17,361 results match your criteria International Journal of Molecular Sciences [Journal]


m6A Reader YTHDF2 Regulates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Guanghua School of Stomatology & Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055, China.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant mRNA modification that affects multiple biological processes, including those involved in the cell stress response and viral infection. YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) is an m6A-binding protein that affects the localization and stability of targeted mRNA. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) can regulate the stability of inflammatory gene mRNA transcripts, thus participating in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061323DOI Listing

Modulation of Disordered Proteins with a Focus on Neurodegenerative Diseases and Other Pathologies.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre CEP 90050-170, RS, Brazil.

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not have rigid 3D structures, showing changes in their folding depending on the environment or ligands. Intrinsically disordered proteins are widely spread in eukaryotic genomes, and these proteins participate in many cell regulatory metabolism processes. Some IDPs, when aberrantly folded, can be the cause of some diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prionic, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061322DOI Listing

Cellular Gene Expression during Hepatitis C Virus Replication as Revealed by Ribosome Profiling.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Justus-Liebig-University, Friedrichstrasse 24, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects human liver hepatocytes, often leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is believed that chronic infection alters host gene expression and favors HCC development. In particular, HCV replication in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) derived membranes induces chronic ER stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061321DOI Listing

Abscisic Acid Regulates the 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Reductase Gene Promoter and Ginsenoside Production in Hairy Root Cultures.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego l, 90-151 Lodz, Poland.

hairy root cultures synthesize triterpenoid saponins named ginsenosides, that have multidirectional pharmacological activity. The first rate-limiting enzyme in the process of their biosynthesis is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR). In this study, a 741 bp fragment of the gene (), consisting of a proximal promoter, 5'UTR (5' untranslated region) and 5'CDS (coding DNA sequence) was isolated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061310DOI Listing
March 2019
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Disease Affects Expression in Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Regions of Skeletal Muscle of Three SBMA Mouse Models.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Neuroscience Program, 108 Giltner Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1115, USA.

Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a slowly progressive, androgen-dependent neuromuscular disease in men that is characterized by both muscle and synaptic dysfunction. Because gene expression in muscle is heterogeneous, with synaptic myonuclei expressing genes that regulate synaptic function and extrasynaptic myonuclei expressing genes to regulate contractile function, we used quantitative PCR to compare gene expression in these two domains of muscle from three different mouse models of SBMA: the "97Q" model that ubiquitously expresses mutant human androgen receptor (AR), the 113Q knock-in (KI) model that expresses humanized mouse AR with an expanded glutamine tract, and the "myogenic" model that overexpresses wild-type rat AR only in skeletal muscle. We were particularly interested in neurotrophic factors because of their role in maintaining neuromuscular function via effects on both muscle and synaptic function, and their implicated role in SBMA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061314DOI Listing
March 2019
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In Silico Analysis of Homologous Heterodimers of Cruzipain-Chagasin from Structural Models Built by Homology.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Laboratorio de Biotecnología Farmacéutica, Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Boulevard del Maestro s/n esq. Elías Piña, Col. Narciso Mendoza, Reynosa 88710, Mexico.

The present study gives an overview of the binding energetics of the homologous heterodimers of cruzipain-chagasin based on the binding energy (Δ) prediction obtained with FoldX. This analysis involves a total of 70 homologous models of the cruzipain-chagasin complex which were constructed by homology from the combinatory variation of nine papain-like cysteine peptidase structures and seven cysteine protease inhibitor structures (as chagasin-like and cystatin-like inhibitors). Only 32 systems have been evaluated experimentally, Δ values previously reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061320DOI Listing

Molecular Responses of Maize Shoot to a Plant Derived Smoke Solution.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Faculty of Environmental and Information Sciences, Fukui University of Technology, Fukui 910-8505, Japan.

Plant-derived smoke has effects on plant growth. To find the molecular mechanism of plant-derived smoke on maize, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used. The length of root and shoot were increased in maize by plant-derived smoke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061319DOI Listing

Intranasal Borna Disease Virus (BoDV-1) Infection: Insights into Initial Steps and Potential Contagiosity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Justus Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Mammalian Bornavirus (BoDV-1) typically causes a fatal neurologic disorder in horses and sheep, and was recently shown to cause fatal encephalitis in humans with and without transplant reception. It has been suggested that BoDV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS) via the olfactory pathway. However, (I) susceptible cell types that replicate the virus for successful spread, and (II) the role of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), remained unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061318DOI Listing

Molecular Mechanisms of Hypothalamic Insulin Resistance.

