636,433 results match your criteria Intestinal Polypoid Adenomas

Osteoarthritis and Gut Microbiome.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 May 4:105203. Epub 2021 May 4.

Sorbonne Université, Department of Rheumatology, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Inserm UMRS_938, FHU PaCeMM, F-75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

The role of the gut microbiome within a "gut-joint" axis is increasingly studied in osteoarthritis. The gut microbiome, particularly via its role in low-grade systemic inflammation, could be involved in joint destruction and osteoarthritic pain. Its mechanisms of action in osteoarthritis remain complex, with on the one hand a direct action of intestinal dysbiosis on osteoarthritis involving systemic inflammation, and on the other hand an indirect effect via the promotion of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Functional pangenome analysis reveals high virulence plasticity of Aliarcobacter butzleri and affinity to human mucus.

Genomics 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Aliarcobacter butzleri is an emerging pathogen that may cause enteritis in humans, however, the incidence of disease caused by this member of the Campylobacteriaceae family is still underestimated. Furthermore, little is known about the precise virulence mechanism and behavior during infection. Therefore, in the present study, through complementary use of comparative genomics and physiological tests on human gut models, we sought to elucidate the genetic background of a set of 32 A. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

mA demethylase ALKBH5 suppresses proliferation and migration of enteric neural crest cells by regulating TAGLN in Hirschsprung's disease.

Life Sci 2021 May 4:119577. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the role of demethylase ALKBH5 mediated demethylation of TAGLN mRNA in the occurrence of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), and to clarify how ALKBH5 reduces the mA level of TAGLN mRNA and inhibits its degradation, thereby inhibiting the proliferation and migration of neural crest cells, and potentially contributing to the occurrence of HSCR.

Material And Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-Blot (WB) were conducted to test the expression level of ALKBH5 and TAGLN genes. Cell function assays were adopted to detect cell phenotypes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antinociceptive synergism upon the joint use of methadone and Phα1β in a model of cancer-related pain in C57BL/6J mice.

Life Sci 2021 May 4:119582. Epub 2021 May 4.

Programa de pós graduação em ciências da saúde, Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Ensino e Pesquisa, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Opioids are the first-line treatment for cancer pain. Incomplete pain relief and the high rate of adverse effects of these compounds bring a need to combine them with other drugs acting on different targets.

Aims: We here evaluate the antinociceptive interaction and adverse events of methadone combined with recombinant Phα1β, an analgesic toxin from Phoneutria nigriventer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hemodynamic influences on mesenteric blood flow in shock conditions.

Am J Med Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially the mucosa, is the most vulnerable organ to hypoperfusion among the splanchnic organs. Disturbed perfusion of the mesenteric area may lead to GI dysfunction, cause further injury to the patients and even vital outcomes. However, due to the limitation of detection methods, the hemodynamic influences on mesenteric blood flow in clinical practice are not fully understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tissue-Based SARS-Cov-2 Detection in Fatal COVID-19 Infections: Sustained Direct Viral-Induced Damage is Not Necessary to Drive Disease Progression.

Hum Pathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departments of Pathology, Molecular and Cell-Based Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although viral infection is known to trigger inflammatory processes contributing to tissue injury and organ failure, it is unclear whether direct viral damage is needed to sustain cellular injury. An understanding of pathogenic mechanisms has been handicapped by the absence of optimized methods to visualize the presence and distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in damaged tissues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuroglian regulates Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation through enhanced signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

The Drosophila intestine is an excellent system for elucidating mechanisms regulating stem cell behavior. Here we show that the septate junction (SJ) protein Neuroglian (Nrg) is expressed in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and enteroblasts (EBs) within the fly intestine. SJs are not present between ISCs and EBs, suggesting Nrg plays a different role in this tissue. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of a marker independent isolation method for circulating tumor cells in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251052. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Gastro-Intestinal Surgery, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: The enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood provides a minimally invasive method for biomarker discovery in cancer. Longitudinal interrogation allows monitoring or prediction of therapy response, detection of minimal residual disease or progression, and determination of prognosis. Despite inherent phenotypic heterogeneity and differences in cell surface marker expression, most CTC isolation technologies typically use positive selection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Using Rotenone to Model Parkinson's Disease in Mice: A Review of the Role of Pharmacokinetics.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Ravila 19, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.

Rotenone is a naturally occurring toxin that inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in individuals exposed chronically to rotenone, and it has received great attention for its ability to reproduce many critical features of PD in animal models. Laboratory studies of rotenone have repeatedly shown that it induces in vivo substantia nigra dopaminergic cell loss, a hallmark of PD neuropathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ultrastructural and phenotypical diversity of macrophages in the rat ileal mucosa.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Animal Molecular Morphology, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan.

