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    Thyroid homeostasis in mother-child pairs in relation to maternal iodine status: the MISA study.
    Eur J Clin Nutr 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Community Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Background/objectives: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may influence maternal and foetal thyroid function with the risk of causing neurocognitive and psychomotor deficits in the offspring. The objective of this study was to assess iodine status in pregnant women from Northern Norway and to investigate the influence of iodine status on maternal and infant thyroid function.

    Subjects/methods: Women from the Northern Norway Mother-and-Child contaminant Cohort Study (MISA) donated a blood and urine sample at three visits during their pregnancy and postpartum period (in second trimester, 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery. Read More

    The dietary composition of women who delivered preterm and full-term infants.
    Appl Nurs Res 2017 Jun 3;35:13-17. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing and Emergency Medicine, University of Bielsko-Biala, ul. Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biala, Poland.
    Objectives: Literature data show that excess and primary deficiency in particular nutrients, vitamins and minerals may lead to pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, hypertension and neural tube defects in the foetus. The aim of the study was to determine differences in average daily consumption of selected nutrients during pregnancy in women who did not supplement their diet and to evaluate the influence of dietary habits on the occurrence of pre-term delivery and hypertension in pregnant women.

    Sample Group And Methods: Information on the course of pregnancy and the newborn's health status at birth was derived from the Charter of Pregnancy and documents recorded by the hospital. Read More

    [SERUM THYROGLOBULIN LEVELS AND ESTIMATED IODINE INTAKE IN ADULTS EXPOSED TO IODINE‑DILUTED DESALINATED DRINKING WATER].
    Harefuah 2016 Aug;155(8):470-474
    Department of Internal Medicine C, Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon, Israel.
    Aims: The aim of this study was to describe thyroglobulin levels and iodine intake estimations in a convenience sample of Israeli adults without TD in the Ashkelon District, where SWRO desalination has become the major source of drinking water.

    Background: Iodine deficiency (ID) is a significant risk factor for thyroid disease (TD). Recently, there were increases in both selfreported use of TD medication among Israeli adults and the national use of sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalinated water. Read More

    Suboptimal Maternal Iodine Intake Is Associated with Impaired Child Neurodevelopment at 3 Years of Age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
    J Nutr 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Domains of Infection Control and Environmental Health and
    Background: Severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy has major effects on child neurodevelopment, but less is known about the potential consequences of mild-to-moderate deficiency and iodine supplement use.Objective: We explored the associations between maternal iodine intake and child neurodevelopment at 3 y of age and the potential impact of maternal intake of iodine from supplements on the same outcomes.Methods: This population-based prospective observational study included 48,297 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy from 2002 to 2008. Read More

    [Dynamics of immunological features of oral liquid in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis living on polluted territories with fluoride and iodine deficiency].
    Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2017 ;96(2):51-54
    Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine.
    The aim of the study was to assess the state of oral liquid (OL) immunity in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG) living in adverse environmental conditions. 120 children aged 7-15 residing in ecologically unfavorable areas of Lviv region were examined, while 75 children living in 'relatively clean' region were involved in the control group. Chronic catarrhal gingivitis was diagnosed according to Danilevskiy classification (1994). Read More

    Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 May 17;5:CD004767. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of General Practice, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Room Ff303, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3000 CA.
    Background: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking. Read More

    Factors associated with serum thyroglobulin in a Ukrainian cohort exposed to iodine-131 from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant.
    Environ Res 2017 May 12;156:801-809. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
    Background: Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is associated with the presence of thyroid disease and has been proposed as a biomarker of iodine status. Few studies have examined factors related to serum Tg in populations environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation and living in regions with endemic mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

    Methods: We screened 10,430 individuals who were living in Ukraine and under 18 years of age at the time of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident for thyroid disease from 2001 to 2003. Read More

    Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.
    Nutrients 2017 May 13;9(5). Epub 2017 May 13.
    Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, 0130 Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. Read More

    Temporal trends for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO) testing across two phases of iodine fortification in tasmania (1995-2013).
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 May 13. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Department of Diabetes & Endocrinology, Royal Hobart Hospital.
    Context: Tasmania is an island State of the Australian Commonwealth with a well-documented history of mild iodine deficiency. Between 2001 and 2009 Tasmania experienced two incremental phases of iodine fortification.

