4,508 results match your criteria Ionizing Radiation Exposure Medical Imaging


Characteristics, as a shield against ionizing photons, of concrete blocks used in the construction industry.

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jun 26;187:110343. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

TecNM, Instituto Tecnológico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo López Mateos 1801 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, 20256, Aguascalientes, Ags, Mexico.

INEGI reports that 81% of new constructions are built with durable materials, such as concrete blocks, including rooms where ionizing radiation is used, such as clinics and hospitals. The volume ratios used in the manufacture of concrete blocks have a 1: 5: 2 ratio of: portland cement, sand and crushed gravel. The percentage mass content of each atom in the sample is obtained with the energy-dispersed X-ray fluorescence, these results are used to calculate the characteristics such as shielding of the concrete blocks, which have been partially reported, in this work several characteristics are presented for photons from 1 keV to 100 GeV, such as linear attenuation coefficients, the hemireductive layer, the effective, atomic and electronic sections, the effective atomic number (Zef). Read More

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A survey on knowledge, attitude, and practices of workplace radiation safety amongst anaesthesiology personnel in northern Indian tertiary care institutes.

Indian J Anaesth 2022 May 17;66(Suppl 3):S137-S147. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Shantiniketan Medical College, West Bengal, India.

Background And Aims: Exposure to ionising radiation to Anaesthesiology consultants, residents, technicians and nurses (Anaesthesiology personnel) is steadily increasing as a consequence of growing usage of imaging technology for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of Anaesthesiology professionals (consultants, residents, technicians and nursing staff) working in three major tertiary care medical institutes in northern India regarding the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices of radiation safety at their workplaces.

Methods: A printed and validated 30-point questionnaire was distributed. Read More

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Detailed bone assessment of the sacroiliac joint in a prospective imaging study: comparison between computed tomography, zero echo time, and black bone magnetic resonance imaging.

Skeletal Radiol 2022 Jun 30. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: To compare the value of zero echo time (ZTE) and gradient echo "black bone" (BB) MRI sequences for bone assessment of the sacroiliac joint (SI) using computed tomography (CT) as the reference standard.

Materials And Methods: Between May 2019 and January 2021, 79 patients prospectively underwent clinically indicated 3-T MRI including ZTE and BB imaging. Additionally, all patients underwent a CT scan covering the SI joints within 12 months of the MRI examination. Read More

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Eliminating CT radiation for clinical PET examination using deep learning.

Eur J Radiol 2022 Jun 23;154:110422. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Clinical PET/CT examinations rely on CT modality for anatomical localization and attenuation correction of the PET data. However, the use of CT significantly increases the risk of ionizing radiation exposure for patients. We propose a deep learning framework to learn the relationship mapping between attenuation corrected (AC) PET and non-attenuation corrected (NAC) PET images to estimate PET attenuation maps and generate pseudo-CT images for medical observation. Read More

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Liver glycogen phosphorylase is upregulated in glioblastoma and provides a metabolic vulnerability to high dose radiation.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jun 28;13(6):573. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Molecular Oncology Laboratories, Department of Oncology, Oxford University, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Channelling of glucose via glycogen, known as the glycogen shunt, may play an important role in the metabolism of brain tumours, especially in hypoxic conditions. We aimed to dissect the role of glycogen degradation in glioblastoma (GBM) response to ionising radiation (IR). Knockdown of the glycogen phosphorylase liver isoform (PYGL), but not the brain isoform (PYGB), decreased clonogenic growth and survival of GBM cell lines and sensitised them to IR doses of 10-12 Gy. Read More

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Imaging the acute abdomen in pregnancy: a radiological decision-making tool and the role of MRI.

Clin Radiol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, The Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, Whitechapel Road, London, E1 1FR, UK.

Acute abdominal pain in pregnancy poses a significant diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis is wide, clinical assessment is difficult, and the use of conventional imaging methods is restricted due to risks to the fetus. This can lead to delay in diagnosis, which increases the risk of maternal and fetal harm. Read More

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Cumulative radiation exposure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A single institution analysis.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Diagnosis and management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) depends heavily on imaging modalities that repeatedly expose patients to ionizing radiation. There is limited literature on cumulative radiation exposure in this patient population, which is a problem compounded by wide variation between institutions. The present study quantifies the cumulative cranial exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from diagnostic medical imaging and medical procedures during initial hospitalization for ruptured aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage at a single academic institution and estimates the risk of future adverse events related to radiation injury. Read More

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Significant Reduction of Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Death in Mice Treated with PrC-210 24 Hours Postirradiation.

