Diagnosis and Management of Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 27;12(5):e00347. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: A step-up endoscopic or percutaneous approach improves outcomes in necrotizing pancreatitis (NP). However, these require multiple radiographic studies and fluoroscopic procedures, which use low-dose ionizing radiation. The cumulative radiation exposure for treatment of NP has not been well defined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Knowledge and Associated Factors of Medical Students Regarding Radiation Exposure from Common Diagnostic Imaging Procedures at the University of Gondar, Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2020 Jul;30(4):589-598

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box, 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Physicians' knowledge about radiation exposure and risks was previously reported as inadequate. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge and associated factors regarding radiation exposure among medical students from common diagnostic imaging procedures at the University of Gondar.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge and associated factors regarding radiation exposure among medical students. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Local diagnostic reference levels for digital mammography: Two hospitals study in northwest, Nigeria.

J Med Imaging Radiat Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

Background: Mammography involves the use of low energy X-rays to image the breast tissue. Although low dose radiation is used, the use of ionising radiation implies the risk of inducing breast cancer. Thus, the study established local DRLs for digital mammography for in-house dose optimisation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cumulative radiation dose incurred during the management of complex pleural space infection.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 23;21(1):132. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Pulmonology, Swedish Cancer Institute, 1101 Madison St, Suite 900, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Background: Complex pleural space infections are commonly managed with antibiotics, pleural drainage, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy, and surgery. These strategies often utilize radiographic imaging during management, however little data is available on cumulative radiation exposure received during inpatient management. We aimed to identify the type and quantity of radiographic studies along with the resultant radiation exposure during the management of complex pleural space infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lack of transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident.

Science 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20892, USA.

Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated whether children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation post-accident were born with more germline de novo mutations (DNMs). Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987-2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase in the rates, distributions, or types of DNMs versus previous studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Implementation of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner dedicated to emergencies in cases of binocular diplopia: Impact on patient management.

J Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Service des Urgences, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1, Place de l'Hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: Evaluate the implementation of an MRI scanner dedicated to emergencies on the management of patients admitted in the emergency department (ED) for binocular diplopia (BD).

Material And Methods: This was a prospective non-interventional single-center study from February 2018 to February 2020. A total of 110 patients were included: 52 patients during the first stage (29 women; 23 men; mean age 65. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification of miRNA Associated with Reduced Survival after Whole-Thorax Lung Irradiation in Non-Human Primates.

Radiat Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

ChromoLogic LLC, Monrovia, California 91016.

Thoracic exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to delayed injuries to the heart and lung that are serious and even life-threatening. These injuries are difficult to predict since they manifest over many weeks and months. To identify non-invasive, tissue-specific biomarkers for the early detection of late radiation injury, circulating microRNA (miRNA) levels were measured in non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that received a single exposure of whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI) at a dose likely to result in 20% or 75% mortality within 180 days (9. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

X-Ray and Molecular Imaging During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding-When Should We be Worried?

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Medical Radiation Physics Malmö, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden.

Some of the ethically most sensitive issues in radiation protection arise at imaging of pregnant-and potentially pregnant-patients and of newborn. This article reviews the current literature and recommendations on imaging during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Risks related to alternative non-ionizing radiation methods are also considered. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinico-pathological and transcriptomic analysis of radiation-induced lung injury in non-human primates.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a progressive condition, with an early phase, radiation pneumonitis (RP), and a late phase, lung fibrosis (LF). RILI may occur after partial-body ionizing radiation exposures or by internal radioisotope exposure, with wide individual variability in timing and extent of lung injury. This study aims to provide new insights into the pathogenesis and progression of RILI in the non-human primate (NHP) rhesus macaque model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cumulative diagnostic imaging radiation exposure in premature neonates.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: To date, there has been limited work evaluating the total cumulative effective radiation dose received by infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Most previous publications report that the total radiation dose received falls within the safe limits but does not include all types of ionizing radiation studies typically performed on this vulnerable patient population. We aimed to provide an estimate of the cumulative effective ionizing radiation dose (cED) in microSieverts (μSv) received by premature infants ≤32 weeks from diagnostic studies performed throughout their NICU stay, and predictors of exposures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Zero-TE MRI: Potential Applications in the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Apr;30(2):105-115

Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

Abstract: Zero-echo time (ZTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the newest in a family of MRI pulse sequences that involve ultrafast sequence readouts, permitting visualization of short-T2 tissues such as cortical bone. Inherent sequence properties enable rapid, high-resolution, quiet, and artifact-resistant imaging. ZTE can be performed as part of a "one-stop-shop" MRI examination for comprehensive evaluation of head and neck pathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Digital radiography reject analysis of examinations with multiple rejects: an Australian emergency imaging department clinical audit.