    Objective: To examine trends for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO) testing and their relationship to different phases of iodine nutrition in the Tasmanian population between 1995 and 2013. Read More

    Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.
    Nutrients 2017 May 5;9(5). Epub 2017 May 5.
    Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), 4200-450 Porto, Portugal.
    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. Read More

    Comparison of urinary iodine levels in women of childbearing age during and after pregnancy.
    Eur J Nutr 2017 Apr 29. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is used to describe the iodine status of a population. However, the link between UIC and iodine intake may vary during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare UIC during and after pregnancy, adjusting for factors that affect iodine intake. Read More

    Urinary Iodine Concentrations in Cancer Patients
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 03 1;18(3):819-821. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of General Surgery, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Email:
    Background: It has been suggested that incidence of some cancers, especially examples in the breast and stomach may be influenced by the iodine intake. However, only few studies are available at present. Therefore, we have conducted the present assessment of iodine status in Iranian patients diagnosed with a malignancy. Read More

    Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2017 Jan 20;64(1):44-56. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. Electronic address:
    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Read More

    Assessing the status of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and associated factors in Wolaita and Dawro Zones School Adolescents, southern Ethiopia.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Apr 18;10(1):156. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    College of Health Science and Medicine Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.
    Background: Iodine deficiency is the major preventable cause of irreversible mental retardation in the world. Ethiopia is a country with high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders which continue to affect a large number of the country's population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder in Wolaita and Dawuro zones. Read More

    Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt Varies Greatly between Countries and by Residence Type and Socioeconomic Status within Countries: Results from 10 National Coverage Surveys.
    J Nutr 2017 May 12;147(5):1004S-1014S. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Household coverage with iodized salt was assessed in 10 countries that implemented Universal Salt Iodization (USI).Objective: The objective of this paper was to summarize household coverage data for iodized salt, including the relation between coverage and residence type and socioeconomic status (SES).Methods: A review was conducted of results from cross-sectional multistage household cluster surveys with the use of stratified probability proportional to size design in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Niger, the Philippines, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. Read More

    Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(4):e0175503. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Background: Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. Read More

    Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications.
    Nutrients 2017 Apr 5;9(4). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Parasitic and Endemic Disease Prevention and Control Division of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, 14 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100088, China.
    The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a state-managed edible salt industry and a complex and highly sophisticated surveillance system have facilitated the success of the program. Challenges have arisen however, including: (i) concern that adequate iodine status in pregnant women cannot be achieved without causing above adequate iodine intakes in children; (ii) declining iodine intake as a result of reductions in salt consumption and increased consumption of processed foods, which may not be made with iodized salt; (iii) the existence of areas with high iodine content in the water; and (iv) declines in household use of iodized salt due to concerns about excess iodine intake and thyroid disease. Read More

    Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 20;8:50. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina School of Medicine, Messina, Italy; Master Program of Childhood, Adolescence and Women's Endocrine Health, University of Messina School of Medicine, Messina, Italy; Interdepartmental Program of Molecular & Clinical Endocrinology, and Women's Endocrine Health, University Hospital, Policlinico G. Martino, Messina, Italy.
    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Read More

    Role of the Iodine Global Network in Elimination of Iodine Deficiency.
    Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Emeritus Profesor of Clinical Endocrinology Cardiff School of Medicine Centre for Endocrine and Diabetes Sciences, University Hospital of Wales, United Kingdom.
    Background Iodine deficiency (ID) is a major cause of brain damage if not corrected in early pregnancy. Even mild ID leads to measurable neurointellectual impairment. The iodine global network (IGN), previously the international council for the control of iodine deficiency disorders (ICCIDD), has achieved remarkable progress in facilitating iodine nutritional sufficiency in about 70-80% of countries in the world during the past 3 decades or so. Read More

    Testing the tools for revealing and characterizing the iodine-iodine halogen bond in crystals.
    Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater 2017 Apr 29;73(Pt 2):217-226. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Quantum Chemistry, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 9, Miusskaya Square, Moscow 125047, Russian Federation.
    To understand what tools are really suitable to identify and classify the iodine-iodine non-covalent interactions in solid organic polyiodides, we have examined the anisotropy of the electron density within the iodine atomic basin along and across the iodine-iodine halogen bond using the Laplacian of electron density, one-electron potential and electron localization function produced by Kohn-Sham calculations with periodic boundary conditions. The Laplacian of electron density exhibits the smallest anisotropy and yields a vague picture of the outermost electronic shells. The one-electron potential does not show such a deficiency and reveals that the valence electron shell for the halogen-bond acceptor iodine is always wider than that for the halogen-bond donor iodine along its σ-hole direction. Read More

