12,475 results match your criteria Intestinal Motility Disorders

Gastrointestinal Perspective of COVID-19 in Children - an Updated Review.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Paediatrics, Assuta Ashdod University Hospital, Ashdod, Israel Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Department of Paediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Division of Neurogastroenterology & Motility, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain Department of Paediatrics, Woman's & Child's University Hospital of Verona, Italy Department of pediatrics, University Medical Center Maribor, Ljubljanska 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia Unité de Gastroentérologie, Hépatologie, Nutrition et Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme, Hôpital des Enfants, and IRSD, Université de Toulouse, INSERM, INRAE, ENVT, UPS, Toulouse, France Department of Translational Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Sheffield Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Weston Bank, Sheffield, S10 TH, UK Paediatric Gastroenterology Department, Al Jalila Children's Specialty Hospital, Dubai, UAE.

Abstract: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common findings in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, including vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and difficulty in feeding, although these symptoms tend to be mild. The hepato-biliary system and the pancreas may also be involved, usually with a mild elevation of transaminases and, rarely, pancreatitis. In contrast, a late hyper-inflammatory phenomenon, termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), is characterized by more frequent gastrointestinal manifestations with greater severity, sometimes presenting as peritonitis. Read More

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Better response to low FODMAP diet in DGBI patients with pronounced hydrogen response to a nutrient challenge test.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background And Aim: Previous studies have shown a reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients following a low FODMAP diet (LFD). It remains unknown, which disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI) patients, would benefit most from LFD. We aimed to analyze LFD response regarding a preceding nutrient challenge test (NCT). Read More

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Gastrointestinal Ultrasound in Functional Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract - EFSUMB Consensus Statement.

Ultrasound Int Open 2021 Apr 28;7(1):E14-E24. Epub 2021 May 28.

Haukeland University Hospital, Haukeland University Hospital, and Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Abdominal ultrasonography and intestinal ultrasonography are widely used as first diagnostic tools for investigating patients with abdominal symptoms, mainly for excluding organic diseases. However, gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS), as a real-time diagnostic imaging method, can also provide information on motility, flow, perfusion, peristalsis, and organ filling and emptying, with high temporal and spatial resolution. Thanks to its noninvasiveness and high repeatability, GIUS can investigate functional gastrointestinal processes and functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID) by studying their behavior over time and their response to therapy and providing insight into their pathophysiologic mechanisms. Read More

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Deep learning for registration of region of interest in consecutive wireless capsule endoscopy frames.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 25;208:106189. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Background And Objective: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are reported as worldwide gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. GI motility assessment can assist the diagnosis of patients with intestine motility dysfunction. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) can acquire images in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract including the small intestine where other conventional endoscopes cannot penetrate, and WCE images can reveal GI motility. Read More

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Sex-Bias in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Linking Steroids to the Gut-Brain Axis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:684096. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is more common in females. Despite its high global incidence, the disease mechanism is still unclear and therapeutic options remain limited. The sexual dimorphism in IBS incidence suggests that sex steroids play a role in disease onset and symptoms severity. Read More

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A Collaborative Effort to Advance Drug Development in Pediatric Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Holtz Children's Hospital, Miami, FL; University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL Center for Motility and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH GI Care for Kids, Atlanta, GA; Neurogastroenterology and Motility Program, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA Neurogastroenterology and Motility Unit, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Liver Transplant, Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Division of Regulatory Operations for Immunology and Inflammation, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration Division of Gastroenterology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Abstract: Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation are common conditions in childhood, but no drugs are FDA approved for chronic use in pediatric patients with these disorders. Despite efforts to better standardize the diagnosis of these conditions in children (including recent modifications to the Rome criteria), conducting pediatric clinical trials to support drug approval remains a challenge. In March 2018, the U. Read More

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Manual Cervical Traction and Trunk Stabilization Cause Significant Changes in Upper and Lower Esophageal Sphincter: A Randomized Trial.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2021 May;44(4):344-351

Department of Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Objectives: Dysfunctions in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) levels can occur owing to poor muscle coordination, contraction, or relaxation. Such condition can possibly be addressed by functional rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to measure pressure changes in the UES and LES at rest and during routine rehabilitation techniques, that is, cervical manual traction and trunk stabilization maneuver. Read More

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Metabolomics of Spleen-Yang deficiency syndrome and the therapeutic effect of Fuzi Lizhong pill on regulating endogenous metabolism.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 1:114281. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources; Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Spleen-Yang deficiency (SYD) is one of the primary causes of many digestive diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its endogenous metabolic characteristics are still unclear. Fuzi Lizhong pill (FLZP) is well-known for its powerful capacity for treating SYD; however, its mechanisms require further study.

Aim Of The Study: Herein, our present study aimed to investigate the essence of SYD from the perspective of metabolomics, and tried to reveal the anti-SYD action mechanisms of FLZP. Read More

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Management of Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction: Expert Opinion of an Italian Multidisciplinary Panel.

Adv Ther 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

High-Complexity Oncology Unit, Clinical Cancer Center, IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The prescribing and use of opioid analgesics is increasing in Italy owing to a profusion in the number and types of opioid analgesic products available, and the increasing prevalence of conditions associated with severe pain, the latter being related to population aging. Herein we provide the expert opinion of an Italian multidisciplinary panel on the management of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) and bowel dysfunction. OIC and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction are well-recognised unwanted effects of treatment with opioid analgesics that can profoundly affect quality of life. Read More

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Community pharmacists' management of minor ailments in developing countries: a systematic review of types, recommendations, information gathering and counseling practices.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 3:e14424. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Aims: To conduct a systematic review of the management of minor ailments by community pharmacists in developing countries, identify the specific minor ailments encountered, the medications recommended or requested and the information gathering and counselling practices.

Method: Observational studies from developing countries published in English language from inception to 2019, and report the management of minor ailments by community pharmacists were systematically searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane library.

Results: Thirty full text studies, out of 7876 retrieved and screened, were included in the systematic review. Read More

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Parkinson mice show functional and molecular changes in the gut long before motoric disease onset.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 Jun 2;16(1):34. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Informatics and Microsystems and Technology, University of Applied Science Kaiserslautern, Working Group Enteric Nervous System, 66482, Zweibrücken, Germany.

Background: There is increasing evidence that Parkinson's disease (PD) might start in the gut, thus involving and compromising also the enteric nervous system (ENS). At the clinical onset of the disease the majority of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain is already destroyed, so that the lack of early biomarkers for the disease represents a major challenge for developing timely treatment interventions. Here, we use a transgenic A30P-α-synuclein-overexpressing PD mouse model to identify appropriate candidate markers in the gut before hallmark symptoms begin to manifest. Read More

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Approach to the adult patient with chronic diarrhea: a literature review.

Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Instituto de Investigaciones Médico-Biológicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, México.

Chronic diarrhea is defined by symptoms lasting longer than 4 weeks. It is a common problem that affects up to 5% of the adult population. Different pathophysiologic mechanisms involve numerous causes, including drug side effects, postoperative anatomic and physiologic alterations, intestinal and colonic wall abnormalities, inflammatory or malabsorption causes, pancreatobiliary diseases, and functional or gut-brain axis disorders associated with dysbiosis or gastrointestinal motility alterations. Read More

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Changes in Fatty Acid Dietary Profile Affect the Brain-Gut Axis Functions of Healthy Young Adult Rats in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

Nutrients 2021 May 30;13(6). Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Basic Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Rey Juan Carlos (URJC), 28922 Alcorcón, Spain.

Dietary modifications, including those affecting dietary fat and its fatty acid (FA) composition, may be involved in the development of brain-gut axis disorders, with different manifestations in males and females. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of three purified diets with different FA composition on the brain-gut axis in rats of both sexes. Male and female Wistar rats fed a cereal-based standard diet from weaning were used. Read More

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Treating the Metabolic Syndrome by Fecal Transplantation-Current Status.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

In Vitro Drug Safety and Biotechnology, Banting Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada.