J Med Radiat Sci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Medical Radiation Sciences, School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: The largest source of manmade ionising radiation exposure to the public stems from diagnostic medical imaging examinations. Reject analysis, a form of quality assurance, was introduced to minimise repeat exposures. The purpose of this study was to analyse projection-specific reject rates and radiographic examinations with multiple rejects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The use of ionising radiation in orthopaedic surgery: principles, regulations and managing risk to surgeons and patients.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

The use of ionising radiation for plain film radiography and computerised tomography is fundamental in both diagnostics and treatment for orthopaedics. However, radiation is not without risk as high exposure can increase the risk of cancer. Little time is spent educating doctors about the relative risks of radiation, both to patients and themselves. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In-Silico Monte Carlo Simulation Trials for Investigation of VO Reinforcement Effect on Ternary Zinc Borate Glasses: Nuclear Radiation Shielding Dynamics.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;14(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Physics, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

In the current study, promising glass composites based on vanadium pentoxide (VO)-doped zinc borate (ZnB) were investigated in terms of their nuclear-radiation-shielding dynamics. The mass and linear attenuation coefficient, half-value layer, mean free path, tenth-value layer, effective atomic number, exposure-buildup factor, and energy-absorption-buildup factor were deeply simulated by using MCNPX code, Phy-X PSD code, and WinXcom to study the validation of ZBV1, ZBV2, ZBV3, and ZBV4 based on (100-x)(0.6ZnO-0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Canadian Society of Thoracic Radiology/Canadian Association of Radiologists Clinical Practice Guidance for Non-Vascular Thoracic MRI.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2021 Mar 29:846537121998961. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 7938University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Historically thoracic MRI has been limited by the lower proton density of lung parenchyma, cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts and long acquisition times. Recent technological advancements in MR hardware systems and improvement in MR pulse sequences have helped overcome these limitations and expand clinical opportunities for non-vascular thoracic MRI. Non-vascular thoracic MRI has been established as a problem-solving imaging modality for characterization of thymic, mediastinal, pleural chest wall and superior sulcus tumors and for detection of endometriosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Computed tomography in cystic fibrosis lung disease: a focus on radiation exposure.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Apr 20;51(4):544-553. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Thoracic computed tomography (CT) is the imaging reference method in the diagnosis, assessment and management of lung disease. In the setting of cystic fibrosis (CF), CT demonstrates increased sensitivity compared with pulmonary function tests and chest radiography, and findings correlate with clinical outcomes. Better understanding of the aetiology of CF lung disease indicates that even asymptomatic infants with CF can have irreversible pulmonary pathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Extracellular Vesicles for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Toxicity in the Lung.

Front Oncol 2020 2;10:602763. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States.

Human stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) provide many advantages over cell-based therapies for the treatment of functionally compromised tissue beds and organ sites. Here we sought to determine whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived EV could resolve in part, the adverse late normal tissue complications associated with exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation. The hESC-derived EV were systemically administered to the mice the retro-orbital sinus to explore the potential therapeutic benefits following exposure to high thoracic doses of radiation (14 Gy). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cephalometry without complex dedicated postprocessing in an oriented magnetic resonance imaging dataset: a pilot study.

Eur J Orthod 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Orthodontics and Orofacial Orthopedics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.

Objectives: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables a 3D-volume-imaging without ionizing radiation. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to present a post-processing-free method for cephalometric analysis of a MRI-dataset and to examine whether there is a significant difference between cephalometric analysis of conventional 2D cephalograms and MRI scans.

Methods: One MRI scan each was performed on three cadaver heads using a 3T-MR-scanner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ionizing radiation exposure from dialysis tunneled catheters procedures: European directive and legal implications.

J Vasc Access 2021 Mar 14:11297298211001141. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Nephrology and Dialysis Department, "Maggiore della Carità" University Hospital, Novara, Italy.

Background: Advances in medical imaging and interventional procedures have been associated with increased exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established uniform safety standards to protect the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. In Europe, the ICRP standards are listed in the European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM, which should be transposed into national legislation by member states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of 4DMRI and 4DCT for the preoperative evaluation of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 5;138:109625. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery is the standard of care in patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) which requires accurate preoperative localization. Of all the available imaging modalities, 4DCT is considered the best modality for localization, however it entails the risk of ionizing radiation. To circumvent this 4DMRI was evaluated for parathyroid lesion localization. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Should I irradiate with computed tomography or sedate for magnetic resonance imaging?

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

In the context of pediatric cross-sectional imaging, the risk of ionizing radiation for CT and the potential adverse effects associated with sedation/anesthesia for MRI continue to provoke lively discussions in the pediatric literature and lay press. This is particularly true for issues relating to the risks of ionizing radiation for CT, which has been a topic of discussion for nearly two decades. In addition to understanding these potential risks and the importance of minimizing individual pediatric patient exposure to ionizing radiation, it is equally important for radiologists to be able to frame these risks with respect to the potential for adverse outcomes associated with the use of anesthesia for cross-sectional imaging in the pediatric population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of the DNA Damage Response in Dental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Following Low Dose X-ray Exposure.

Front Public Health 2021 15;9:584484. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Radiobiology Unit, Mol, Belgium.

Stem cells contained within the dental mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) population are crucial for tissue homeostasis. Assuring their genomic stability is therefore essential. Exposure of stem cells to ionizing radiation (IR) is potentially detrimental for normal tissue homeostasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Feasibility and efficacy of a decision aid for emergency department patients with suspected ureterolithiasis: protocol for an adaptive randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Mar 10;22(1):201. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute for Healthcare Delivery and Population Science, University of Massachusetts Medical School - Baystate, Springfield, MA, USA.

Background: Approximately 2 million patients present to emergency departments in the USA annually with signs and symptoms of ureterolithiasis (or renal colic, the pain from an obstructing kidney stone). Both ultrasound and CT scan can be used for diagnosis, but the vast majority of patients receive a CT scan. Diagnostic pathways utilizing ultrasound have been shown to decrease radiation exposure to patients but are potentially less accurate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF