3,510 results match your criteria Ionizing Radiation Exposure Medical Imaging


Metformin Protects Against Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis and Fibrosis and Attenuates Upregulation of Dual Oxidase Genes Expression.

Adv Pharm Bull 2018 Nov 29;8(4):697-704. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, Iran.

Lung tissue is one of the most sensitive organs to ionizing radiation (IR). Early and late side effects of exposure to IR can limit the radiation doses delivered to tumors that are within or adjacent to this organ. Pneumonitis and fibrosis are the main side effects of radiotherapy for this organ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2018.078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311649PMC
November 2018

Pediatric Residents' and Medical Interns' Awareness about Pediatric Ionizing Radiation Dose from Computed Tomography and Its Associated Risks in Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2018 Jul;28(4):383-392

Department of Radiology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University.

Background: The international literature on physicians' knowledge regarding radiation dosages and risks due to computed tomography showed a widespread underestimation of diagnostic radiation doses. Hence, the objective of this work is to assess the awareness of pediatric residents and medical interns about pediatric CT dose and possible risks.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on May/2016 among year I to year III pediatric residents and 2015/2016 year medical interns attaching Pediatrics Department during the study period in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral and Teaching Hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i4.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308742PMC

The evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux among children using contrast-enhanced ultrasound: a literature review.

J Pediatr Urol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Radiology, Instituto da Criança, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) with fluoroscopy remains the gold standard for detection and evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) among children. However, the ionizing radiation exposure remains a concern for this diagnostic modality. Recent studies have proposed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound as an alternative option for VUR screening and follow-up in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018

The 15th Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address-Jus•ti•fied and Com•men•su•rate.

Health Phys 2019 Feb;116(2):117-125

Clarksburg, MD.

When patients are exposed to ionizing radiation for medical diagnosis or treatment, the procedure being performed should be justified, and the amount of ionizing radiation used should be commensurate with the medical purpose. A legal limit on the amount of ionizing radiation used for medical exposure of a patient does not apply. The biological basis for radiation protection of patients is the same as for all other ionizing radiation exposures: prevent or avoid tissue reactions and reduce the probability of stochastic effects (primarily cancer) while maintaining the benefits to the individual and to society. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000988DOI Listing
February 2019

Detection of Relapse by Tumor Markers Versus Imaging in Children and Adolescents With Nongerminomatous Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 21:JCO1800790. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

1 The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To investigate relapse detection methods among children and adolescents with nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (MGCTs) and to determine whether tumor markers alone might be sufficient for surveillance.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients enrolled in a phase III, single-arm trial for low-risk and intermediate-risk MGCTs. The method used to detect relapse was assessed based on case report forms, tumor markers, imaging, and pathology reports. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00790DOI Listing
December 2018

Noncontact recognition of fluorescently labeled objects in deep tissue via a novel optical light beam arrangement.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(12):e0208236. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Molecular Imaging and Radiochemistry, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

To date, few optical imaging systems are available in clinical practice to perform noninvasive measurements transcutaneously. Instead, functional imaging is performed using ionizing radiation or intense magnetic fields in most cases. The applicability of fluorescence imaging (e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208236PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300195PMC
December 2018

Dose-dependent Co γ-radiation Effects on Human Endothelial Cell Mechanical Properties.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Radiology Technology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran.

Exposure to ionizing radiation is unavoidable for noncancerous cells during the external radiotherapy process. Increasing the dose delivery fraction times leads to increasing the endothelial cell damage. Vascular abnormalities are commonly associated with the alternation of endothelium biomechanical properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-018-0864-3DOI Listing
December 2018

The propagation of active-passive interfaces in bacterial swarms.

Nat Commun 2018 12 18;9(1):5373. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering & Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Propagating interfaces are ubiquitous in nature, underlying instabilities and pattern formation in biology and material science. Physical principles governing interface growth are well understood in passive settings; however, our understanding of interfaces in active systems is still in its infancy. Here, we study the evolution of an active-passive interface using a model active matter system, bacterial swarms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07781-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299137PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Adjuvant MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation treatment for aneurysmal bone cyst.

Skeletal Radiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign, expansile, lytic bone lesions that behave in a locally aggressive manner. Although radiography and computed tomography (CT) can detect the lesion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideal for the demonstration of characteristic fluid-fluid levels, extent, and margins. Treatment typically consists of open surgical curettage with the addition of local adjuvants and bone grafting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-018-3115-1DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Reasons for inadequate or incomplete imaging techniques.

Med Ultrason 2018 Dec;20(4):498-507

Medizinische Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Bad Mergentheim, Germany, Ultrasound Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China.

Even if imaging has developed considerably during the last decades there still exist several factors which limit its capacities. These factors can either limit the usage of a technique or degrade images making them difficult to interpret. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has, as an absolute contraindication, the presence of metallic devices marked as "MRI unsafe" and metallic foreign bodies close to the eye or vital structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-1736DOI Listing
December 2018

Low-Dose Computed Tomography for the Optimization of Radiation Dose Exposure in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2018 31;2018:1768716. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the mainstay method for the radiological imaging of the small bowel in patients with inflammatory bowel disease without the use of ionizing radiation. There are circumstances where imaging using ionizing radiation is required, particularly in the acute setting. This usually takes the form of computed tomography (CT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1768716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234436PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Multimodal PET/MRI Imaging Results Enable Monitoring the Side Effects of Radiation Therapy.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2018 1;2018:5906471. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

CROmed Translational Research Centers, H-1047 Budapest, Hungary.

Radiotherapy is one of the most frequently applied treatments in oncology. Tissue-absorbed ionizing radiation damages not only targeted cells but the surrounding cells too. The consequent long-term induced oxidative stress, irreversible tissue damage, or second malignancies draw attention to the urgent need of a follow-up medical method by which personalized treatment could be attained and the actually dose-limiting organ could be monitored in the clinical practice. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmi/2018/5906471/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5906471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236670PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

A New and Inclusive Intake Form for Diagnostic Imaging Departments.

J Med Imaging Radiat Sci 2018 Dec 8;49(4):371-375. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

San Diego, California.

Introduction: The gender landscape is changing. For professionals in health care, particularly diagnostic imaging (DI), we need better communication tools to obtain personal information from this gender diverse community. We need more specific information from patients because we are performing examinations in which radiation is involved. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S19398654183022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2018.10.001DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

THE STRUCTURE OF Hp(0.07) VALUES OBTAINED BY THE NUCLEAR MEDICINE PERSONNEL DURING 18F-FDG PRODUCTION AND INJECTION.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Medical Imaging Technology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Postgraduate Training, Medical University of Lodz, Lindleya 6, Lodz, Poland.

The production of 18F-FDG is a multi-stage process, which includes not only obtaining the marker and labelling the radiopharmaceutical but also carrying out the quality control of the obtained compound. The staff can be exposed to ionizing radiation at any stage of production. This article presents the results of hands exposure of staff members employed in a facility, where 18F-FDG is produced and injected into patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncy203DOI Listing
November 2018

Ultrasonography of the pediatric spleen: a pictorial essay.

J Ultrasound 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Paediatric Radiology Department, "Federico II" University Hospital, Naples, Italy.

In infants and children, the spleen is involved in many pathological processes, whether those processes are isolated or related to systemic diseases. Pathology of the pediatric spleen includes congenital anomalies, splenomegaly, trauma, focal lesions, infarction, and tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is a widely available, fast, noninvasive imaging technique to assess the size, shape, and position of the spleen, as well as to define splenic echotexture. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40477-018-0341-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-018-0341-2DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Anesthetic considerations for magnetic resonance imaging-guided right-heart catheterization in pediatric patients: A single institution experience.

Paediatr Anaesth 2019 Jan 29;29(1):8-15. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Cardiac catheterization is an integral part of medical management for pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Owing to age and lack of cooperation in children who need this procedure, general anesthesia is typically required. These patients have increased anesthesia risk secondary to cardiac pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13512DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Letter by Woodard et al Regarding Article, "Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation From Cardiac Procedures and Malignancy Risk in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease".

Circulation 2018 Sep;138(13):1371-1372

Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (H.D.R.), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.

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https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033523DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Forensic age diagnostics by magnetic resonance imaging of the proximal humeral epiphysis.

Int J Legal Med 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Edinburgh Unit for Forensic Anthropology, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, 4 Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.

The most commonly used radiological method for age estimation of living individuals is X-ray. Computed tomography is not commonly used due to high radiation exposure, which raises ethical concerns. This problem can be solved with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which avoids the use of ionizing radiation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00414-018-1952-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1952-zDOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads
2.714 Impact Factor

Does Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields Generated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanners Raise Safety Problems for Personnel?

J Biomed Phys Eng 2018 Sep 1;8(3):333-336. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

MRI Department, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

MRI workers are occupationally exposed to static and time-varying gradient magnetic fields. While the 24-hour time-averaged exposure to static magnetic fields is about a few mT, the maximum static field strength can be as high as 500 mT during patient setup. Over the past several years, our laboratory has performed extensive experiments on the health effects of exposure of animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169123PMC
September 2018
1 Read

NADPH Oxidase as a Target for Modulation of Radiation Response; Implications to Carcinogenesis and Radiotherapy.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2019 ;12(1):50-60

Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Radiotherapy is a treatment modality for cancer. For better therapeutic efficiency, it could be used in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In addition to its beneficial therapeutic effects, exposure to radiation leads to several toxic effects on normal tissues. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/166141/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467211666181010154709DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Cumulative Radiation Exposures from CT Screening and Surveillance Strategies for von Hippel-Lindau-associated Solid Pancreatic Tumors.

Radiology 2019 Jan 9;290(1):116-124. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

From the Neuroendocrine Tumors Service, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel 52621 (A.T.); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (A.T.); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (N.J., C. Lee, A.B.d.G.), Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (L.R.F., J.Y., W.K., A.M.), and Urologic Oncology Branch (C. Leite, W.M.L.), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), INSERM U1018, Villejuif, France (N.J.); and Department of Surgery and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif (E.K.).

Purpose To assess the potential ionizing radiation exposure from CT scans for both screening and surveillance of patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, abdomen-pelvic (AP) and chest-abdomen-pelvic (CAP) CT scans were performed with either a three-phase (n = 1242) or a dual-energy virtual noncontrast protocol (VNC; n = 149) in 747 patients with VHL syndrome in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center between 2009 and 2015 (mean age, 47.6 years ± 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018180687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312431PMC
January 2019
19 Reads

Intraoperative 2D C-arm and 3D O-arm in children: a comparative phantom study.

J Child Orthop 2018 Oct;12(5):550-557

Medical University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is a concern for children during intraoperative imaging. We aimed to assess the radiation exposure to the paediatric patient with 2D and 3D imaging.

Methods: To evaluate the radiation exposure, patient absorbed doses to the organs were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom representing a five-year-old child, using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.12.180016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169555PMC
October 2018

Ionizing Radiation Dose Exposure to the Ocular Region of Pain Physicians During C-arm Guided Pain Interventions.

Pain Physician 2018 Sep;21(5):E523-E532

South Infirmary Victoria University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

Background: The growth of interventional pain medicine in recent years has resulted in more procedures being carried out under fluoroscopic guidance. The proximity of the pain physician (PP) to ionization radiation (IR) potentially increases the risk of radiation exposure to the ocular region. A European directive has reduced the limits of occupational ocular dose 7. Read More

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September 2018
10 Reads

Red, green, and blue fluorescent folate-receptor-targeting carbon dots for cervical cancer cellular and tissue imaging.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2018 Dec 30;93:1054-1063. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

National Engineering Research Centre for Nanotechnology, Shanghai 200241, People's Republic of China; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Folate receptor targeted photo-luminescent quantum carbon dots (Fr-CDs) were successfully prepared from folic acid and phenylenediamine isomers through hydrothermal approaches. Fr-CDs were spherical particles smaller than 10 nm, and emit stable green, blue and red luminescence under ultraviolet region excitation (λex = 365 nm) with maximum emissive lengths at 530, 429, and 612 nm. And the corresponding photoluminescence quantum yield as 15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.08.058DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Minimal invasive surgical technique in midline lumbar inter-body fusion: A technique note.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep 6;55:103-108. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Midline lumbar inter-body fusion (MIDLF) surgery with cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw insertion is a modern fusion technique for spinal surgery. The difference in entry point of this trajectory from conventional pedicle screw surgery offers the potential benefits of less soft tissue dissection and reduced blood loss, post-operative wound pain, and infection risks. Because this is a newly developed technique first announced by Santoni in 2009, most surgeons perform this surgery in a mini-open fashion and require more intra-operative fluoroscopy and ionizing radiation exposure during screw placement. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09675868183047
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2018.06.033DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Radiation Exposure to Staff and Patient During Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies and Recommended Protection Strategies.

Dysphagia 2018 Sep 22. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Monash Imaging, Monash Health, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia.

Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies expose both the patients and the staff to ionising radiation. Although the radiation exposure is considered low compared to other diagnostic procedures, it is still prudent to keep the radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable. This review aims to summarise the latest literature pertaining to staff and patient radiation dose, as well as to make evidence-based recommendations on dose optimisation strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00455-018-9945-0DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

The Value of Computed Tomography Imaging of the Head After Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery in Adults.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 20;121:e159-e164. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus often undergo multiple follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, increasing the risk for long-term effects of ionizing radiation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the necessity as a routine diagnostic procedure and cost analysis of routine postoperative CT scan of the head after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery.

Methods: In this study, we comprised adults with ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations who underwent early CT scans within 48 hours postoperatively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.09.063DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Maximizing Benefit and Minimizing Risk in Medical Imaging Use: An Educational Primer for Health Care Professions Students.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2018 Jan-Dec;5:2382120518798812. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

"I am not young enough to know everything."Oscar Wilde.

Background: There is insufficient knowledge among providers and patients/caregivers of ionizing radiation exposure from medical imaging examinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2382120518798812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131289PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Radiation Dose Reduction at Pediatric CT: Use of Low Tube Voltage and Iterative Reconstruction.

Radiographics 2018 Sep-Oct;38(5):1421-1440

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Y.N., S.O., T.N., D.U., M.K., Y.Y.), and Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences (Y.F.), Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan; and Department of Radiology, Kumamoto City Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan (Y.N., A.T., J.U., M.F.).

Given the growing awareness of and concern for potential carcinogenic effects of exposure of children to ionizing radiation at CT, optimizing acquisition parameters is crucial to achieve diagnostically acceptable image quality at the lowest possible radiation dose. Among currently available dose reduction techniques, recent technical innovations have allowed the implementation of low tube voltage scans and iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques into daily clinical practice for pediatric CT. The benefits of lowering tube voltage include a considerable reduction in radiation dose and improved contrast on images, especially when an iodinated contrast medium is used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2018180041DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Blunt Trauma Abdominal and Pelvic Computed Tomography Has Low Yield for Injuries in More Than One Anatomic Region.

West J Emerg Med 2018 Sep 26;19(5):768-773. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

University of California, San Francisco, Department of Emergency Medicine, San Francisco, California.

Introduction: Most trauma centers order abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) as an automatically paired CT for adult blunt trauma evaluation. However, excessive CT utilization adds risks of excessive exposure to ionizing radiation, the need to work up incidental findings (leading to unnecessary and invasive tests), and greater costs. Examining a cohort of adult blunt trauma patients that received paired abdominal and pelvic (A/P) CT, we sought to determine the diagnostic yield of clinically significant injuries (CSI) in the following: 1) the abdomen alone; 2) the pelvis alone; 3) the lumbosacral spine alone; and 4) more than one of these anatomic regions concomitantly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2018.6.37646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123097PMC
September 2018
10 Reads

Monochromatic mammography using scanning multilayer X-ray mirrors.

Authors:
David L Windt

Rev Sci Instrum 2018 Aug;89(8):083702

Reflective X-ray Optics LLC, 425 Riverside Dr., New York, New York 10025, USA.

A prototype system for breast imaging using monochromatic X-rays has been developed using a scanning multilayer X-ray mirror in combination with a conventional mammography tube and an imaging detector. The X-ray mirror produces a monochromatic fan beam tuned near 19 keV, with an energy bandpass of approximately 1.5 keV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5041799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095706PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

A comparison of absorption and phase contrast for X-ray imaging of biological cells.

Authors:
Colin Nave

J Synchrotron Radiat 2018 Sep 27;25(Pt 5):1490-1504. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK.

X-ray imaging allows biological cells to be examined at a higher resolution than possible with visible light and without some of the preparation difficulties associated with electron microscopy of thick samples. The most used and developed technique is absorption contrast imaging in the water window which exploits the contrast between carbon and oxygen at an energy of around 500 eV. A variety of phase contrast techniques are also being developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577518009566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140389PMC
September 2018
10 Reads

Practical Assessment of Radiation Exposure in Spine Surgery.

Authors:
Timur M Urakov

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 30;120:e752-e754. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fluoroscopy use in spine surgery is increasing owing to the increasing popularity of minimally invasive techniques. The effectiveness and safe distance for protective barriers might have been commonly misrepresented. The present study evaluated x-ray propagation and the efficacy of protective barriers in the setting of spine surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.08.158DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Combining cholesterol-lowering strategies with imaging data: a visible benefit?