Radiat Res 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Obvia Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Madison, Wisconsin.

The search for radiation countermeasures that can serve as: i. a pre-exposure agent to protect against subsequent irradiation, and/or ii. a post-exposure agent to mitigate the development of Acute Radiation Syndrome after radiation exposure, remains a prominent goal of the U. Read More

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[Bioimpedance analysis of body composition and phase angle for the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty (literature review).]

Adv Gerontol 2022 ;35(2):294-301

Samara State Medical University, 89 Chapaevskaya str., Samara 443099, Russian Federation, e-mail:

Sarcopenia and frailty are accompanied by changes in body composition. Bioimpedance phase angle (phase angle, PhA) is one of the parameters that can be measured using Bioimpedance body composition analysis (BIA). BIA, along with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), is used to determine lean body mass according to the EWGSOP2 sarcopenia diagnostic protocol. Read More

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Potential risks associated with the use of ionizing radiation for imaging and treatment of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome patients.

Fam Cancer 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark's Hospital, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, Watford Road, Harrow, HA1 3UJ, UK.

The aim of this review is to investigate the literature pertaining to the potential risks of low-dose ionizing radiation to Lynch syndrome patients by use of computed tomography (CT), either diagnostic CT colonography (CTC), standard staging CT or CT surveillance. Furthermore, this review explores the potential risks of using radiotherapy for treatment of rectal cancer in these patients. No data or longitudinal observational studies of the impact of radiation exposure on humans with Lynch syndrome were identified. Read More

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Usefulness of a lead-acrylic shield for reducing lens dose of assistant in x-ray CT examination.

J Radiol Prot 2022 Jun 24;42(2). Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, Eastern Chiba Medical Center, 3-6-2 Okayamadai, Togane, Chiba 283-8686, Japan.

In computed tomography (CT) examinations, the usefulness of protective glasses for reducing lens exposure to assistants has been reported. The present study aimed to compare the dose reduction effect for assistants with lead-acrylic shields and protective glasses (0.07 mm Pb, 0. Read More

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How Do Different Physical Stressors' Affect the Mercury Release from Dental Amalgam Fillings and Microleakage? A Systematic Review.

J Biomed Phys Eng 2022 Jun 1;12(3):227-236. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

DDS, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Approximately 50% of dental amalgam is elemental mercury by weight. Accumulating body of evidence now shows that not only static magnetic fields (SMF) but both ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations can increase the rate of mercury release from dental amalgam fillings. Iranian scientists firstly addressed this issue in 2008 but more than 10 years later, it became viral worldwide. Read More

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Rates of MRI simulator utilisation in a tertiary cancer therapy centre.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being integrated into the radiation oncology workflow, due to its improved soft tissue contrast without additional exposure to ionising radiation. A review of MRI utilisation according to evidence based departmental guidelines was performed. Guideline utilisation rates were calculated to be 50% (true utilisation rate was 46%) of all new cancer patients treated with adjuvant or curative intent, excluding simple skin and breast cancer patients. Read More

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Trend in CT utilisation and its impact on length of stay, readmission and hospital mortality in Western Australia tertiary hospitals: an analysis of linked administrative data 2003-2015.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 1;12(6):e059242. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Health Economics and Data Analytics, School of Population Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: High use of CT scanning has raised concern due to the potential ionising radiation exposure. This study examined trends of CT during admission to tertiary hospitals and its associations with length of stay (LOS), readmission and mortality.

Design: Retrospective observational study from 2003 to 2015. Read More

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Comparison of Simulated Low-Dose and Conventional-Dose CT for Preoperative Planning in Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2022 06 14;104(11):1004-1014. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Shoulder computed tomography (CT) is commonly utilized in preoperative planning for total shoulder arthroplasty. Conventional-dose shoulder CT may expose patients to more ionizing radiation than is necessary to provide high-quality images for this procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of simulated low-dose CT images for preoperative planning using manual measurements and common preoperative planning software. Read More

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Awareness of Medical Doctors in Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia on Diagnostic Radiological Examination Related Radiation Exposure in the Pediatric Population.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 21;19(10). Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.