Authors:
Hiraku Ono

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Hematology and Gerontology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Insulin exists in the central nervous system, where it executes two important functions in the hypothalamus: the suppression of food intake and the improvement of glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that both are exerted robustly in rodents and humans. If intact, these functions exert beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061317DOI Listing
March 2019
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Confinement Effect of Micro- and Mesoporous Materials on the Spectroscopy and Dynamics of a Stilbene Derivative Dye.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Bioquímica, and INAMOL, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, S/N, 45071 Toledo, Spain.

Micro- and mesoporous silica-based materials are a class of porous supports that can encapsulate different guest molecules. The formation of these hybrid complexes can be associated with significant alteration of the physico-chemical properties of the guests. Here, we report on a photodynamical study of a push⁻pull molecule, -4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), entrapped within faujasite-type zeolites (HY, NaX, and NaY) and MCM-41 in dichloromethane suspensions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061316DOI Listing

Serine Proteinases in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Promastigotes Have Distinct Subcellular Distributions and Expression.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Doenças Endêmicas, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

Serine proteinases in promastigotes were assessed in this work. This study included the investigation of the enzymatic activity of subcellular fractions obtained from benzamidine affinity chromatography, reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, and in silico assays of subcellular localization of subtilisin. Promastigote serine proteinases showed gelatinolytic activity with molecular masses of 43 kDa to 170 kDa in the cytosolic fraction and 67 kDa to 170 kDa in the membranous fraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061315DOI Listing

Progress in Understanding the Physiological and Molecular Responses of to Salt Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming 650201, China.

Salt stress (SS) has become an important factor limiting afforestation programs. Because of their salt tolerance and fully sequenced genomes, poplars ( spp.) are used as model species to study SS mechanisms in trees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061312DOI Listing

Impact of Air Exposure Time on the Water Contact Angles of Daily Disposable Silicone Hydrogels.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria.

The wettability of silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens (CLs) is crucial for the pre-lens tear film stability throughout the day. Therefore, sessile drop and captive bubble setups were used to study the advancing and receding water contact angles (CA) of four SiHy materials: narafilcon A (TE), senofilcon A (AOD), stenfilcon A (MD), and delefilcon A (DT). TE and AOD have 48% and 38% water content, respectively, and no surface coating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061313DOI Listing

Use of Materials Based on Polymeric Silica as Bone-Targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Metronidazole.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Physical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdańsk, al. gen. J. Hallera 107, 80-416 Gdańsk, Poland.

Mesostructured ordered silica-based materials are the promising candidates for local drug delivery systems in bone disease due to their uniform pore size and distribution, and high surface area which affect their excellent adsorption properties, good biocompatibility and bioactivity, and versatile functionalization so that their properties can be controlled. Ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41 type) was synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as the structure-directing agent. Functionalized silica materials containing various types of organic groups (3-aminopropyl, 3-mercaptopropyl, or 3-glycidyloxypropyl groups) were synthesized by the post-grafting method onto pre-made mesoporous silica. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061311DOI Listing

Regulation of Gene Expression of Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Their New Putative Roles in Plants.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland.

Oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide is a type of posttranslational modification reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs), which present an exceptionally high number of gene copies in plants. The side-form general antioxidant function-specific role of each Msr isoform has not been fully studied. Thirty homologous genes of Msr type A (MsrA) and type B (MsrB) that originate from the genomes of , and were analyzed in silico. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061309DOI Listing

5-Iodo-4-thio-2'-Deoxyuridine as a Sensitizer of X-ray Induced Cancer Cell Killing.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland.

Nucleosides, especially pyrimidines modified in the C5-position, can act as radiosensitizers via a mechanism that involves their enzymatic triphosphorylation, incorporation into DNA, and a subsequent dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process. In this paper, we report 5-iodo-4-thio-2'-deoxyuridine (ISdU) as a compound that can effectively lead to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cellular death, which is proven by a clonogenic assay. The test revealed that the survival of cells, pre-treated with 10 or 100 µM solution of ISdU and exposed to 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061308DOI Listing

Toxins Utilize the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation Pathway in Their Intoxication Process.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland.

Several bacterial and plant AB-toxins are delivered by retrograde vesicular transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the enzymatically active A subunit is disassembled from the holotoxin and transported to the cytosol. In this process, toxins subvert the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. ERAD is an important part of cellular regulatory mechanism that targets misfolded proteins to the ER channels, prior to their retrotranslocation to the cytosol, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a protein-degrading complex, the proteasome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061307DOI Listing

The Selection of NFκB Inhibitors to Block Inflammation and Induce Sensitisation to FasL-Induced Apoptosis in HNSCC Cell Lines Is Critical for Their Use as a Prospective Cancer Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Würzburg, D-97070 Würzburg, Germany.

Inflammation is a central aspect of tumour biology and can contribute significantly to both the origination and progression of tumours. The NFκB pathway is one of the most important signal transduction pathways in inflammation and is, therefore, an excellent target for cancer therapy. In this work, we examined the influence of four NFκB inhibitors-Cortisol, MLN4924, QNZ and TPCA1-on proliferation, inflammation and sensitisation to apoptosis mediated by the death ligand FasL in the HNSCC cell lines PCI1, PCI9, PCI13, PCI52 and SCC25 and in the human dermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061306DOI Listing

Effect of A22 on the Conformation of Bacterial Actin MreB.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore.

The mechanism of the antibiotic molecule A22 is yet to be clearly understood. In a previous study, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of a monomer of the bacterial actin-like MreB in complex with different nucleotides and A22, and suggested that A22 impedes the release of P from the active site of MreB after the hydrolysis of ATP, resulting in filament instability. On the basis of the suggestion that P release occurs on a similar timescale to polymerization and that polymerization can occur in the absence of nucleotides, we sought in this study to investigate a hypothesis that A22 impedes the conformational change in MreB that is required for polymerization through molecular dynamics simulations of the MreB protofilament in the apo, ATP+, and ATP-A22+ states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061304DOI Listing

The Therapeutic Potential of Apigenin.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Several plant bioactive compounds have exhibited functional activities that suggest they could play a remarkable role in preventing a wide range of chronic diseases. The largest group of naturally-occurring polyphenols are the flavonoids, including apigenin. The present work is an updated overview of apigenin, focusing on its health-promoting effects/therapeutic functions and, in particular, results of in vivo research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061305DOI Listing

Genome-Wide Analysis of Family Genes in Foxtail Millet ( L.) and Characterization of the Role of in Drought Tolerance.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Life Sciences, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

LIM proteins have been found to play important roles in many life activities, including the regulation of gene expression, construction of the cytoskeleton, signal transduction and metabolic regulation. Because of their important roles in many aspects of plant development, genes have been studied in many plant species. However, the gene family has not yet been characterized in foxtail millet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061303DOI Listing

Identification of Candidate Ergosterol-Responsive Proteins Associated with the Plasma Membrane of .

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa.

The impact of fungal diseases on crop production negatively reflects on sustainable food production and overall economic health. Ergosterol is the major sterol component in fungal membranes and regarded as a general elicitor or microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule. Although plant responses to ergosterol have been reported, the perception mechanism is still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061302DOI Listing

Hybrid -stilbene Molecules: Novel Anticancer Agents.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, 85-089 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The growing interest in anticancer hybrids in the last few years has resulted in a great number of reports on hybrid design, synthesis and bioevaluation. Many novel multi-target-directed drug candidates were synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. For the design of anticancer hybrid compounds, the molecules of stilbenes, aromatic quinones, and heterocycles (benzimidazole, imidazole, pyrimidine, pyridine, pyrazole, quinoline, quinazoline) were applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061300DOI Listing

Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Management of Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Centre for Movement, Occupational and Rehabilitation Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK.

Objective: to examine the extent of effect vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) on pathology and symptoms.

Methods: A literature search was performed in November 2018 (CRD42018103615). Eligibility criteria: randomised control trials in English from 2012 to 2018; a clinical diagnosis of MS; interventions containing vitamin D supplementation (vitamin D3 or calcitriol) in disease activity compared to a control/placebo; improvement in: serum 25(OH)D, relapse rates, disability status by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, cytokine profile, quality of life, mobility, T2 lesion load and new T2 or T1 Gd enhancing lesions, safety and adverse effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061301DOI Listing

ER Stress is Involved in Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition of Alveolar Epithelial Cells Exposed to a Hypoxic Microenvironment.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire 'Hypoxie & Poumon' (Inserm U1272), F-93017 Bobigny, France.

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and fatal interstitial lung disease of unknown origin. Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) play an important role in the fibrotic process as they undergo sustained endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and may acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), two phenomena that could be induced by localized alveolar hypoxia. Here we investigated the potential links between hypoxia, ER stress and EMT in AECs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061299DOI Listing

Methoxsalen and Bergapten Prevent Diabetes-Induced Osteoporosis by the Suppression of Osteoclastogenic Gene Expression in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea.

