6,378 results match your criteria Iodine Deficiency

Global Endocrinology: Global perspectives in endocrinology: Coverage of iodized salt programs and iodine status in 2020.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

M Andersson, Nutrition Research Unit, University Children's Hospital Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland.

Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development. Diets in many countries cannot provide adequate iodine without iodine fortification of salt. In 2020, 124 countries have legislation for mandatory salt iodization and 21 have legislation allowing voluntary iodization; as a result, 88% of the global population uses iodized salt. Read More

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Efficacy of a Salt Iodization Program on Iodine Status and Intakes in Schoolchildren of São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 9;10(2):109-113. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital do Divino Espírito Santo de Ponta Delgada, Ponta Delgada, Portugal.

Introduction: Iodine is an essential micronutrient and its deficiency can severely impact children's development. In 2012, the Thyroid Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism discovered that the median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) level in schoolchildren of São Miguel was far too low at 70.9 μg/L. Read More

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Iodine, Seaweed, and the Thyroid.

Peter P A Smyth

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 27;10(2):101-108. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Backgound: Even a minor iodine deficiency can result in adverse thyroidal health consequences while excess iodine intake can also result in thyroid function disorders. One source of iodine is seaweed which as a foodstuff is enjoying an increasing profile in Western countries. Apart from its potential involvement in thyroidal health, gaseous iodine released from seaweeds plays a significant role in influencing coastal climate through cloud formation. Read More

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Assessment of Iodine Nutrition of School Children in Gonda, India, Indicates Improvement and Effectivity of Salt Iodization.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 10:1-18. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Objective: To study the total goiter rate (TGR), urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content among school children in a previously endemic area for severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD).

Design: Cross-sectional epidemiological study.

Setting: The study was carried out in the Gonda district (sub-Himalayan region) of North India. Read More

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Environmental and human iodine and selenium status: lessons from Gilgit-Baltistan, North-East Pakistan.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, Leicestershire, UK.

Iodine and selenium deficiencies are common worldwide. We assessed the iodine and selenium status of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. We determined the elemental composition (ICP-MS) of locally grown crops (n = 281), drinking water (n = 82), urine (n = 451) and salt (n = 76), correcting urinary analytes for hydration (creatinine, specific gravity). Read More

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Adequately Iodized Salt Utilization and Associated Factors among Households in Tach Armachio District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

J Nutr Metab 2021 16;2021:6630450. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: For the synthesis of thyroid hormones, iodine is a crucial trace element. Iodine deficiency disorders affect all groups particularly: pregnant, young women and children. Iodine deficiency disorder has been recognized as a serious public health issue in Ethiopia. Read More

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Improving Micronutrient Status of Children and Women in Rural Communities in India Using Crystal Salt Enriched with Multiple Micronutrients.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2021 ;67(2):111-117

VitMin lab.

To demonstrate that fortified crystal salt enriched with iron, iodine, vitamin B12, folic acid and zinc can combat multi-micronutrient deficiencies. A randomized controlled study was conducted in 6 villages in Tiruvallur district, in Tamilnadu, South India. All the women and children aged 5-17 y in households in the experimental villages (n=117) were provided the fortified salt for 8 mo. Read More

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January 2021

Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in an Italian Centre: a 5-years real-life retrospective study.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 May 5;47(1):108. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities PROMISE, "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 133, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism is an endocrine disease with a significant incidence in the general population (1:2000-1:3000 newborns in Italy) and a different geographical distribution, partially explained by endemic iodine deficiency, genetic traits and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

Objectives: Aims of this study are: to evaluate the incidence of positive neonatal blood spot screening for CH in western Sicily, identified by the screening centre of the Children Hospital "G. Di Cristina", ARNAS, Palermo; to evaluate the impact of a lower TSH cutoff in the neonatal blood spot screening for CH. Read More

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The Impact of Double-Fortified Salt Delivered Through the Public Distribution System on Iodine Status in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural India.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 Apr 30;5(4):nzab028. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Double-fortified salt (DFS) with iron and iodine has been demonstrated to be efficacious but questions of unintended effects on the gains in salt iodization remain. The main cross-sectional study based on the use of DFS over 1 y showed a reduction in iron deficiency risk. Whether the programs and the levels of added iron can adversely affect iodine status is yet to be established. Read More

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A scoping review of research on policies to address child undernutrition in the Millennium Development Goals era.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 30:1-23. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Canada.

Objective: The breadth of research on the impact of nutrition-specific policies to address child undernutrition is not well documented. This review maps the evidence base and identifies evidence gaps on such policies.

Design: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, PAIS Index for public policy, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for public policy to identify eligible studies. Read More

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Iodine Nutritional Status and Related Factors among Chinese School-Age Children in Three Different Areas: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, 29 Nanwei Road, Beijing 100050, China.