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 Aug 30:2047487318798059. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

4 South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Australia.

Coronary artery disease is characterised by the development of atherosclerotic plaques and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality on a global level. However, many patients with atherosclerosis are asymptomatic and the prediction of acute coronary events is challenging. The role of imaging studies in characterising plaque morphology and stability is emerging as a valuable prognostic tool, while providing evidence for the beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on plaque burden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487318798059DOI Listing
August 2018
10 Reads

2018 ACC/HRS/NASCI/SCAI/SCCT Expert Consensus Document on Optimal Use of Ionizing Radiation in Cardiovascular Imaging-Best Practices for Safety and Effectiveness, Part 1: Radiation Physics and Radiation Biology: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways Developed in Collaboration With Mended Hearts.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018 Aug 29;92(2):203-221. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

The stimulus to create this document was the recognition that ionizing radiation-guided cardiovascular procedures are being performed with increasing frequency, leading to greater patient radiation exposure and, potentially, to greater exposure for clinical personnel. Although the clinical benefit of these procedures is substantial, there is concern about the implications of medical radiation exposure. The American College of Cardiology leadership concluded that it is important to provide practitioners with an educational resource that assembles and interprets the current radiation knowledge base relevant to cardiovascular procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27660DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

2018 ACC/HRS/NASCI/SCAI/SCCT Expert Consensus Document on Optimal Use of Ionizing Radiation in Cardiovascular Imaging-Best Practices for Safety and Effectiveness, Part 2: Radiological Equipment Operation, Dose-Sparing Methodologies, Patient and Medical Personnel Protection.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018 Aug 29;92(2):222-246. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

The stimulus to create this document was the recognition that ionizing radiation-guided cardiovascular procedures are being performed with increasing frequency, leading to greater patient radiation exposure and, potentially, to greater exposure to clinical personnel. While the clinical benefit of these procedures is substantial, there is concern about the implications of medical radiation exposure. ACC leadership concluded that it is important to provide practitioners with an educational resource that assembles and interprets the current radiation knowledge base relevant to cardiovascular procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27661DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Dual-crosslinked homogeneous alginate microspheres for mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2018 Aug 27;29(9):143. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

A smart hydrogel material was used in combination with custom microfluidic devices (MFDs) to create microspheres for human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation. Methods for fabricating homogeneous stimuli-responsive microspheres for MSC encapsulation and cell delivery have gained interest to increase viability and manipulate microencapsulation within microspheres 10-1000 µm in diameter. Herein, MFDs were combined with non-toxic smart hydrogel materials to tune both the size and mechanics of the microspheres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-018-6151-4DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Quantitative Assessment of Lung Aeration: A Pilot Translational Study.

Front Physiol 2018 13;9:1120. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Pulmonary Engineering Group, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Computed tomography is the gold standard for lung aeration assessment, but exposure to ionizing radiation limits its application. We assessed the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect changes in lung aeration in isolated swine lung and the potential of translation of the findings to human MRI scans. We performed MRI scans in 11 isolated non-injured and injured swine lungs, as well as 6 patients both pre- and post-operatively. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2018.01120
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099446PMC
August 2018
12 Reads

Melatonin as an adjuvant in radiotherapy for radioprotection and radiosensitization.

Clin Transl Oncol 2018 Aug 22. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

It is estimated that more than half of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy during the course of their treatment. Despite its beneficial therapeutic effects on tumor cells, exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation (IR) is associated with several side effects. Although improvements in radiotherapy techniques and instruments could reduce these side effects, there are still important concerns for cancer patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12094-018-1934-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-018-1934-0DOI Listing
August 2018
11 Reads

Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Films on Different Inorganic Surfaces before and after UV Light Exposure.

Langmuir 2018 09 30;34(36):10806-10815. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering , North Carolina State University , Raleigh , North Carolina 27695 , United States.

The changes of the surface properties of Au, GaN, and SiO after UV light irradiation were used to actively influence the process of formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa films. The interfacial properties of the substrates were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The changes in the P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b02079DOI Listing
September 2018

Magnetic Resonance Enterography for Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Conditions of the Small Bowel.

Radiol Clin North Am 2018 Sep 11;56(5):671-689. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is an effective noninvasive tool for evaluation of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions of the small bowel. MRE allows for repeated evaluation of patients with Crohn disease without exposure to ionizing radiation, and can be used to assess disease status and direct management. MRE also allows evaluation of neoplastic and other nonneoplastic conditions of the small bowel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcl.2018.04.003DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

The identification of a subgroup of children with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage at low risk of neuroworsening.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Nov;22(5):559-566

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; and.