    Iodine Storage and Metabolism of Mild to Moderate Iodine-Deficient Pregnant Rats.
    Thyroid 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    1 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University , Shenyang, People's Republic of China .
    Background: Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in neurodevelopmental disorders in children, while the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency (MMID) are uncertain. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid is the most accurate indicator of iodine nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate whether the iodine stores in the thyroid cover the needs of the mother and the fetus in iodine-sufficient and MMID conditions by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Read More

    Goiter prevalence in school-going children: A cross-sectional study in two border districts of sub-Himalayan Jammu and Kashmir.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2016 Oct-Dec;5(4):825-828
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorder remains one of the major public health problems, despite it being easily preventable. Initially thought as the disorder of Himalayan goiter belt, the disorder has been found to have a pan-India presence. The study was planned with the aim to assess the prevalence of goiter among 6-12 years school-going children and to identify levels of iodine in salt consumed at the household level in the study area. Read More

    IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.
    Endocr Pract 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    From: Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, & Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine.
    Background: Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. Read More

    Association of iodized salt with goiter prevalence in Chinese populations: a continuity analysis over time.
    Mil Med Res 2017 21;4. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Military Medical Geography, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038 China.
    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refer to diseases that are caused by insufficient iodine intake, and the best strategy to prevent IDD is the addition of iodine to dietary salt. Because iodine deficiency is a common cause of goiter, the prevalence as effectively controlled after the implementation of universal salt iodization (USI) in China. However, there is substantial controversy as to whether the incidence of thyroid disorders is related to iodized salt intake. Read More

    Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) could be a promising biomarker for predicting goiter among school-age children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(3):e0174095. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    School of Basic Medical Science, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.
    Objectives: To evaluate whether urinary iodine concentration (UIC) can predict goiter among school-age children, and to assess the association between UIC and goiter prevalence.

    Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang databases for relevant reports in both English and Chinese up to August 25, 2016. The mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the UIC and goiter prevalence assessments. Read More

    TRH Action Is Impaired in Pituitaries of Male IGSF1-Deficient Mice.
    Endocrinology 2017 Apr;158(4):815-830
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada.
    Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 (IGSF1) gene cause central hypothyroidism. IGSF1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of unknown function expressed in thyrotropin (TSH)-producing thyrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The protein is cotranslationally cleaved, with only its C-terminal domain (CTD) being trafficked to the plasma membrane. Read More

    Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.
    Cleve Clin J Med 2017 Mar;84(3):236-244
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Read More

    Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Prophylaxis in Pregnancy.
    Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov 2017 Mar 9. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University Medical College ul. Kopernika 17, 31-501 Krakow. Poland.
    Background: Physiological changes in pregnancy result in increased iodine demand, which may not be met in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency or borderline sufficiency. As a pregnant woman is the only source of thyroid hormones for her child during early gestation, iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroxinemia may have deleterious effects on fetal development.

    Objective: To present the current approach to iodine deficiency and its prophylaxis during pregnancy. Read More

    Surveys in Areas of High Risk of Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess in China, 2012-2014: Current Status and Examination of the Relationship between Urinary Iodine Concentration and Goiter Prevalence in Children Aged 8-10 Years.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 02;30(2):88-96
    Institute for Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, Heilongjiang, China.
    Objective: We aimed to evaluate goiter prevalence and iodine nutritional status in areas with high levels of water iodine; to monitor the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in areas at high risk of IDD; and to compare the prevalence of goiter and urine iodine (UI) concentrations between children living in the two areas.

    Methods: Based on surveillance from 2012-2014, we analyzed the concentration of UI and prevalence of goiter in 8-10-year-old children from 12 high-risk IDD provinces, and from 8 provinces and municipalities with excessive water iodine. We calculated goiter prevalence for each UI level according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards and constructed predictive prevalence curves. Read More

    Multiple Nutritional Factors and the Risk of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.
    Thyroid 2017 May 6;27(5):597-610. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    1 Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey , Guildford, United Kingdom .
    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be the most common autoimmune disease. It is currently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and immune disorders contribute to its development. With regard to nutritional factors, evidence implicates high iodine intake and deficiencies of selenium and iron with a potential relevance of vitamin D status. Read More

    [The iodine prophylaxis: the experience in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (South Tyrol).]
    Recenti Prog Med 2017 Feb;108(2):90-97
    Servizio di Dietetica e Nutrizione Clinica, Comprensorio Sanitario di Bolzano.
    Since ancient times in South Tyrol there was evidence of endemic goitre caused by iodine deficiency. In the early 80's an epidemiological research on adults and primary and secondary school children reported in the least a prevalence of goitre from grade 1 B-3 (WHO) of 23,66% (limits WHO >5%) and an urinary iodine of 10,2 µgI/L. Therefore South Tyrol population presented heavy endemic goitre. Read More

    The sensitivity and specificity of thyroglobulin concentration using repeated measures of urinary iodine excretion.
    Eur J Nutr 2017 Mar 11. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand.
    Purpose: Iodine deficiency affects 30% of populations worldwide. The amount of thyroglobulin (Tg) in blood increases in iodine deficiency and also in iodine excess. Tg is considered as a sensitive index of iodine status in groups of children and adults, but its usefulness for individuals is unknown. Read More

    High dose of radioactive iodine per se has no effect on glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats.
    Endocrine 2017 May 10;56(2):399-407. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: Thyroid concentrates radioactive iodine by sodium-iodide symporter; this is used for treating hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Pancreas expresses NIS and radioactive iodine uptake may damage pancreatic beta-cells and predispose patients to type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether radioactive iodine is associated with glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats. Read More

    Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand.
    Nutrients 2017 Mar 9;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.
    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50-70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Read More

    Neglected nontoxic multinodular goiter presented as a large neck mass.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Mar 20;5(3):357-358. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Anatomy-Histology-Embryology University of Ioannina School of Medicine Ioannina Greece.
    Large multinodular goiters, obvious to the naked eye, are rarely confronted by clinicians nowadays; yet they do have a place in the differential diagnosis of the neck masses. Due to the fact that 80% of the neck masses in adults are related to malignancy, the later should be ruled out. Read More

    Iodine supplementation for women during the preconception, pregnancy and postpartum period.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Mar 5;3:CD011761. Epub 2017 Mar 5.
    Research and Evaluation, Micronutrient Initiative, 180 Elgin Street, Suite 1000, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K2P 2K3.
    Background: Iodine is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, which are responsible for regulating growth, development and metabolism. Iodine requirements increase substantially during pregnancy and breastfeeding. If requirements are not met during these periods, the production of thyroid hormones may decrease and be inadequate for maternal, fetal and infant needs. Read More

    The Effects of Iodine Fortified Milk on the Iodine Status of Lactating Mothers and Infants in an Area with a Successful Salt Iodization Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Nutrients 2017 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 19395-4763 Tehran, Iran.
    Iodine deficiency during the first two years of life may cause irreversible brain damage and mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of iodine fortified milk on the iodine status of lactating mothers and their infants. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 84 lactating mother-infant pairs from health care centers were randomly selected. Read More

    An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Feb 20;14(2). Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China.
    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. Read More

    Breast Milk Iodine Concentration Is a More Accurate Biomarker of Iodine Status Than Urinary Iodine Concentration in Exclusively Breastfeeding Women.
    J Nutr 2017 Apr 22;147(4):528-537. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Iodine status in populations is usually assessed by the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC). However, iodine is also excreted in breast milk during lactation; thus, breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) may be a promising biomarker of iodine nutrition in lactating women. Whether the mammary gland can vary fractional uptake of circulating iodine in response to changes in dietary intake is unclear. Read More

    Iodine deficiency status in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review.
    Environ Geochem Health 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Iodine deficiency is a global public health issue because iodine plays a major role in the thyroid hormone synthesis and is essential for normal neurological development. This review summarizes the publications on iodine status in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. All related studies available in main national and international databases were systematically searched using some specific keywords to find article published between 1909 and 2015. Read More