We evaluated the iodine nutritional status and related factors among school-age children based on the 2016 National Nutrition and Health Surveillance of Children and Lactating Women; 3808 children from Hebei, Guangxi, and Zhejiang province were included in the study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), body mass index (BMI), vitamin A (VA), and vitamin D (VD) were measured. The abnormal rate of UIC and TSH were assessed. Read More

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Cumulative Protective Effect of Melatonin and Indole-3-Propionic Acid against KIO-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Porcine Thyroid.

Toxics 2021 Apr 21;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Oncological Endocrinology, Medical University of Lodz, 7/9 Zeligowski St., 90-752 Lodz, Poland.

Iodine deficiency is the main environmental factor leading to thyroid cancer. At the same time iodine excess may also contribute to thyroid cancer. Potassium iodate (KIO), which is broadly used in salt iodization program, may increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation, LPO) under experimental conditions, with the strongest damaging effect at KIO concentration of ~10 mM (corresponding to physiological iodine concentration in the thyroid). Read More

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Iodoprophylaxis and thyroid autoimmunity: an update.

Immunol Res 2021 Apr 29;69(2):129-138. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DiMI), Genoa University, Viale Benedetto XV, 6 I-16132, Genova, Italy.

Adequate iodine intake is necessary for normal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency is associated with serious complications, but also iodine excess can lead to thyroid dysfunction, and iodine supplementation aimed to prevent iodine deficiency disorders has been associated with development of thyroid autoimmunity. The epidemiology of thyroid diseases has undergone profound changes since the implementation of iodoprophylaxis, notably by means of iodine-enriched salt, specifically resulting in decreased prevalence of goiter and neonatal hypothyroidism, improved cognitive function development in infancy, and reduced incidence of more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer. Read More

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Food sources of iodine in schoolchildren and relationship with 24-hour urinary iodine excretion in Victoria, Australia.

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 29:1-33. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Locked Bag 20000, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia.

Dietary recalls have been used previously to identify food sources of iodine in Australian schoolchildren. Dietary assessment can provide information on the relative contributions of individual food groups which can be related to a robust objective measure of daily intake (24hr urinary iodine excretion (UIE)). In Australia, the government has mandated the use of iodised salt in breadmaking to address iodine deficiency. Read More

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Impact of knowledge, attitude, and practice on iodized salt consumption at the household level in selected coastal regions of Bangladesh.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 8;7(4):e06747. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the major hidden hunger for poverty-stricken coastal rural areas of Bangladesh. Despite various programs, including universal salt iodization, IDD is significantly persistent due to poverty, inadequate knowledge, poor attitude, and practice of iodized salt consumption. The present study aimed to determine iodine concentration in salt at the household level as well as the magnitude of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to iodized salt utilization and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs). Read More

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Multiple geochemical factors may cause iodine and selenium deficiency in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, Leicestershire, UK.

Deficiencies of the micronutrients iodine and selenium are particularly prevalent where populations consume local agricultural produce grown on soils with low iodine and selenium availability. This study focussed on such an area, Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan, through a geochemical survey of iodine and selenium fractionation and speciation in irrigation water and arable soil. Iodine and selenium concentrations in water ranged from 0. Read More

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[Factors associated with the nutritional status of iodine in the maternal-infant group: a systematic review].

Cien Saude Colet 2021 Apr 21;26(4):1381-1390. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs s/nº, Campus Universitário. 36570-900 Viçosa MG Brasil.

This article sets out to identify the socio-demographic and nutritional factors associated with the nutritional status of iodine in the maternal-infant group. The review was based on the Prisma method and the Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Lilacs databases were consulted. The search was conducted in December 2018, using the key words nutritional status, iodine, infant, pregnant and lactating. Read More

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Prevalence of goiter and iodine deficiency in indigenous pregnant women from five nonmetropolitan areas of Colombia 2019

Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol 2021 03 30;72(1):12-23. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Hospital Universitario Vírgen de la Arrixaca, Universidad de Murcia (España)..

Objective: To assess the prevalence of goiter and iodine deficiency in indigenous pregnant women coming from five non-metropolitan areas in Colombia. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional cohort study that included pregnant women of any gestational age with no pregnancy-related conditions, seen in community health centers or in their homes. Patients with comorbidities at the time of pregnancy and those who were receiving iodine supplementation were excluded. Read More

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Iodine status of postpartum women and their infants aged 3, 6 and 12 months - Mother and Infant Nutrition Investigation (MINI).

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 16:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Nutrition Science, School of Food and Advanced Technology, College of Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand.

To alleviate the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, two strategies, the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt (2009) and a government-subsidised iodine supplement for breastfeeding women (2010) were introduced. Few studies have investigated mother and infant iodine status during the first postpartum year, this study aimed to describe iodine status of mothers and infants at three, six, twelve months postpartum (3MPP,6MPP,12MPP). Partitioning of iodine excretion between urine and breastmilk of exclusive breastfeeding women at 3MPP was determined. Read More

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Lateral approach improves surgical access to the superior pole in giant endemic goiters.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):973-979

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Tufts University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Surgical management of mega-goiters in endemic areas with extreme iodine deficiency presents unique challenges. Based on our initial 5-year experience (2007 to 2011) operating on mega-goiters in Gitwe, Rwanda, Africa, we modified our technique to a lateral approach which affords better exposure of the superior pole vessels and other vital neurovascular structures, thereby improving safety. We describe this lateral approach technique and review outcomes compared to the standard technique. Read More

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The Iodine Status and Prevalence of Thyroid Disorders among Women of Childbearing-age in China: National Cross-sectional Study.

Endocr Pract 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism and the Institute of Endocrinology, First Hospital of China Medical University, 155 Nanjing Bei Street, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Mandatory universal salt iodization in China was implemented 20 years ago; however, the current iodine status and prevalence of thyroid disorders among childbearing-age women are unknown.

Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional study with 26166 enrolled participants aged 18 to 49 years from all 31 provincial regions of mainland China was performed. The participants were given a questionnaire and underwent B-mode ultrasonography of the thyroid. Read More

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Temporal relationship between body mass index and uric acid and their joint impact on blood pressure in children and adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the temporal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA), and their joint effect on blood pressure (BP) in children and adults.

Methods: The longitudinal cohorts for temporal relationship analyses consisted of 564 and 911 subjects examined twice 5-14 years apart from childhood to adulthood. The cross-sectional cohorts for mediation analyses consisted of 3102 children and 3402 nondiabetic adults. Read More

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Vitamin D and iodine status was associated with the risk and complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China.

Open Life Sci 2021 18;16(1):150-159. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Endocrinology, Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, No. 250, East Street, Licheng District, Quanzhou, 362300, Fujian, China.

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk and complications and to establish a model to predict T2DM in the general population. A total of 567 adults (389 T2DM patients and 178 controls) were enrolled, and the levels of 25(OH)D, iodine, and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Pearson's correlation analysis showed an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D level, UIC, and T2DM risk. Read More

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February 2021

A Household-Based Survey of Iodine Nutrition in Moroccan Children Shows Iodine Sufficiency at the National Level But Risk of Deficient Intakes in Mountainous Areas.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Ibn Tofail University-CNESTEN, Joint Research Unit in Nutrition and Food, RDC-Nutrition AFRA/IAEA, Rabat-Kénitra 1400, Morocco.

Historically, mountainous areas of Morocco have been affected by endemic goiter and severe iodine deficiency. In 1995, Morocco legislated salt iodization to reduce iodine deficiency. There has been no national survey of iodine nutrition in school-age children for nearly 3 decades. Read More

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Iodine Absorption in Celiac Children: A Longitudinal Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 1;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Pediatrics, "Giovanni XXIII" Children Hospital, "Aldo Moro" University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy.

non-autoimmune thyroid disorder is a common finding in celiac patients, more frequent than in the general population. An impairment of iodine absorption has been hypothesized, but it has never been investigated so far. We aimed to evaluate the iodine absorption in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed celiac disease. Read More

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Relationship between Thyroid Status during the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Neonatal Well-Being.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 7;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

SONEV Research Group, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Mártir, C/Quevedo n° 2, 46001 Valencia, Spain.

Iodine is an essential micronutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. The proper functioning of the thyroid axis is essential for the normal development of the nervous system, especially in the first trimester of gestation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the perinatal outcomes, anthropometry, and APGAR test scores of newborns and to relate them to maternal thyroid status. Read More

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Levothyroxine Therapy in Elderly Patients With Hypothyroidism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:641560. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of overt hypothyroidism can be more challenging in elderly compared to young patients. The elderly population is growing, and increasing incidence and prevalence of hypothyroidism with age are observed globally. Elderly people have more comorbidities compared to young patients, complicating correct diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. Read More

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Iodine nutrition status and thyroid function of women at different phases of gestation in an iodine sufficient rural area.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2021 ;30(1):99-103

Gansu center for diseases control and prevention, Lanzhou Gansu, China.

Background And Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the status of iodine nutrition and thyroid function of women at different phases of gestation in an iodine sufficient rural area.

Methods And Study Design: 215 pregnant women in different trimesters were consecutively enrolled in iodine sufficient rural areas of Yongjing county of Gansu province, China. The blood samples and random urine samples were collected from them, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and urinary iodine were measured. Read More

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January 2021

Avoidance of iodine deficiency/excess during pregnancy in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

Nuklearmedizin 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose:  Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common disease that also affects pregnant women. We analyzed to what extent the inflammatory process of Hashimoto's thyroiditis changes with iodine prophylaxis in pregnant women. The target for immunologic activity was levels of thyroid antibodies (TPO). Read More

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