11,323 results match your criteria Intestinal Motility Disorders


Basal and Spasmolytic Effects of a Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of L. on Intestinal Motility: An Study.

J Med Food 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

1 Bretagne Loire University, Nantes University, INSERM 1235, IMAD, The Enteric Nervous System in Gut and Brain Disorders, Nantes, France.

L. (lemon balm) has been used for decades with symptomatic benefits in patients with digestive disorders. However, very little is known on the effects of on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jmf.2018.0154
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.0154DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Study on influence of Magnolia officinalis before and after "sweating" on gastrointestinal motility disorder in rats by metabolomics].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Mar;44(6):1170-1178

Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese medicine Chengdu 611137,China.

Based on metabolomics,the effect of Magnolia officinalis before and after " sweating" on gastrointestinal motility disorder( rat) was compared. To study the mechanism of M. officinalis " sweating" increased the efficacy and reduced the toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20181225.001DOI Listing

Nutrition Management in Patients With Chronic Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review.

Nutr Clin Pract 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

University of Sydney, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Sydney, Australia.

Background: The aim of this study was to systematically review effects of nutrition interventions on outcomes in patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders. There is currently a lack of evidence-based guidelines for nutrition management in this group, likely a result of the rarity of the conditions.

Methods: A systematic review of all study types to evaluate current evidence-based nutrition interventions was performed using Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10273DOI Listing

Surgical treatment of gastric outlet obstruction from a large trichobezoar: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 Apr 6;57:183-185. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Poissy Saint Germain Medical Center, Poissy, France.

Introduction: Bezoars are concretions of foreign indigestible material accumulating in the gastrointestinal tract leading to intraluminal mass formation that impairs the gastrointestinal motility and can lead to gastric obstruction of the small or the large bowel. There are different types of bezoars, named according to the material they are made of. These include phytobezoar, lactobezoar, pharmacobezoar, trichobezoar, and polybezoar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Pre-operative pediatric cardiac surgery: enema Versus not enema.

Acta Biomed 2019 Mar 28;90(4-S):74-78. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Terapia Intensiva Pediatrica.

Background And Aim Of The Work: There is evidence in adult literature that the enema in the preoperative of thoracic surgery can be dismissed without disadvantage. However, there is a gap of articles about enema in childhood for thoracic surgeries. The aim of the work is  to investigate whether the administration of enema in the preparation for cardiac surgery, the use of different analgosedation drugs and the Extracorporeal Circulation influence the children's intestinal motility in the post-operative period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v90i4-S.8262DOI Listing

Nausea exacerbates symptom burden, quality of life, and functioning in adolescents with functional abdominal pain disorders.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Apr 7:e13595. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Nausea frequently co-exists with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) and may be linked to a higher disease burden. This study aimed to prospectively compare multisystem symptoms, quality of life, and functioning in FAPDs with and without nausea.

Methods: Adolescents ages 11-18 years fulfilling Rome III criteria for a FAPD were grouped by the presence or absence of chronic nausea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13595DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Prebiotic oligosaccharides from dragon fruits alter gut motility in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Apr 2;114:108821. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Dragon fruit oligosaccharide (DFO) has a prebiotic property which improves gut health by selectively stimulating the colonic microbiota. Altering microbiota composition may affect intestinal motility. However, no study has been done to understand the DFO effects on gut motor functions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07533322183878
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108821DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Effect of acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on subjective and metabolic hormone responses to food stimuli and food intake in healthy humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr;109(4):1051-1063

Laboratory for Brain-Gut Axis Studies (LABGAS).

Background: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is considered a key player in the neurophysiology of food reward. Animal studies suggest that the ECS stimulates the sensory perception of food, thereby increasing its incentive-motivational and/or hedonic properties and driving consumption, possibly via interactions with metabolic hormones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz007DOI Listing

Intestinal colonization and acute immune response in commercial turkeys following inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni constructs encoding antibiotic-resistance markers.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2019 Apr 1;210:6-14. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Consumption of contaminated poultry products is one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, of which Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (C. jejuni) is responsible for approximately 90% of the cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.02.003DOI Listing