    Reliability of thyroglobulin in serum compared with urinary iodine when assessing individual and population iodine nutrition status.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Feb 22;117(3):441-449. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    1Arctic Health Research Centre,Institute of Clinical Medicine,Aalborg University Hospital,9000 Aalborg,Denmark.
    The occurrence of thyroid disorders relies on I nutrition and monitoring of all populations is recommended. Measuring I in urine is standard but thyroglobulin in serum is an alternative. This led us to assess the reliability of studies using serum thyroglobulin compared with urinary I to assess the I nutrition level and calculate the number of participants needed in a study with repeated data sampling in the same individuals for 1 year. Read More

    [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;51(2):165-171
    Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Read More

    Improving iodine nutritional status and increasing prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in children.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;21(1):85-89
    Department of Pediatrics, CSI Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the link between excess iodine intake as evidenced by increased urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and autoimmune thyroiditis in children and to assess the correlation between UIE and thyroid microsomal antibody (thyroid peroxidase [TPO]) titers in children.

    Materials And Methods: All children with goiter between age group 6 and 12 years, were subjected to blood tests for free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and TPO antibody, fine needle aspiration was advised for all children with goiter. Forty-three children with confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis served as cases, and 43 children with euthyroid goiter with workup negative for autoimmune thyroiditis and iodine deficiency were enrolled as controls. Read More

    Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: A global perspective.
    J Epidemiol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Institute for Community Medicine, Walther-Rathenau Str. 48, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, D-17475, Greifswald, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site, University Greifswald, Germany.
    Iodine deficiency remains a considerable challenge worldwide, even after decades of efforts to address the problem. The aim of this review is to present the current situation in historically iodine-deficient Pakistan regarding iodine nutritional status and place it in a global perspective. We collected relevant articles from online bibliographic databases and websites of concerned organizations that addressed prevalence of goiter/iodine deficiency and barriers to sustainable control. Read More

    Iodine intakes and status in Irish adults: is there cause for concern?
    Br J Nutr 2017 Feb 20;117(3):422-431. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    1UCD Institute of Food and Health,University College Dublin,Belfield,Dublin 4,Republic of Ireland.
    I is an important mineral for health, required for the production of key thyroid hormones, which are essential for cellular metabolism, growth and physical development. Hence, adequate I is crucial at all stages of life, but imperative during pregnancy for fetal brain development and during a child's early life for neurodevelopment. Within Ireland, limited information exists on population I intakes and status. Read More

    Urinary iodine in early pregnancy is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in Tianjin, China: an observational study.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2017 Feb 17;17(1):10. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.
    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and neurodevelopment disorders. Both iodine deficiency and excess are associated with SH; however, few data regarding iodine nutrition status of pregnant women with SH are available. This study aimed to clarify whether iodine deficiency or excess is associated with SH, especially, when test results for anti-thyroid autoantibodies are negative. Read More

    Moderate-to-Severe Iodine Deficiency in the "First 1000 Days" Causes More Thyroid Hypofunction in Infants Than in Pregnant or Lactating Women.
    J Nutr 2017 Apr 15;147(4):589-595. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland;
    Background: Iodine deficiency early in the life cycle-the "first 1000 days"-can cause hypothyroidism and irreversibly impair neuromotor development. However, the relative vulnerability among women and infants during this critical period is unclear, making it difficult for country-based programs with limited resources to prioritize their iodine interventions.Objective: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in women and infants living in an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency. Read More

    Thyroid status of iodine deficient newborn infants living in central region of Turkey: a pilot study.
    World J Pediatr 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Talas Street, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Background: Iodine deficiency (ID) during the fetal and neonatal periods can lead to neonatal hypothyroidism. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ID on the thyroid hormone level of newborns living in Turkey.

    Methods: Between 1998 and 2013, 71 newborns with a urinary iodine concentration <100 μg/L were recruited into the study. Read More

    Low Iodine in the Follicular Lumen Caused by Cytoplasm Mis-localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter may Induce Nodular Goiter.
    Biol Trace Elem Res 2017 Feb 12. Epub 2017 Feb 12.
    Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, No. 34 North Zhongshan Road, Quanzhou, Fujian, 362000, People's Republic of China.
    Iodine is a key ingredient in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and also a major factor in the regulation of thyroid function. A local reduction of iodine content in follicular lumen leads to overexpression of local thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), which in turn excessively stimulates the regional thyroid tissue, and result in the formation of nodular goiter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between iodine content and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression by using the clinical specimens from patients with nodular goiter and explored the pathogenesis triggered by iodine deficiency in nodular goiter. Read More

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