Several types of macrophages have been reported in the intestinal mucosa, but their histological localization remains ambiguous. Here, we obtained detailed information about ultrastructural and phenotypical diversity of macrophage-like cells (MLCs) in the rat ileal mucosa using immunofluorescent analysis and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The results revealed that the cells immunopositive for CD68, the pan-macrophage marker, included CD163CD4, CD163CD4, and CD163CD4 cells in the lamina propria (LP) of the intestinal villus and around the crypt. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Novel Adenovirus Detected in Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus): Epidemiologic Data and Phylogenetic Characterization.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

Adenoviruses are common pathogens infecting a wide range of vertebrates. Few cetacean adenoviruses have been described in the literature, and their pathogenicity is still unclear. Using PCR-based viral and bacterial pathogen surveillance in Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort seas bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) legally harvested 2011-15 during Alaskan aboriginal subsistence hunts, six of 59 bowhead whales (10%) tested positive for adenovirus DNA in the spleen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sodium butyrate converts Caco-2 monolayers into a leaky but healthy intestinal barrier resembling that of a newborn infant.

Food Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, P61C996, Ireland.

A simple and reliable in vitro model of the infant intestinal barrier is needed to study nutrient absorption and drug permeability specifically for this life stage. This study investigated the treatment of 20 day old differentiated Caco-2 monolayers with sodium butyrate at various concentrations (0-250 mM). Monolayer integrity, cytotoxicity, permeability and inflammatory response were tracked. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of LI05 on immunity and metabolism in germ-free rats.

Food Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Many Pediococcus spp. have health-promoting benefits, and Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 is one such species that was proved to be beneficial in previous studies. Our research aimed to determine the immune and metabolic effects of P. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of Cytomegalovirus in Intestinal Tissue in a Country With High CMV Seroprevalence.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;32(2):123-132

Department of Medical Microbiology, Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: In Turkey, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity has been reported to be high, between 85 and 100%. CMV has been responsible for disease exacerbation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to evaluate the presence of CMV in intestinal tissue by immunohistochemical staining in IBD and non-IBD patient groups, in a country with high CMV seroprevalence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

A correlation study of intestinal microflora and first-episode depression in Chinese patients and healthy volunteers.

Brain Behav 2021 May 7:e02036. Epub 2021 May 7.

HuiLongGuan Clinical Medical School, Beijing HuiLongGuan Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objective: This research examines the intestinal-associated flora of patients with depression compared with healthy volunteers to identify the characteristics and differences of flora associated with depression. It provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of depression through intestinal micro-ecological regulation.

Methods: We recruited 30 patients with depression to participate in the patient group (PG), and 30 volunteers were recruited for the healthy control group (HG) from the Beijing Hui-long-guan Hospital. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hirschsprung's disease presenting in a preterm neonate as intestinal perforation.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence of intestinal parasites.

Ian Wright

Vet Rec 2021 May;188(9):356-357

Mount Vets, 1 Harris Street, Fleetwood, Lancashire, FY7 6QX.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Specific neuronal subpopulations in the rat basolateral amygdala express high levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments.

J Comp Neurol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, United States.

Cortical pyramidal neurons (PNs) containing non-phosphorylated neurofilaments (NNFs) localized with the SMI-32 monoclonal antibody have been shown to be especially vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present investigation is the first to study the expression of SMI-32+ NNFs in neurons of the basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BNC), which contains cortex-like PNs and nonpyramidal neurons (NPNs). We observed that PNs in the rat basolateral nucleus (BL), but not in the lateral (LAT) or basomedial (BM) nuclei, have significant levels of SMI-32-ir in their somata with antibody diluents that did not contain Triton X-100, but staining in these cells was greatly attenuated when the antibody diluent contained 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 and the neonatal microbiome: will the pandemic cost infants their microbes?

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-7

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Mortality and morbidity from SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) infections in children remains low, including an exceedingly low rate of horizontal and vertical transmission. However, unforeseen complications to childhood health have emerged secondary to the pandemic. Few studies to date have examined unintended complications of the pandemic in newborns and infants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Intestinal and appendicular ureteral substitution].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):14-20

Department of Urology of FGBOU VO North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Aim: To present the technical features and results of intestinal and appendicular ureteral replacement.

Material And Methods: From 1998 to 2020, a total of 196 patients aged 18 to 77 years (mean age 49.5 +/- 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Potential biomarkers of infertility associated with microbiome imbalances.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 May 6:e13438. Epub 2021 May 6.

Microgenesis Co, US.

Problem: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between vaginal/rectal microbiome disbalances and miRNA expression with infertility.