The intestinal microbiome (IM) is important for normal gastrointestinal (GI) and other organ systems' functioning. An alteration in the normal IM, dysbiosis, and changes in intestinal motility result in microorganisms' overgrowth and an alteration in intestinal permeability. The gut-brain axis is also of importance in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and associated bowel overgrowth. Read More

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Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Dyssynergic Defecation and Slow Transit Constipation in Patients with Chronic Constipation.

J Clin Med 2021 May 9;10(9). Epub 2021 May 9.

Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Patients with chronic constipation who do not respond to initial treatments often need further evaluation for dyssynergic defecation (DD) and slow transit constipation (STC). The aims of this study are to characterize the prevalence of DD and STC in patients referred to a motility center with chronic constipation and correlate diagnoses of DD and STC to patient demographics, medical history, and symptoms. High-resolution ARM (HR-ARM), balloon expulsion testing (BET) and whole gut transit scintigraphy (WGTS) of consecutive patients with chronic constipation were reviewed. Read More

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Emerging Role of Fascin-1 in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 21;13(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

The Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education, Scranton, PA 18510, USA.

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, including esophageal, gastric, colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers, remain as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with a large proportion accounting for fatalities related to metastatic disease. Invasion of primary cancer occurs by the actin cytoskeleton remodeling, including the formation of the filopodia, stereocilia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The crucial step of actin remodeling in the malignant cells is mediated by the fascin protein family, with fascin-1 being the most active. Read More

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The Impact of Dietary Sphingolipids on Intestinal Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Immune Homeostasis.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:635704. Epub 2021 May 14.

Gastrointestinal Immunology Group, Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The large surfaces of gastrointestinal (GI) organs are well adapted to their diverse tasks of selective nutritional uptake and defense against the external environment. To maintain a functional balance, a vast number of immune cells is located within the mucosa. A strictly regulated immune response is required to impede constant inflammation and to maintain barrier function. Read More

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Greater Overlap of Rome IV Disorders of Gut-Brain Interactions Leads to Increased Disease Severity and Poorer Quality of Life.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aims: Conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and functional constipation are among the prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) disorders classified as disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI), which can adversely affect the lives of sufferers. This study aimed to assess the degree and consequences of overlapping DGBI in a large population-based global scale.

Methods: Internet survey data from 54,127 adults (49. Read More

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Peroral endoscopic myotomy in a pregnant woman diagnosed with mitochondrial disease: A case report.

World J Gastrointest Endosc 2021 May;13(5):155-160

Center for Molecular Medicine, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, Saint Petersburg 197022, Russia.

Background: Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disease characterized by impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis and absence of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Sometimes is can be a part of some genetic disorders. One of the causes of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including achalasia, is mitochondrial defects. Read More

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Abnormalities of intrinsic brain activity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis of resting-state functional imaging.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e25883

Xianning Central Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, Hubei.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders affecting up to 11.5% of the general global population. The brain-gut axis has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Read More

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The virulome in endophthalmitis.

Microbiology (Reading) 2021 May;167(5)

Dean McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

is recognized as a causative agent of gastrointestinal syndromes, but can also cause a devastating form of intraocular infection known as endophthalmitis. We have previously reported that the PlcR/PapR master virulence factor regulator system regulates intraocular virulence, and that the S-layer protein (SlpA) contributes to the severity of endophthalmitis. To better understand the role of other virulence genes in endophthalmitis, expression of a subset of factors was measured at the midpoint of disease progression in a murine model of endophthalmitis by RNA-Seq. Read More

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Serotonin as a Mitogen in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Revisiting a Familiar Molecule in a New Role.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Serotonin signaling is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal (GI) system, where it acts as a neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and influences intestinal motility and inflammation. Since its discovery, serotonin has been linked to cellular proliferation in several types of tissues, including vascular smooth muscle, neurons, and hepatocytes. Activation of serotonin receptors on distinct cell types has been shown to induce well-known intracellular proliferation pathways. Read More

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Recent Advances in the Management of Severe Gastrointestinal Dysmotility.

Clin Exp Gastroenterol 2021 10;14:163-172. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Gastroenterology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Severe gastrointestinal motility disorders with small bowel involvement continue to pose a major clinical challenge to clinicians, particularly because of the limitations of diagnostic tests and the lack of efficacious treatment options. In this article, we review current understanding and the utility of diagnostic modalities and therapeutic approaches, and describe how their limitations may potentially exacerbate prolonged suffering with debilitating symptoms, diagnostic delays, the risk of iatrogenic harm and increased healthcare utilisation in this group of patients. Moreover, observations from intestinal failure units worldwide suggest that this problem could be set to increase in the future, with reported trends of increasing numbers of patients presenting with nutritional consequences. Read More

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Manometrically jackhammer esophagus with fluoroscopically/endoscopically distal esophageal spasm: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 17;21(1):222. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital, College of Medicine, Rangsit University, 2, Phayathai Road, Rajathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Background: Jackhammer esophagus is a rare esophageal motility disorder that can result in dysphagia, chest pain, and gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms. High-resolution manometry is the gold standard for diagnosis, while corkscrew esophagus on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is an uncommon manifestation.

Case Presentation: 72-year-old man who presented with progressive dysphagia for three months without symptoms of chest pain or heartburn. Read More

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Effects of Cannabidiol Chewing Gum on Perceived Pain and Well-Being of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Exploratory Intervention Study with Symptom-Driven Dosing.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders. Its pathophysiology is diverse and variable, involving disturbed gut-brain interactions, altered motility and secretion, visceral hypersensitivity, increased intestinal permeability, immune activation, and changes in gut microbiota. Complaints experienced by patients suffering from IBS and its co-morbidities strongly impair quality of life (QoL), and available treatments are often unsatisfactory. Read More

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February 2021

Auricular vagal nerve stimulation enhances gastrointestinal motility and improves interstitial cells of Cajal in rats treated with loperamide.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 May 15:e14163. Epub 2021 May 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders affect a large proportion of the population with limited treatment options. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential of a non-invasive method of auricular vagal nerve stimulation (aVNS) for treating GI dysmotility and to explore possible mechanisms involving slow waves and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC).

Methods: Normal rats were treated daily with loperamide for 1 week and then treated, while still on daily loperamide, with aVNS/Sham-aVNS for another 1 week. Read More

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Cardiac autonomic regulation and joint hypermobility in adolescents with functional abdominal pain disorders.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 May 15:e14165. Epub 2021 May 15.

Traumatic Stress Research Consortium, Kinsey Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Background: Joint hypermobility (JH) is associated with autonomic nervous system dysregulation and functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). Understanding the neurophysiological processes linking these conditions can inform clinical interventions. Autonomic activity regulates gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor function and may be a key mechanism. Read More

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COMMENTARY: New Drugs on the Horizon for Functional and Motility Gastrointestinal Disorders.

Gastroenterology 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (CENTER), Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

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causes delayed gastric emptying by decreasing interstitial cells of Cajal.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 22;22(1):663. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, P.R. China.

(HP) infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans and is associated with the pathogenesis of gastric motility disorders such as delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Although HP infection is considered to delay gastric emptying, there has been little research on the underlying mechanism. Gastric motility involves interactions among gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle, enteric and extrinsic autonomic nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), and ICCs play an important role in gastrointestinal motility. Read More

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Corrigendum: Impact of Opioid Consumption in Patients With Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Topic: Pharmacological Treatments Affecting Gastro-Intestinal Motility in Man.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:652927. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

INSERM UMR 1073, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Normandy University, Rouen, France.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020. Read More

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