Fasting breath H2 and gut microbiota metabolic potential are associated with the response to a fermented milk product in irritable bowel syndrome.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(4):e0214273. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: Aim of this study was to assess the effect of a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 (FMP) on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and exhaled H2 and CH4 during a nutrient and lactulose challenge in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Methods: We included 125 patients with IBS (Rome III). Fasted subjects were served a 400ml liquid test meal containing 25g lactulose. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214273PLOS
April 2019
2 Reads

Banha-sasim-tang improves gastrointestinal function in loperamide-induced functional dyspepsia mouse model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Mar 30:111834. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Liver & Immunology Research Center, Doonsan Oriental Hospital, 75, Daedeok-daero 176 Street, Seo-gu, Daejeon, 35235, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Banha-sasim-tang (BST; Hange-shashin-to in Kampo medicine; Banxia xiexin tang in traditional Chinese medicine) is a traditional Chinese harbal medicine that has been commonly used for gastrointestinal disorders.

Aim Of The Study: To investigate the pharmacological effects of BST, a standardized herbal drug, on main symptoms of functional dyspepsia including delayed gastric emptying, and underlying mechanisms of action in mouse model.

Methods And Materials: Balb/C mice were pretreated with BST (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, po) or mosapride (3 mg/kg, po) for 3 days, and then treated with loperamide (10 mg/kg, ip) after 19 h fasting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111834DOI Listing
March 2019
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Glutamatergic Signaling Along The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 25;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, via H Dunant 5, 21100 Varese, Italy.

A complex bidirectional communication system exists between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. Initially termed the "gut-brain axis" it is now renamed the "microbiota-gut-brain axis" considering the pivotal role of gut microbiota in maintaining local and systemic homeostasis. Different cellular and molecular pathways act along this axis and strong attention is paid to neuroactive molecules (neurotransmitters, i. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/6/1482
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061482DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Interactions Between Commensal Bacteria and Enteric Neurons, via FPR1 Induction of ROS, Increase Gastrointestinal Motility in Mice.

Gastroenterology 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Reduced gastrointestinal (GI) motility is a feature of disorders associated with intestinal dysbiosis and loss of beneficial microbes. It is not clear how consumption of beneficial commensal microbes, marketed as probiotics, affects the enteric nervous system (ENS). We studied the effects of the widely used probiotic and the commensal Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on ENS and GI motility in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.03.045DOI Listing
March 2019
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Expression of Dopamine Receptors in the Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus and Their Potential Regulation of Gastric Motility in Rats With Lesions of Bilateral Substantia Nigra.

Front Neurosci 2019 14;13:195. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Xinxiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Neurology, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Most Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients experience gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction especially the gastroparesis, but its underlying mechanism is not clear. We have previously demonstrated that the neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) project to the lateral hypothalamic nucleus (LH) and the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV) receives the neural projection from LH by the means of anterograde and retrograde neural tracing technology. Orexin A (OXA) is predominately expressed in the LH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426751PMC
March 2019
1 Read

How can we develop better antispasmodics for irritable bowel syndrome?

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2019 Mar 28:1-14. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

d Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Antispasmodics are a heterogeneous group of drugs that tackle IBS-associated altered bowel habit and abdominal pain. However, some studies have shown their failure to exhibit benefit over placebo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17460441.2019.1593369DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The role of toll-like receptor 4 and mast cell in the ameliorating effect of electroacupuncture on visceral hypersensitivity in rats.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Mar 27:e13583. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Visceral hypersensitivity is one of the main pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mast cell activation is closely related to visceral hypersensitivity. As a critical molecule of the innate immune system, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may modulate the activation of mast cell. Alleviating effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on visceral hypersensitivity has been proved, whereas, whether the TLR4 and mast cell is involved in this process remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13583DOI Listing
March 2019
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Translational inhibition of α-synuclein by Posiphen normalizes distal colon motility in transgenic Parkinson mice.

Am J Neurodegener Dis 2019 15;8(1):1-15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

QR Pharma 1055 Westlakes Drive, Berwyn PA 19312, USA.

Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor as well as non-motor symptoms, including gastrointestinal dysfunction. In humans, these precede the motor symptoms by decades. Previously developed and characterized transgenic mice expressing the mutant human α-synuclein gene () (either A53T or A30P), but not the endogenous mouse , serve as models for familial PD. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420700PMC
February 2019
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[Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection : A local parenchyma-sparing treatment of benign and premalignant tumors of the pancreatic head].