OBJECTIVEPediatric traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) often results in intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the performance of additional diagnostic studies, and ICU-level therapeutic interventions to identify and prevent episodes of neuroworsening.METHODSData prospectively collected in an institutionally specific trauma registry between 2006 and 2015 were supplemented with a retrospective chart review of children admitted with isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) and an admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15. Risk of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) was calculated using the BCVI clinical prediction score. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.5.PEDS18140DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Radiographic evaluation of the pregnant trauma patient: What are We willing to miss?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Sep 28;228:325-328. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Ohio Health Grant Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Objective: Trauma is the leading cause of non-obstetrical causes of death in pregnant patients. The use of radiographic imaging for evaluation in the trauma bay is a controversial topic. However, in some cases the benefits of using radiographic imaging to ensure maternal survival outweigh the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2018.06.039DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Contrast Administration in CT: A Patient-Centric Approach.

J Am Coll Radiol 2018 Aug 2. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Radiology, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Patient-centric care has garnered the attention of the radiology community. The authors describe a patient-centric approach to iodinated contrast administration designed to optimize the diagnostic yield of contrast-enhanced CT while minimizing patient iodine load and exposure to ionizing radiation, thereby enhancing patient safety while providing reasonable diagnostic efficacy. Patient-centric CT hardware settings and contrast media administration are important considerations for clinical CT quality and safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2018.06.026DOI Listing

Estimated radiation risk of cancer from dental cone-beam computed tomography imaging in orthodontics patients.

BMC Oral Health 2018 Aug 3;18(1):131. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No.666, Buzih Road, Beitun District, Taichung City, 40601, Taiwan.

Background: Radiation dose evaluation is important to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for routine orthodontic treatment planning, especially for a significant proportion of children in orthodontic patients. This study evaluated the patient radiation dose and estimated the radiation cancer risk on dental CBCT according to the calculations by the Monte Carlo simulation method.

Methods: The dental CBCT scanner evaluated in this project was the i- CAT® (Imaging Sciences International Inc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-018-0592-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6091080PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Mechanisms for Radioprotection by Melatonin; Can it be Used as a Radiation Countermeasure?

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2019 ;12(1):2-11

Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Melatonin is a natural body product that has shown potent antioxidant property against various toxic agents. For more than two decades, the abilities of melatonin as a potent radioprotector against toxic effects of ionizing radiation (IR) have been proved. However, in the recent years, several studies have been conducted to illustrate how melatonin protects normal cells against IR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467211666180802164449DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Ultrasound-Stimulated Microbubbles Enhance Radiosensitization of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 2;48(4):1530-1542. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background/aims: Recent studies indicate that therapies targeting the vasculature can significantly sensitize tumors to radiation. Ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (USMBs) are regarded as a promising radiosensitizer. In this study, we investigated the effect of USMBs on the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492263DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Subtle excess in lifetime cancer risk related to CT scanning in Spanish young people.

Environ Int 2018 Nov 25;120:1-10. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Institut de Salut Global (ISGlobal), Centre de Recerca en Epidemiologia Ambiental, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona (PRBB), Carrer del Dr. Aiguader 88, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.

Background: CT scan is a life-saving medical diagnostic tool, entailing higher levels of ionising radiation exposure than conventional radiography, which may result in an increase in cancer risk, particularly in children. Information about the use and potential health effects of CT scan imaging among young people in Spain is scarce.

Objective: This paper aims to estimate the number of radiation-related cancer cases which can be expected due to the use of CT scanning in Spanish children and young adults in a single year (2013). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.020DOI Listing
November 2018

Prevalence of unjustified emergency department x-ray examination referrals performed in a regional Queensland hospital: A pilot study.

J Med Radiat Sci 2018 Sep 23;65(3):184-191. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Mackay Base Hospital, Mackay, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: The underpinning principles of radiation protection are justification, optimisation and limitation. Each medical imaging referral that uses ionising radiation must balance the justification of exposure to radiation against the benefits of the examination. Scrutiny of justification is the role of radiographers, for general radiography, and is usually performed using the clinical details provided on the referral. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119727PMC
September 2018

Radiation Exposure From Pediatric CT Scans and Subsequent Cancer Risk in the Netherlands.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Jul 18. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Computed tomography (CT), a strong diagnostic tool, delivers higher radiation doses than most imaging modalities. As CT use has increased rapidly, radiation protection is important, particularly among children. We evaluate leukemia and brain tumor risk following exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from CT scans in childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy104DOI Listing
July 2018
13 Reads