Background: When exposed to equal radiation doses, the risks for children and adolescents are more significant than for adults. Children grow quickly, and their cells are more sensitive to radiation. After radiation exposure, children have a higher risk of developing malignancies such as leukemia, thyroid abnormalities, and various types of cancers. Read More

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Dose-Related Analysis in Percutaneous Central Venous Catheters Insertion: Experience of a Pediatric Interventional Radiology Center.

Children (Basel) 2022 May 6;9(5). Epub 2022 May 6.

Imaging Department, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Background: There are many techniques for long-term central venous catheter (CVC) placement, but none of them are specific for pediatric patients or focused on the delivered dose of ionizing radiation.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study examined a sample of pediatric patients who received percutaneous long-term CVC positioning in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Effective dose, dose-area product (DAP) and length of time of exposition during the procedure were determined, using an appropriate technical procedure, exam and program set of the angiograph, and compared with an unpaired t-test analysis. Read More

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[Radiation protection in spine surgery: an example of reliable and reproducible means].

Rev Med Suisse 2022 May;18(783):1072-1077

Service d'orthopédie et de traumatologie, Hôpital Pourtalès, 2000 Neuchâtel.

During spine surgery, the use of imaging is increasingly systematic, exposing medical and nursing staff to ionizing radiation, which is correlated with an increasing carcinogenic risk, as highlighted by the WHO. Robotic systems allow a decrease of this exposure but are expensive and complicated. Reliable, cost-effective, and simple alternatives including a radiographer specialized in radiation protection, a portable radiation shield and a modification of radioscopy system were evaluated in our facility. Read More

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Reproducibility of a protocol for standardized reading of chest X-rays of children household contact of patients with tuberculosis.

BMC Pediatr 2022 May 24;22(1):307. Epub 2022 May 24.

Grupo de Investigación en Salud Familiar y Comunitaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Corporación Universitaria Remington, Calle 51 # 51-27, Medellín, Colombia.

Background: The interpretation of the chest radiograph may vary because it depends on the reader and due to the non-specificity of findings in tuberculosis (TB). We aim to assess the reproducibility of a standardized chest radiograph reading protocol in contacts of patients with pulmonary TB under the 5 years of age.

Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study with children under the age of five, household contacts of patients with confirmed pulmonary TB from Medellín, Bello and Itagüí (Colombia) between Jan-01-2015 and May-31-2016. Read More

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Guidance on medical physics expert support for nuclear medicine.

Br J Radiol 2022 Jul 25;95(1135):20211393. Epub 2022 May 25.

Nuclear Medicine, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen, Representing IPEM, United Kingdom.

The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations require employers to appoint suitable medical physics experts (MPE) for nuclear medicine services, and they also define the areas where MPEs are required to provide advice and specify matters that they must contribute towards. Applications for employer licences under IR(ME)R require employers to specify the level of MPE support available and if this is provided by onsite MPEs or remotely. Assessment of these applications by the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) has highlighted variability in the levels of MPE support being provided for similar services across the UK. Read More

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Dental Undergraduates and Interns' Awareness, Attitudes, and Perception of Radiological Protection.

Int J Dent 2022 9;2022:5812627. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Applied Radiologic Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Medical ionizing radiation is widely used in hospitals, in particular dental clinics, and in medical research to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of patients. The awareness, attitude, and perception of ionizing radiation exposure among dental undergraduate students and interns in radiological investigations and dental care clinics were investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted; 17 questions were designed online using the software "QuestionPro," which was licensed to the University of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal. Read More

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Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Imaging Appropriateness in Radiography, CT, and Mammography.

Authors:
Quentin T Moore

Radiol Technol 2022 May-Jun;93(5):437-453

Quentin T Moore, PhD, R.T.(R)(T)(QM), is director of imaging sciences and associate professor for Mercy College of Ohio.

Purpose: To determine U.S.-based radiologic technologists' perceptions of imaging appropriateness by imaging modality and to examine relationships between descriptive variables and perception of imaging appropriateness scores. Read More

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Finger touching combined X-ray-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in 640 cases: an 8-years' experience.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022 04;26(8):2867-2874

Department of Urology, Institute of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of finger touching combined X-ray-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and the feasibility of avoiding damage in medical staff caused by X-ray.

Patients And Methods: From January 2013 to December 2020, 640 cases of percutaneous nephrolithotomy were performed through the 18-24-F channel. Among those cases, 22 (3. Read More

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Is Routine Imaging Necessary for the Management of Pediatric Hand Fractures Postoperatively?

Ann Plast Surg 2022 06 3;88(6):622-624. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

From the Evelina London Children's Hospital, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Pediatric hand fractures heal remarkedly well, and clinically significant displacement after operative fixation is rare. Radiation exposure in medical practice is regulated by the Ionizing Radiation Medical Exposure Regulations 2017, and unnecessary radiation should be avoided. In the literature, there is paucity of information regarding the number of radiographs required in the postoperative period and guidelines are lacking. Read More

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Activated brown adipose tissue releases exosomes containing mitochondrial methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP dependent) 1-like protein (MTHFD1L).

Biosci Rep 2022 May;42(5)

Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising weapon to combat obesity and metabolic disease. BAT is thermogenic and consumes substantial amounts of glucose and fatty acids as fuel for thermogenesis and energy expenditure. To study BAT function in large human longitudinal cohorts, safe and precise detection methodologies are needed. Read More

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Estimation of radioactivity and dose equivalent rate by combining Compton imaging and Monte Carlo radiation transport code.

Authors:
Yuki Sato

Appl Radiat Isot 2022 Jul 25;185:110254. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 790-1 Motooka aza Ohtsuka, Tomioka-machi, Futaba-gun, Fukushima, Japan. Electronic address:

In a radiation environment, such as the decommissioning site of a nuclear power station, visualization of the distribution of radioactive substances and estimation of the dose equivalent rate around the site can help reduce the exposure dose of workers and plan their work. The author has developed a method of visualizing the existence of a radiation source using a gamma-ray imager, estimating its radioactivity, and estimating the dose equivalent rate around the source. A Compton camera, which is a gamma-ray imager, is used to visualize the existence of aCs radiation source and estimate its radioactivity, and a three-dimensional (3D) model of the region around the source is generated using a simultaneous localization and mapping device based on 3D light detection and ranging. Read More

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Ultrasound screening protocol for osteochondrosis at selected predilection sites in thoroughbred yearlings.

Ir Vet J 2022 Apr 27;75(1). Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Equine Clinical Studies, Diagnostic Imaging and Anaesthesia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Osteochondrosis is a common condition of young horses where there is a failure of endochondral ossification, usually at predisposed sites. The estimated prevalence of osteochondrosis is 33-44%, with radiographic screening of yearlings being used to identify lesions. Radiography has two major limitations: poor sensitivity in detecting cartilaginous lesions and secondly, the exposure of the horse and personnel to ionising radiation. Read More

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Radiation exposure by medical X-ray applications.

Ger Med Sci 2022 31;20:Doc06. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Health Care Management and Research, Essen, Germany.

Radioactive material and ionising radiation play a central role in medical diagnostics and therapy. The benefit of ionising radiation is opposed by the risk of irreparable damage of the human organism. This risk, especially for developing malign neoplasms, has particularly been investigated in the population surviving the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but also increasingly in persons with occupational or medical exposure to ionising radiation. Read More

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Are we underutilising computer tomography colonography in Australia?

Intern Med J 2022 05 22;52(5):864-867. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Medical School, Faculty of Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Computed tomography colonography (CTC) is a safe and accurate tool for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. CTC requires dedicated radiological expertise and demonstrates a high sensitivity and specificity in polyp detection, which is similar to optical colonoscopy (OC). Newer preparation techniques for CTC, such as faecal tagging without catharsis might further improve both the tolerability and accuracy of the test. Read More

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Tomographic phase and attenuation extraction for a sample composed of unknown materials using x-ray propagation-based phase-contrast imaging.

Opt Lett 2022 Apr;47(8):1945-1948

Propagation-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (PB-PCXI) generates image contrast by utilizing sample-imposed phase-shifts. This has proven useful when imaging weakly attenuating samples, as conventional attenuation-based imaging does not always provide adequate contrast. We present a PB-PCXI algorithm capable of extracting the x-ray attenuation  β and refraction  δ, components of the complex refractive index of distinct materials within an unknown sample. Read More

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