Chirurg 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Zentrum für onkologische, endokrinologische und minimalinvasive Chirurgie, Donau-Klinikum, Neu-Ulm, Deutschland.

Background: In contrast to the Kausch-Whipple procedure (pancreatoduodenectomy) duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) is associated with tissue sparing and maintenance of the pancreatic metabolic functions.

Aim: According to the results of controlled clinical trials the DPPHR procedure for benign pancreatic neoplasms is associated with low surgery-related complications and maintenance of glucose metabolism and exocrine pancreatic functions. This overview summarizes the clinical results of the use of DPPHR for chronic pancreatitis and benign tumors of the pancreatic head and the status of the clinical evidence of the results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00104-019-0942-0DOI Listing
March 2019
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Evidence for an association of gut microbial Clostridia with brain functional connectivity and gastrointestinal sensorimotor function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, based on tripartite network analysis.

Microbiome 2019 Mar 21;7(1):45. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

G. Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress & Resilience, UCLA Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, UCLA CHS 42-210, MC737818, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-7378, USA.

Background And Aims: Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that interactions among the brain, gut, and microbiota may affect the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As disruptions in central and peripheral serotonergic signaling pathways have been found in patients with IBS, we explored the hypothesis that the abundance of serotonin-modulating microbes of the order Clostridiales is associated with functional connectivity of somatosensory brain regions and gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor function.

Methods: We performed a prospective study of 65 patients with IBS and 21 healthy individuals (controls) recruited from 2011 through 2013 at a secondary/tertiary care outpatient clinic in Sweden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0656-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429755PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Advancements in the use of manometry and impedance testing for esophageal functional disorders.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Mar 21:1-11. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

b Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties , University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.

Introduction: The utilization of high-resolution manometry (HRM) has enhanced our understanding and assessment of esophageal motor disorders. Moreover, the combination of impedance technology with HRM (HRIM) has further improved our knowledge of esophageal physiology and the clinical evaluation of dysmotility, thanks to the addition of accurate measurement of bolus transit. Areas covered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1595587DOI Listing
March 2019
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Rikkunshito Depolarizes Pacemaker Potentials of Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal through Ghrelin Receptors in Murine Small Intestine.

Digestion 2019 Mar 19:1-12. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Division of Longevity and Biofunctional Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea,

Background: Rikkunshito has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, on the pacemaker potentials of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from the small intestines of mice.

Methods: We isolated ICCs from the small intestines of mice, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs and membrane currents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000498986DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Characterization of Esophageal Motility in Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia using High Resolution Manometry.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Deglutology, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Objectives: To characterize esophageal motility and esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) function in infants who underwent repair of an isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (iCDH).

Methods: High Resolution Manometry with impedance was used to investigate esophageal motility and EGJ function after diaphragmatic repair in 12 infants with iCDH (11 left-sided; 9 patch repair). They had esophageal motility studies during neonatal admission (n = 12), at 6 months (n = 10) and at 12 months of life (n = 7). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002325DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Obesity, Motility, Diet, and Intestinal Microbiota-Connecting the Dots.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(4):15. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of the present review is to explore the relationship between dietary changes and alterations in gut microbiota that contribute to disorders of gut motility and obesity.

Recent Findings: We review the microbiota changes that are seen in obesity, diarrhea, and constipation and look at potential mechanisms of how dysbiosis can predispose to these. We find that microbial metabolites, particularly short chain fatty acids, can lead to signaling changes in the host enterocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-019-0680-yDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Personalized medicine in functional gastrointestinal disorders: Understanding pathogenesis to increase diagnostic and treatment efficacy.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;25(10):1185-1196

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States.