Method Of Study: Observational, exploratory, preliminary study. A total of 287 multiple IVF failure infertile patients were recruited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cyclic AMP-dependent activation of ERK via GLP-1 receptor signalling requires the neuroendocrine cell-specific guanine nucleotide exchanger NCS-RapGEF2.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 May 6:e12974. Epub 2021 May 6.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health - Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Cyclic AMP activation of the Rap-Braf-MEK-ERK pathway after signalling initiated by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), via the G -protein coupled receptor (G PCR) PAC1, occurs uniquely through the neuritogenic cAMP sensor Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (NCS-RapGEF2) in Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) neuroendocrine cells. We examined the expression of other Family B G PCRs in this cell line and assessed cAMP elevation and neuritogenesis after treatment with their cognate peptide ligands. Exposure of NS-1 cells to the VIPR1/2 agonist vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or the GLP1R agonist exendin-4, did not induce neuritogenesis, or elevation of cAMP, presumably as a result of insufficient receptor protein expression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiobiological impact of Gadolinium neutron capture from proton therapy and alternative neutron sources using Topas-nBio.

Med Phys 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 2K3.

Purpose: A multi-scale investigation of the biological properties of gadolinium neutron capture (GdNC) therapy is conducted using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code. The simulation results are used to quantify the amount of gadolinium dose enhancement produced from different neutron sources. The amount of dose enhancement is quantified as a result of the secondary neutron production from proton therapy scaled by measured data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Case Report: Bowel Occlusion Following the Use of Barbed Sutures in Abdominal Surgery. A Single-Center Experience and Literature Review.

Front Surg 2021 20;8:626505. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy.

A high level of surgical ability is required to perform endoscopic knot tying. Barbed sutures help in avoiding this procedure, thus reducing intraoperative time and lowering blood loss and hospitalization time when compared to traditional sutures. Some cases of bowel occlusion following the use of barbed sutures have been described in literature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Risk Adapted Ablative Radiotherapy After Intensive Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:662205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy.

Background And Objective: To assess the efficacy of a Risk-Adapted Ablative Radiotherapy (RAdAR) approach, after intensive induction chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).

Material And Methods: Patients with LAPC who received RAdAR following induction chemotherapy from January 2017 to December 2019 were included in this observational study. The RAdAR approach consisted of an anatomy- and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-based dose prescription strategy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasma proteomics of green turtles () reveals pathway shifts and potential biomarker candidates associated with health and disease.

Conserv Physiol 2021 28;9(1):coab018. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Loggerhead Marinelife Center, 14200 US Highway One, Juno Beach, FL 33408, USA.

Evaluating sea turtle health can be challenging due to an incomplete understanding of pathophysiologic responses in these species. Proteome characterization of clinical plasma samples can provide insights into disease progression and prospective biomarker targets. A TMT-10-plex-LC-MS/MS platform was used to characterize the plasma proteome of five, juvenile, green turtles () and compare qualitative and quantitative protein changes during moribund and recovered states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A rare case of gallstone ileus-the unanswered question.

Chi Fai Tsang

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 29;2021(4):rjab164. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of General Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital and Community Health Services, Sydney, New South Wales 2002, Australia.

Gallstone ileus is caused by an impaction of one or more gallstones within the gastrointestinal tract leading to mechanical intestinal obstruction. It is a rare complication of cholelithiasis and found in 2-3% of all cases associated with recurrent episodes of cholecystitis. This case study demonstrates an atypical presentation of gallstone ileus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recurrent intestinal obstruction due to gallstone ileus during same hospital admission: a case report and literature review.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;2021(4):rjab024. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Gallstone ileus (GSI) is an uncommon entity that causes obstruction of the intestinal lumen due to gallstones. It affects mainly the elderly with multiple comorbidities, leading to a high mortality rate. In this case, an 81-year-old woman was admitted due to GSI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Released Myeloperoxidase Attenuates Neutrophil Migration and Accumulation in Inflamed Tissue.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:654259. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States.

Neutrophil (PMN) recruitment to sites of insult is critical for host defense, however excessive PMN activity and tissue accumulation can lead to exacerbated inflammation and injury. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a PMN azurophilic granule enzyme, which together with HO, forms a powerful antimicrobial system designed to kill ingested bacteria. Intriguingly, in addition to intracellular killing of invading microorganisms and extracellular tissue damage due generation of ROS, soluble MPO has been directly implicated in modulating cellular responses and tissue homeostasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Circulating Adaptive Immune Cells Expressing the Gut Homing Marker α4β7 Integrin Are Decreased in COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:639329. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine 1 and Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie (DZI), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide range of symptoms including gastrointestinal manifestations, and intestinal epithelial cells are a target of the virus. However, it is unknown how the intestinal immune system contributes to systemic immune responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We characterized peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with active COVID-19 and convalescent patients as well as healthy controls by flow cytometry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF