4,204 results match your criteria Intestinal Radiation Injury


Metformin mitigates gastrointestinal radiotoxicity and radiosensitises P53 mutation colorectal tumours via optimising autophagy.

Br J Pharmacol 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Rocket Force Medicine, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), 400038, Chongqing, China.

Background And Purpose: There is an urgent but unmet need for mitigating radiation-induced intestinal toxicity while radio sensitising tumours for abdominal radiotherapy. We aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on radiation-induced intestinal toxicity and radiosensitivity of colorectal tumours.

Experimental Approach: Acute and chronic histological injuries of the intestine from mice were used to assess radioprotection, and IEC-6 cell line was used to investigate the mechanisms in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15149DOI Listing

A Novel 7-Days Prolonged Dietary Deprivation Regimen Improves ALT and UA After 3-6 Months Refeeding, Indicating Therapeutic Potential.

Front Nutr 2020 6;7:50. Epub 2020 May 6.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate a total fasting regimen assisted by a novel prebiotic, Flexible Abrosia (FA), in more than 7 days of continual dietary deprivation (7D-CDD). Our analysis included basic physical examinations, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and clinical lab and ELISA analysis in normal volunteers. Seven healthy subjects with normal body weight participated in 7D-CDD with the assistance of a specially designed probiotic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218643PMC

Gut microbiota-derived indole 3-propionic acid protects against radiation toxicity via retaining acyl-CoA-binding protein.

Microbiome 2020 May 20;8(1):69. Epub 2020 May 20.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 238 Baidi Road, Tianjin, 300192, China.

Background: We have proved fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an efficacious remedy to mitigate acute radiation syndrome (ARS); however, the mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here, we aimed to tease apart the gut microbiota-produced metabolites, underpin the therapeutic effects of FMT to radiation injuries, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Results: FMT elevated the level of microbial-derived indole 3-propionic acid (IPA) in fecal pellets from irradiated mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00845-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241002PMC

Ghrelin, a novel therapy, corrects cytokine and NF-κB-AKT-MAPK network and mitigates intestinal injury induced by combined radiation and skin-wound trauma.

Cell Biosci 2020 12;10:63. Epub 2020 May 12.

1Scientific Research Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20814 USA.

Background: Compared to radiation injury alone (RI), radiation injury combined wound (CI) further enhances acute radiation syndrome and subsequently mortality. We previously reported that therapy with Ghrelin, the 28-amino-acid-peptide secreted from the stomach, significantly increased 30-day survival and mitigated hematopoietic death by enhancing and sustaining granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) in the blood and bone marrow; increasing circulating white blood cell depletion; inhibiting splenocytopenia; and accelerating skin-wound healing on day 30 after CI. Herein, we aimed to study the efficacy of Ghrelin on intestinal injury at early time points after CI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-020-00425-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216502PMC
May 2020
3.210 Impact Factor

MiR-122-5p increases radiosensitivity and aggravates radiation-induced rectal injury through CCAR1.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 May 16;399:115054. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201620, China. Electronic address:

Radiation-induced rectal injury is a major side-effect observed in patients with pelvic malignancies who receive radiotherapy. MicroRNA (miRNA), involved in many cellular biological processes, can be disturbed by ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, we have investigated the function of microRNA-122-5p (miR-122-5p) in radiation-induced rectal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115054DOI Listing
May 2020
3.705 Impact Factor

Hydrogen attenuates radiation-induced intestinal damage by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Apr 28;84:106517. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of General Surgery, The Eighth Medical Center, Chinese PLA(People's Liberation Army) General Hospital, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

The small intestine is known to be particularly sensitive to radiation, and the major limiting factor of radiotherapy is the gastrointestinal syndrome that subsequently develops after its administration. The detrimental effects of radiation are mostly mediated via the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Because hydrogen is a selective ·OH scavenger, we hypothesized that hydrogen might exert a protective effect against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106517DOI Listing

The Intestinal Microbiota Plays as a Protective Regulator Against Radiation Pneumonitis.

Radiat Res 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Radiation pneumonitis is a common complication of thoracic irradiation for lung cancer patients. The healthy gut microbiota plays an important role in the local mucosal defense process as well as pulmonary immunomodulation of the host. However, the effect of the intestinal microbiota on radiation pneumonitis is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15579.1DOI Listing

Cimetidine a promising radio-protective agent through modulating Bax/Bcl2 ratio: An in vivo study in male rats.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Meleda, KSA.

Radiotherapy is one of the most effective modalities for treatment of neoplastic diseases. Radiation damage is to a large extent caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species. To improve the therapeutic index, identifying effective substances for prevention or treatment of postirradiation intestinal and bone marrow injury should be prompted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29692DOI Listing

Secretion of acid sphingomyelinase and ceramide by endothelial cells contributes to radiation-induced intestinal toxicity.

Cancer Res 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Cancer Research Center, Inserm

Ceramide-induced endothelial cell apoptosis boosts intestinal stem cell radiosensitivity. However, the molecular connection between these two cellular compartments has not been clearly elucidated. Here we report that Ceramide and its related enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) are secreted by irradiated endothelial cells and act as bystander factors to enhance the radiotoxicity of intestinal epithelium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1527DOI Listing
April 2020
9.329 Impact Factor

Gut commensal bacteria, Paneth cells and their relations to radiation enteropathy.

World J Stem Cells 2020 Mar;12(3):188-202

Department of Radiation Oncology and Therapy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin Province, China.

In steady state, the intestinal epithelium forms an important part of the gut barrier to defend against luminal bacterial attack. However, the intestinal epithelium is compromised by ionizing irradiation due to its inherent self-renewing capacity. In this process, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is a critical event that reciprocally alters the immune milieu. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v12.i3.188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118286PMC

Experimental Animal Model of Re-irradiation to Evaluate Radiation-induced Damage in the Normal Intestine.

Anticancer Res 2020 Apr;40(4):1981-1988

Department of Radiation Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background/aim: We aimed to elucidate the pathological findings following acute and late re-irradiation in a preclinical model.

Materials And Methods: Mice were divided into five treatment groups: sham-irradiation (Sham-IR), 10-12 Gy (Single IR Acute), 15 Gy (Single IR Late), 15 Gy followed by 10-12 Gy re-irradiation 7 days later (Re-IR Acute), or 15 Gy followed by 10-12 Gy re-irradiation 12 weeks later (Re-IR Late). Mice were sacrificed after either single irradiation or re-irradiation for pathological assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14153DOI Listing

Pravastatin Alleviates Radiation Proctitis by Regulating Thrombomodulin in Irradiated Endothelial Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 10;21(5). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Laboratory of Radiation Exposure & Therapeutics, National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812, Korea.

Although radiotherapy plays a crucial in the management of pelvic tumors, its toxicity on surrounding healthy tissues such as the small intestine, colon, and rectum is one of the major limitations associated with its use. In particular, proctitis is a major clinical complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial injury significantly affects the initiation of radiation-induced inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084904PMC

[High urinary diversion after irradiation to the lesser pelvis].

Authors:
A Pycha E Trenti

Urologe A 2020 Apr;59(4):416-425

Urologische Abteilung, Landeskrankenhaus Bozen, Lorenz Böhler Straße 5, 39100, Bolzen, Italien.

As useful and necessary as radiotherapy may be, it is associated with irreversible long-term adverse effects including loss of bladder function. In the majority of cases the small bowel, sigmoid rectum and ureter are also affected. The extent of injury depends on the irradiated area, the applied dose and the quality of application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00120-020-01156-2DOI Listing

Alteration of Metal Elements in Radiation Injury: Radiation-Induced Copper Accumulation Aggravates Intestinal Damage.

Dose Response 2020 Jan-Mar;18(1):1559325820904547. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Second Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, China National Nuclear Corporation 416 Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Ionizing radiation causes damage to a variety of tissues, especially radiation-sensitive tissues, such as the small intestine. Radiation-induced damage is caused primarily by increased oxidative stress in the body. Studies have shown that trace metal elements play an irreplaceable role in oxidative stress in humans, which may be associated with radiation-induced tissue damage. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000859PMC
February 2020
1.234 Impact Factor

Antibiotic Alleviates Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury by Remodeling Microbiota, Reducing Inflammation, and Inhibiting Fibrosis.