There is overwhelming evidence that functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are associated with specific mechanisms that constitute important targets for personalized treatment. There are specific mechanisms in patients presenting with functional upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGI Sx). Among patients with UGI Sx, approximately equal proportions (25%) of patients have delayed gastric emptying (GE), reduced gastric accommodation (GA), both impaired GE and GA, or neither, presumably due to increased gastric or duodenal sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i10.1185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421234PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Is Hirschsprung disease a purely neurological condition? A study of the Actin G2 smooth muscle gene in Hirschsprung disease.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Division of Paediatric Surgery, University of stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Background: Hirschsprung disease is a functional obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract due to the congenital absence of ganglion cells in the intermyenteric plexuses of the distal bowel. Gastrointestinal motility requires intact muscular layers as well as neural network connection to function properly. The Actin G2 gene is the main gene encoding actin gamma 2; a smooth muscle actin found in enteric tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.01.069DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Bridging the Gap between Advancements in the Evolution of Diagnosis and Treatment towards Better Outcomes in Achalasia.

Biomed Res Int 2019 6;2019:8549187. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Gastrointestinal Motility Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 833 Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Over the past few decades, there was an encouraging breakthrough in bridging the gap between advancements in the evolution of diagnosis and treatment towards a better outcome in achalasia. The purpose of this review is to provide updated knowledge on how the current evidence has bridged the gap between advancements in the evolution of diagnosis and treatment of esophageal achalasia. The advent of high-resolution manometry and standardization based on the Chicago classification has increased early recognition of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8549187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381566PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Metabolomics Analysis of L-Arginine Induced Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder in Rats Using UPLC-MS After Magnolol Treatment.

Front Pharmacol 2019 1;10:183. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Magnolol, as the main active ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicine, can significantly improve gastrointestinal motility disorders (GMD). In the present study, metabolomics was used to investigate the mechanism of magnolol improving L-arginine induced GMD in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and magnolol treated group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405429PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Circadian rhythms: a regulator of gastrointestinal health and dysfunction.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Mar 15:1-14. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

a Rush Department of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition , Rush University Medical Center , Chicago , IL , USA.

Introduction: Circadian rhythms regulate much of gastrointestinal physiology including cell proliferation, motility, digestion, absorption, and electrolyte balance. Disruption of circadian rhythms can have adverse consequences including the promotion of and/or exacerbation of a wide variety of gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. Areas covered: In this review, we evaluate some of the many gastrointestinal functions that are regulated by circadian rhythms and how dysregulation of these functions may contribute to disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1595588DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

High Prevalence of Slow Transit Constipation in Patients With Gastroparesis.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Apr;25(2):267-275

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, CA, USA.

Background/aims: Current evidence suggests the presence of motility or functional abnormalities in one area of the gastrointestinal tract increases the likelihood of abnormalities in others. However, the relationship of gastroparesis to chronic constipation (slow transit constipation and dyssynergic defecation) has been incompletely evaluated.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with chronic dyspeptic symptoms and constipation who underwent both a solid gastric emptying scintigraphy and a high-resolution anorectal manometry at our institution since January 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm18206DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Congenital intestinal stenosis and Hirschsprung's disease: two extremely rare pathologies in a newborn puppy.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Mar 13;15(1):92. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Avenue. Vasco de Quiroga 15 Col. Belisario Domínguez, Section XVI, Tlalpan, 14080, México City, Mexico.

Background: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a common congenital malformation of the enteric nervous system (ENS). During fetal development, ganglion cells of the ENS are derived from neural crest cells that migrate to the bowel. These cells reside principally in two ganglionated plexus: 1) The myenteric plexus, extending from the esophagus to the anus, and 2) submucous plexus, extending from the duodenum to the anus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1806-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416937PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Interstitial Migration of CD8αβ T Cells in the Small Intestine Is Dynamic and Is Dictated by Environmental Cues.

Cell Rep 2019 Mar;26(11):2859-2867.e4

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

The migratory capacity of adaptive CD8αβ T cells dictates their ability to locate target cells and exert cytotoxicity, which is the basis of immune surveillance for the containment of microbes and disease. The small intestine (SI) is the largest mucosal surface and is a primary site of pathogen entrance. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy, we found that motility of antigen (Ag)-specific CD8αβ T cells in the SI is dynamic and varies with the environmental milieu. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.02.034DOI Listing

RstA Is a Major Regulator of Clostridioides difficile Toxin Production and Motility.

MBio 2019 03 12;10(2). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory Antibiotic Resistance Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated diarrheal disease. Several factors have been identified that influence the production of the two major toxins, TcdA and TcdB, but prior published evidence suggested that additional unknown factors were involved in toxin regulation. Previously, we identified a regulator, RstA, that promotes sporulation and represses motility and toxin production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01991-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414698PMC

Measurement of novel intestinal secretory and barrier pathways and effects of proteases.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Apr;31(4):e13547

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in conjunction with the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in mediating solute absorption and secretion. A dysregulated ionic movement across the epithelium can result in GI diseases that manifest as either watery diarrhea or constipation. Hirschsprung disease is an example of an ENS disorder characterized by absence of enteric ganglia in distal gut resulting in obstructive phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407641PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Within- and Between-Subject Variation in Dietary Intake of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides, and Polyols Among Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Curr Dev Nutr 2019 Feb 24;3(2):nzy101. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is a promising treatment option for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In order to correctly estimate and study the intake of FODMAPs, information about within- and between-subject variations in intakes is needed, but is currently lacking.

Objectives: The aim was to characterize the variation in FODMAP intake among patients with IBS and to calculate how many days of observations are required to capture absolute intakes as well as to rank individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396026PMC
February 2019

Control of Motility in the Internal Anal Sphincter.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 04;25(2):189-204

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA.

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm18172DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Bowel Motility After Injury to the Superior Mesenteric Plexus During D3 Extended Mesenterectomy.

J Surg Res 2019 Feb 27;239:115-124. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Digestive Surgery, Akershus University Hospital, Lorenskog, Norway.

Background: Improvement of lymphadenectomy in right colectomy requires removal of all tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric vessels beneath the pancreatic notch. Short- and long-term bowel motility disorders after D3 extended mesenterectomy with consecutive superior mesenteric plexus transection are studied.

Methods: Patients without pre-existing motility disorders undergoing D3 extended mesenterectomy were examined 3 times using the wireless motility capsule: before, at 3 wk, and 6 mo after surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Interferon-gamma depresses human intestinal smooth muscle cell contractility: Relevance to inflammatory gut motility disturbances.

Life Sci 2019 Apr 27;222:69-77. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

LSUHSC-S, Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Shreveport, LA, USA; LSUHSC-S, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, USA. Electronic address:

Aim/background: In addition to absorptive disturbances, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) perturb normal contractility of intestinal smooth muscle. Such motility disturbances may reflect both nervous alterations and increased abundance of cytokines (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.059DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Comparing DNA methylation profiles in saliva and intestinal mucosa.

BMC Genomics 2019 Feb 28;20(1):163. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Altered epigenetic profiles are a feature of intestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. DNA methylation studies in these diseases have utilised intestinal mucosal tissue or blood which can be difficult to collect, particularly for large-scale research studies. Saliva is an attractive alternative for epigenetic studies as it is easy to collect and provides high quality methylation profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5553-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394071PMC
February 2019

A single nucleotide polymorphism in dopamine beta hydroxylase (rs6271(C>T)) is over-represented in inflammatory bowel disease patients and reduces circulating enzyme.

PLoS One 2019 28;14(2):e0210175. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with altered neuronal regulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and release of norepinephrine (NE). As sympathetic innervation of the GI tract modulates motility, blood flow, and immune function, changes in NE signaling may alter the risk of developing IBD. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH), the enzyme responsible for NE production, has been suggested to play a critical role in IBD, however the exact mechanism is unknown. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210175PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394932PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Gas, Bloating, and Belching: Approach to Evaluation and Management.

Am Fam Physician 2019 Mar;99(5):301-309

Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. An organized approach to the evaluation of symptoms fosters trusting therapeutic relationships. Read More

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March 2019
2 Reads

Activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor relieves colonic hypermotility in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Feb 21:e13555. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease with intestinal dysmotility, whose mechanism remains elusive. The endocannabinoid system is emerging as an important modulator of gastrointestinal (GI) motility in multiple diseases, but its involvement in IBS is unknown. We aimed to determine whether cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor modulates intestinal motility associated with stress-induced IBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13555DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

p62 functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer through inhibiting apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation by interacting with the vitamin D receptor.

Cell Prolif 2019 Feb 22:e12585. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Digestive Disease and Gastrointestinal Motility Research Room, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: The role of p62 in cancer is controversial. Evidence has shown that p62 is upregulated in different cancers and promotes tumour growth, such as in liver cancer and lung cancer. However, a recent study showed that the downregulation of p62 in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12585DOI Listing
February 2019

Postprandial distress syndrome: stratification and management.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jan 8;13(1):37-46. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

a Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Diseases (TARGID) , University of Leuven , Leuven , Belgium.

Introduction: Functional dyspepsia (FD), defined by the Rome consensus as the presence of functional symptoms originating from the gastroduodenum, is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. FD is subdivided into postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), with meal-related symptoms such as postprandial fullness and early satiation, and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), with meal-unrelated symptoms such as epigastric pain or burning. We used a literature search for a narrative review on the current state of knowledge regarding PDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1543586DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Gastrointestinal neuroimmune disruption in a mouse model of Gulf War illness.

FASEB J 2019 Feb 21:fj201802572R. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Gulf War illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom disorder that is prominent in Gulf War veterans. Major unexplained symptoms of GWI include functional gastrointestinal disorders and undiagnosed illnesses, including neurologic disorders. Exposure to the antinerve gas drug pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is linked to the development of GWI, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802572RDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Pathophysiology and management of opioid-induced constipation: European expert consensus statement.

United European Gastroenterol J 2019 Feb 14;7(1):7-20. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is a complication of opioid therapy, in which constipation is the most common and problematic symptom. However, it is frequently under-recognised and thus effective management is often not instituted despite a number of treatment options.

Objective: The central objective of this study is to provide a summary of the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of opioid-induced constipation and to provide a pragmatic management algorithm for day-to-day clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640618818305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374852PMC
February 2019
1 Read

EhFP10: A FYVE family GEF interacts with myosin IB to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics during endocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 19;15(2):e1007573. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Motility and phagocytosis are key processes that are involved in invasive amoebiasis disease caused by intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Previous studies have reported unconventional myosins to play significant role in membrane based motility as well as endocytic processes. EhMyosin IB is the only unconventional myosin present in E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396940PMC
February 2019

Intestinal nerve cell injury occurs prior to insulin resistance in female mice ingesting a high-fat diet.

Cell Tissue Res 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive, LSS 252, Moscow, ID, 83844, USA.

Diabetic patients suffer from gastrointestinal disorders associated with dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis of gut microbiota; however, gender differences are not fully known. Previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) causes type two diabetes (T2D) in male mice after 4-8 weeks but only does so in female mice after 16 weeks. This study seeks to determine whether sex influences the development of intestinal dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis in mice fed HFD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-019-03002-0DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Novel near-infrared II aggregation-induced emission dots for bioimaging.

Chem Sci 2019 Jan 9;10(4):1219-1226. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

State Key Laboratory of Virology , Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery (MOE) , Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease , Wuhan University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Wuhan 430071 , China . Email:

Near-infrared II fluorescence imaging holds great promise for imaging and imaging-guided surgery with deep penetration and high spatiotemporal resolution. However, most NIR-II aromatic luminophores suffer from the notorious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect in the aqueous solution, which largely hinders their biomedical application . In this study, the first NIR-II organic aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore (), encapsulated as nanoparticles ( dots) for biomedical imaging, was designed and synthesized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc04363aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349025PMC
January 2019
1 Read

The high frequency of esophageal disorders in Iranian patients with non-cardiac chest pain.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2018 ;11(Suppl 1):S32-S38

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) Iranian patients.

Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of NCCP, which accounts for about one third of cases.

Methods: This was a descriptive study on consecutive NCCP patients who referred to the gastroenterology clinic at the Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2015 to 2017. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347990PMC
January 2018
11 Reads

Phenotypic Characterization of Non-toxigenic Strains Isolated From Patients in Mexico.

Front Microbiol 2019 1;10:84. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

CONACYT-IMSS, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitarias, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico.

is a Gram positive, sporulated, rod-shape, anaerobic pathogen responsible for nosocomial diarrhea and colitis, mainly in antibiotic treated patients. produce two toxins responsible for disease, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), although not all strains produce them. Non-toxigenic (NTCD) strains are able to colonize the intestinal mucosa and are often isolated from asymptomatic individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367242PMC
February 2019
1 Read