ACS Omega 2020 Feb 5;5(6):2967-2977. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214400, China.

Radiation-induced intestinal injury is a common complication of abdominal radiation therapy. However, the pathological features of radiation-induced intestinal injury and its therapeutic regimen are not very clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antibiotic pretreatment on radiation-induced intestinal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b03906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033964PMC
February 2020

Radioprotective effect of self-assembled low molecular weight Fucoidan-Chitosan nanoparticles.

Int J Pharm 2020 Apr 17;579:119161. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

Fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide, plays a vital role in reducing cellular oxidative damage by exerting potential antioxidant activity. However, because of the negative surface charges of oligofucoidan, it shows poor oral intestinal absorption. To overcome this drawback, the oligofucoidan polysaccharides self-assembled with opposite charge based polysaccharides (chitosan) to form the chitosan-fucoidan polysaccharides (C-FP) nanoparticles (NPs) of 190-230 nm in size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119161DOI Listing

Fecal microbiota transplantation: A promising treatment for radiation enteritis?

Radiother Oncol 2020 Feb 7;143:12-18. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Medical Center for Digestive Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China; Key Lab of Holistic Integrative Enterology, Nanjing Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Background: Increasing evidence has indicated that gut microbiota is closely associated with radiation-induced bowel injury. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with chronic radiation enteritis (CRE).

Methods: A pilot study of FMT for CRE was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.01.011DOI Listing
February 2020

Toll-like receptor 4 () deficiency aggravates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury by down-regulating , and .

Ann Transl Med 2019 Dec;7(23):713

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Chang Hai Hospital, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers in the human digestive tract. The repair role of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium is still unknown.

Methods: By comparing to wild-type (WT) mice, Toll-like receptor 4 ()-knockout mice (-KO) were used as dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis models to explore the role of signaling in intestinal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.12.28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989995PMC
December 2019

Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) alleviates radiation-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction of mice in a mitochondrion-dependent manner.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Apr 24;124:109855. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

MGN-3 is an arabinoxylan from rice bran that has been shown to be an excellent antioxidant and radioprotector. This study examined the protective effects of MGN-3 on radiation-induced intestinal injury. Mice were treated with MGN-3 prior to irradiation, then continued to receive MGN-3 for 4 weeks thereafter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.109855DOI Listing

Erythroid differentiation regulator-1 induced by microbiota in early life drives intestinal stem cell proliferation and regeneration.

Nat Commun 2020 01 24;11(1):513. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, 100 Piedmont Ave, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.

Gut microbiota and their metabolites are instrumental in regulating intestinal homeostasis. However, early-life microbiota associated influences on intestinal development remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that co-housing of germ-free (GF) mice with specific-pathogen free (SPF) mice at weaning (exGF) results in altered intestinal gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14258-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981263PMC
January 2020

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Prevents Intestinal Injury, Upregulation of Toll-Like Receptors, and 5-Fluorouracil/Oxaliplatin-Induced Toxicity in Colorectal Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 8;21(2). Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan.

FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin), a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy regimen, is one of most common therapeutic regimens for colorectal cancer. However, intestinal mucositis is a common adverse effect for which no effective preventive strategies exist. Moreover, the efficacy and the safety of fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) in cancer patients treated with anti-neoplastic agents are still scant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013718PMC
January 2020

Gut commensal derived-valeric acid protects against radiation injuries.

Gut Microbes 2020 Jan 13:1-18. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

: Hematopoietic and intestinal systems side effects are frequently found in patients who suffered from accidental or medical radiation exposure. In this case, we investigated the effects of gut microbiota produced-valeric acid (VA) on radiation-induced injuries.: Mice were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI) or total abdominal irradiation (TAI) to mimic accidental or clinical scenarios. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2019.1709387DOI Listing
January 2020

Design, Implementation, and in Vivo Validation of a Novel Proton FLASH Radiation Therapy System.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 02;106(2):440-448

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent studies suggest that ultrahigh-dose-rate, "FLASH," electron radiation therapy (RT) decreases normal tissue damage while maintaining tumor response compared with conventional dose rate RT. Here, we describe a novel RT apparatus that delivers FLASH proton RT (PRT) using double scattered protons with computed tomography guidance and provide the first report of proton FLASH RT-mediated normal tissue radioprotection.

Methods And Materials: Absolute dose was measured at multiple depths in solid water and validated against an absolute integral charge measurement using a Faraday cup. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.10.049DOI Listing
February 2020

A phase 2 randomized controlled trial of oral resistant starch supplements in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis in patients treated for cervical cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2019 Oct-Dec;15(6):1383-1391

Department of Gastroenterology, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore; Department of Medical Gastroentrology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Hepatobiliary Science and Transplantation SRM Institutes for Medical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Radiation induced proctitis is frequently encountered during the radiation therapy of cervical and prostate cancers that causes pain and occasionally with bleeding and may affect the continuity of radiation therapy.

Aims And Objectives: The purpose of the study is to look at the benefit of administration of an oral prebiotic amylase resistant starch in reducing the incidence of acute radiation proctitis, a distressing symptom in patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix.

Material And Methods: The study was conducted between 2011 and 2014 in 104 patients receiving radical chemo-radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_152_19DOI Listing

Vanillin derivative VND3207 activates DNA-PKcs conferring protection against radiation-induced intestinal epithelial cells injury in vitro and in vivo.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 Jan 9;387:114855. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China. Electronic address:

Vanillin is a natural compound endowed with antioxidant and anti-mutagenic properties. We previously identified the vanillin derivative VND3207 with strong radio-protective and antioxidant effects and found that VND3207 confers survival benefit and protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) in mice. We also observed that VND3207 treatment enhanced the expression level of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in human lymphoblastoid cells with or without γ-irradiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2019.114855DOI Listing
January 2020

Dislocation Engineered PtPdMo Alloy With Enhanced Antioxidant Activity for Intestinal Injury.

Front Chem 2019 15;7:784. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Physics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Radiotherapy is the mainstay for abdomen and pelvis cancers treatment. However, high energy ray would inflict gastrointestinal (GI) system and adversely disrupt the treatment. The anti-oxidative agents provide a potential route for protecting body from radiation-induced injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873609PMC
November 2019

A bidirectional effect of Rac1 inhibition-Protects radiation-induced intestinal injury while inhibits tumor.

Life Sci 2020 Jan 28;240:117105. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To investigate whether Rac1 inhibition can alleviate radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII), meanwhile exist no protection on tumors.

Materials And Methods: Rac1 inhibition was achieved by its specific inhibitor, NSC23766. Mice were pretreated with different intraperitoneal injections, which were normal saline for NS group (N = 9), and 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117105DOI Listing
January 2020

Protective Effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) on Radiation and Chemotherapy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1182:119-142

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Radiation and chemotherapy are common and mainstay treatments for cancer patients. But they are also usually associated with some toxicity and side effects in most of the patients. Ganoderma (Lingzhi) is considered as a major kind of complementary/alternative medicine and used to prevent the adverse effects caused by radiation and chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9421-9_4DOI Listing
December 2019

[Investigation of treatment and analysis of prognostic risk on enterocutaneous fistula in China: a multicenter prospective study].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019 Nov;22(11):1041-1050

Research Institute of General Surgery, East War Zone Hospital of PLA, Nanjing 210002, China.

To investigate the diagnosis and treatment for enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) in China, and to explore the prognostic factors of ECF. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted based on the Registration System of Chinese Gastrointestinal Fistula and Intra-Abdominal Infections to collect the clinical data of ECF patients from 54 medical centers in 22 provinces/municipalities from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. The clinical data included patient gender, age, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, underlying diseases, primary diseases, direct causes of ECF, location and type of ECF, complications, treatment and outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0274.2019.11.007DOI Listing
November 2019

[Analysis on operational safety of chronic radiation intestinal injury].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019 Nov;22(11):1034-1040

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Radiation Enteropathy Specialty, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510655, China.

To investigate the safety and efficacy of surgical treatment for chronic radiation intestinal injury. A descriptive cohort study was performed. Clinical data of 73 patients with definite radiation history and diagnosed clinically as chronic radiation intestinal injury, undergoing operation at Department of Colorectal Surgery, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2019, were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0274.2019.11.006DOI Listing
November 2019

[Standardized treatment of chronic radiation-induced bowel injury].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019 Nov;22(11):1021-1026

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Radiation Enteropathy Specialty, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510655, China.

Radiation-induced bowel injury is a common complication of radiation therapy for pelvic malignancy. Given the huge number of patients diagnosed with pelvic malignancy, the number of patients diagnosed with radiation-induced bowel injury increased year by year, which put a great burden on the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced bowel injury. In particular, chronic radiation-induced bowel injury, which is manifested in the process of prolonged, repeated and progressive aggravation, seriously affects the physical and mental health of patients and makes clinical diagnosis and treatment difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0274.2019.11.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Phycocyanin Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Acute Intestinal Toxicity by Regulating the Effect of the Gut Microbiota on the TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB Pathway.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2019 Nov 25. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Background: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea, and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure, which seriously affects patient quality of life after treatment. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of phycocyanin (PC) against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpen.1744DOI Listing
November 2019
3.151 Impact Factor

Radiation-induced intestinal damage: latest molecular and clinical developments.

Future Oncol 2019 Dec 20;15(35):4105-4118. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Key Laboratory of Biology & Bioresource Utilization, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, PR China.

To systematically review the prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for reducing the incidence or severity of intestinal symptoms among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database using various search terms, including 'radiation enteritis', 'radiation enteropathy', 'radiation-induced intestinal disease', 'radiation-induced intestinal damage' and 'radiation mucositis'. The search was limited to studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses published in English with no limitation on publication date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2019-0416DOI Listing
December 2019
2.477 Impact Factor

Sexual Dimorphism of Gut Microbiota Dictates Therapeutics Efficacy of Radiation Injuries.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2019 Nov 29;6(21):1901048. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine Institute of Radiation Medicine Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College 238 Baidi Road Tianjin 300192 China.

Accidental or iatrogenic ionizing radiation exposure precipitates acute and chronic radiation injuries. The traditional paradigm of mitigating radiotherapy-associated adverse side effects has ignored the gender-specific dimorphism of patients' divergent responses. Here, the effects of sexual dimorphism on curative efficiencies of therapeutic agents is examined in murine models of irradiation injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201901048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839645PMC
November 2019

Protective effects of zingerone derivate on ionizing radiation-induced intestinal injury.

J Radiat Res 2019 Nov;60(6):740-746

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China.

Intestinal injury is the primary toxicity of radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal tumors, and it is also one of the common acute complications of radiotherapy. At present, there are no effective drugs to prevent intestinal injury in the clinic. Zingerone is a natural product with radioprotective effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrz065DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads
1.691 Impact Factor

Endoscopic Management of Benign Colonic Obstruction and Pseudo-Obstruction.

Clin Endosc 2020 Jan 24;53(1):18-28. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

There are a variety of causes of intestinal obstruction, with the most common cause being malignant diseases; however, volvulus, inflammatory bowel disease or diverticulitis, radiation injury, ischemia, and pseudo-obstruction can also cause colonic obstruction. These are benign conditions; however, delayed diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction owing to these causes can cause critical complications, such as perforation. Therefore, high levels of clinical suspicion and appropriate treatment are crucial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5946/ce.2019.058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003002PMC
January 2020
2 Reads

Resveratrol attenuates intestinal injury in irradiated rats via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Environ Toxicol 2020 Feb 21;35(2):223-230. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Cairo, Egypt.

Radiation-induced enteritis is one of the greatest challenges in radiotherapy. The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of resveratrol, which exhibits anti-inflammatory property, against radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism. Rats were exposed to a single dose of 5 Gy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22859DOI Listing
February 2020
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Prophylactic Effect of Opuntia ficus indica Fruit Peel Extract against Irradiation-Induced Colon Injury in Rats.

Planta Med 2020 Jan 18;86(1):61-69. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

extract has been used in traditional folk medicine for several purposes and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. This study was directed to explore the prophylactic effect of fruit peel extract against irradiation-induced colitis in rats. GC/MS analysis of the petroleum ether extract led to recognition of 33 compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction and 15 fatty acid methyl esters in the saponifiable part. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1019-9801DOI Listing
January 2020

1,4-Dithiothreitol treatment ameliorates hematopoietic and intestinal injury in irradiated mice: Potential application of a treatment for acute radiation syndrome.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Nov 15;76:105913. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China. Electronic address:

Radiation exposure poses a significant threat to public health, which can lead to acute hematopoietic system and intestinal system injuries due to their higher radiation sensitivity. Hence, antioxidants and thiol-reducing agents could have a potential protective effect against this complication. The dithiol compound 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) has been used in biochemistry, peptide/protein chemistry and clinical medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105913DOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read

Dose-volume analysis of predictors for acute anal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients.

Radiat Oncol 2019 Oct 10;14(1):174. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and dosimetric factors predictive of acute anal toxicity (AAT) after radiotherapy in prostate cancer (PCa) patients with or without hemorrhoids.

Methods: We analyzed data from 347 PCa patients (248 cases treated from July 2013 to November 2017 for training cohort and 99 cases treated in 2018 for validation cohort) treated with pelvic radiotherapy at a single institution. Anal canal dose-volume histogram was used to determine the prescribed dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-019-1374-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785897PMC
October 2019
2 Reads

Oral administration of hydroxylated-graphene quantum dots induces intestinal injury accompanying the loss of intestinal stem cells and proliferative progenitor cells.

Nanotoxicology 2019 12 7;13(10):1409-1421. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University; Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have gained significant attention in various biomedical applications. The physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles, including toxic effects, are largely determined by their surface modifications. Previous studies have demonstrated high cytotoxicity of the hydroxylated GQDs (OH-GQDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2019.1668068DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read
6.411 Impact Factor

Use of organoids to study regenerative responses to intestinal damage.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 12 7;317(6):G845-G852. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Intestinal organoid cultures provide an in vitro model system for studying pathways and mechanisms involved in epithelial damage and repair. Derived from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells or adult intestinal stem cells or tissues, these self-organizing, multicellular structures contain polarized mature cells that recapitulate both the physiology and heterogeneity of the intestinal epithelium. These cultures provide a cutting-edge technology for defining regenerative pathways that are induced following radiation or chemical damage, which directly target the cycling intestinal stem cell, or damage resulting from viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection of the epithelium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00346.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132322PMC
December 2019
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Search and Selection of Probiotics That Improve Mucositis Symptoms in Oncologic Patients. A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2019 Oct 1;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Korott, s.l., 03801 Alcoy, Spain.

Mucositis is a common and severe adverse effect of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy treatments applied to oncologic patients. The development of effective therapies and adjuvant treatments to increase their efficacy and reduce adverse effect is a priority in cancer therapy. Probiotics are non-pathogenic live microorganisms that when ingested in adequate amounts can colonize the intestinal tract promoting the restoration of a healthy gut microbiota and contributing to all its functions including the maintenance of the integrity of the mucosa and the modulation of the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11102322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835542PMC
October 2019

The vanillin derivative VND3207 protects intestine against radiation injury by modulating p53/NOXA signaling pathway and restoring the balance of gut microbiota.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 12 30;145:223-236. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address:

The intestine is a highly radiosensitive tissue that is susceptible to structural and functional damage due to systemic as well as localized radiation exposure. Unfortunately, no effective prophylactic or therapeutic agents are available at present to manage radiation-induced intestinal injuries. We observed that the vanillin derivative VND3207 improved the survival of lethally irradiated mice by promoting intestinal regeneration and increasing the number of surviving crypts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.09.035DOI Listing
December 2019
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Mitigation of radiation-induced gastro-intestinal injury by the polyphenolic acetate 7, 8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin in mice.

Sci Rep 2019 10 1;9(1):14134. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Division of Metabolic Cell Signalling Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Marg, Lucknow Road, Delhi, 110054, India.

Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) constitutes a crucial clinical element of acute radiation syndrome with life-threatening implications posing challenges in devising effective medical countermeasures. Herein, we report the potential of 7, 8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin (DAMTC) to mitigate RIII following total-body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6 mice and underlying mechanisms. Administration of DAMTC 24 hours post TBI facilitated structural reconstitution and restoration of functional absorption linked to alleviation of radiation-induced apoptotic death of intestinal crypt progenitor/stem (ICPS) and villus stromal cells through induction of Bcl-2 family-mediated anti-apoptotic signalling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50785-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773728PMC
October 2019
1 Read

C/EBPδ protects from radiation-induced intestinal injury and sepsis by suppression of inflammatory and nitrosative stress.

Sci Rep 2019 09 27;9(1):13953. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal damage is characterized by a loss of intestinal crypt cells, intestinal barrier disruption and translocation of intestinal microflora resulting in sepsis-mediated lethality. We have shown that mice lacking C/EBPδ display IR-induced intestinal and hematopoietic injury and lethality. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether increased IR-induced inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress promote intestinal injury and sepsis-mediated lethality in Cebpd mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49437-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6764943PMC
September 2019
2 Reads

CT imaging markers to improve radiation toxicity prediction in prostate cancer radiotherapy by stacking regression algorithm.

Radiol Med 2020 Jan 24;125(1):87-97. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Radiomic features, clinical and dosimetric factors have the potential to predict radiation-induced toxicity. The aim of this study was to develop prediction models of radiotherapy-induced toxicities in prostate cancer patients based on computed tomography (CT) radiomics, clinical and dosimetric parameters.

Methods: In this prospective study, prostate cancer patients were included, and radiotherapy-induced urinary and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were assessed by Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-019-01082-0DOI Listing
January 2020
2 Reads

Long-term mucosal injury and repair in a murine model of pelvic radiotherapy.

Sci Rep 2019 09 24;9(1):13803. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

The Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology at the Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Chronic intestinal injury after pelvic radiotherapy affects countless cancer survivors worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of the long-term injury dynamics is prevented in available animal models. With linear accelerators that are used to treat cancer in patients, we irradiated a small volume encompassing the colorectum in mice with four fractions of 8 Gy per fraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50023-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760522PMC
September 2019
3 Reads

Preclinical murine platform to evaluate therapeutic countermeasures against radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 24;116(41):20672-20678. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Cancer, Biology, and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065;

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) is a limiting factor for therapeutic abdominopelvic radiation and is predicted to be a major source of morbidity in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorism. In this study, we developed an in vivo mouse-modeling platform that enables spatial and temporal manipulation of potential RIGS targets in mice following whole-abdomen irradiation without the confounding effects of concomitant hematopoietic syndrome that occur following whole-body irradiation. We then tested the utility of this platform to explore the effects of transient Wnt pathway activation on intestinal regeneration and animal recovery following induction of RIGS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906611116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789742PMC
October 2019
2 Reads

An adenosine derivative (IFC-305) reduced the risk of radiation-induced intestinal toxicity in the treatment of colon cancer by suppressing the methylation of PPAR-r promoter.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Oct 19;118:109202. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shenyang 110042, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: IFC-305, an adenosine derivative, has been proved to exert a therapeutic effect on radiation-induced intestinal toxicity in colon cancer (CC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of protective role of IFC-305 in CC by modifying the methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-r promoter.

Method: Peripheral blood and cancerous tissues samples were collected from the CC patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109202DOI Listing
October 2019
2.023 Impact Factor