This study evaluated whether bergapten and methoxsalen could prevent diabetes-induced osteoporosis and its underlying mechanism. For 10 weeks, bergapten or methoxsalen (0.02%, /) was applied to diabetic mice that were provided with a high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061298DOI Listing

The Inescapable Effects of Ribosomes on In-Cell NMR Spectroscopy and the Implications for Regulation of Biological Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Ave., Albany, NY 12222, USA.

The effects of RNA on in-cell NMR spectroscopy and ribosomes on the kinetic activity of several metabolic enzymes are reviewed. Quinary interactions between labelled target proteins and RNA broaden in-cell NMR spectra yielding apparent megadalton molecular weights in-cell. The in-cell spectra can be resolved by using cross relaxation-induced polarization transfer (CRINEPT), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), transverse relaxation-optimized, NMR spectroscopy (TROSY). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061297DOI Listing

Zebrafish Models of Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Limitations and Benefits of Current Tools and Techniques.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine and Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.

For the past few years there has been an exponential increase in the use of animal models to confirm the pathogenicity of candidate disease-causing genetic variants found in patients. One such animal model is the zebrafish. Despite being a non-mammalian animal, the zebrafish model has proven its potential in recapitulating the phenotypes of many different human genetic disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061296DOI Listing

Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Modulates Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice in a Model-Dependent Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva University Hospitals and Medical School, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Interleukin-1 (IL-1)β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been proposed as important mediators during chronic liver diseases. We aimed to determine whether the modulation of IL-1β signaling with IL-1Ra impacts on liver fibrosis.

Methods: We assessed the effects of IL-1β on human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and in mouse models of liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride treatment (CCl-4). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061295DOI Listing

Proteomics Analysis to Identify Proteins and Pathways Associated with the Novel Lesion Mimic Mutant E40 in Rice Using iTRAQ-Based Strategy.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Faculty of Agronomy, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China.

A novel rice lesion mimic mutant (LMM) was isolated from the mutant population of Japonica rice cultivar Hitomebore generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment. Compared with the wild-type (WT), the mutant, tentatively designated E40, developed necrotic lesions over the whole growth period along with detectable changes in several important agronomic traits including lower height, fewer tillers, lower yield, and premature death. To understand the molecular mechanism of mutation-induced phenotypic differences in E40, a proteomics-based approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins between E40 and WT. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/6/1294
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061294DOI Listing
March 2019
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Association between Striatal Brain Iron Deposition, Microbleeds and Cognition 1 Year After a Minor Ischaemic Stroke.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK.

Brain iron deposits (IDs) are inversely associated with cognitive function in community-dwelling older people, but their association with cognition after ischemic stroke, and whether that differs from microbleeds, is unknown. We quantified basal ganglia IDs (BGID) and microbleeds (BMBs) semi-automatically on brain magnetic resonance images from patients with minor stroke (NIHSS < 7), at presentation and 12 months after stroke. We administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART, estimates premorbid or peak adult cognition) and the Revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R; current cognition) at 1 and 12 months after stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061293DOI Listing

and Gene Variants in Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50009 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Previous large-scale genetic studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the and genes as risk factors for alcoholic liver cirrhosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we tried to evaluate the association between variant and variant and the risk of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis of different etiology. In parallel, we also aimed to evaluate whether these two SNPs modify the effects of the risk variant for the development of hepatic fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061277DOI Listing

Hexokinase-II Inhibition Synergistically Augments the Anti-tumor Efficacy of Sorafenib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

This study aimed to examine whether inhibition of hexokinase (HK)-II activity enhances the efficacy of sorafenib in in-vivo models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to evaluate the prognostic implication of HK-II expression in patients with HCC. We used 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), a HK-II inhibitor to target HK-II. The human HCC cell line was tested as both subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor xenograft models in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061292DOI Listing

Revisiting Histone Deacetylases in Human Tumorigenesis: The Paradigm of Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Section of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Department of Biology, School of Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15701 Athens, Greece.

Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy, being characterized by substantial patient mortality and management cost. Its high somatic-mutation frequency and molecular heterogeneity usually renders tumors refractory to the applied regimens. Hitherto, methotrexate-vinblastine-adriamycin-cisplatin and gemcitabine-cisplatin represent the backbone of systemic chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061291DOI Listing

A Smart Imaging Workflow for Organ-Specific Screening in a Cystic Kidney Zebrafish Disease Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Acquifer is a division of Ditabis, Digital Biomedical Imaging Systems AG, 75179 Pforzheim, Germany.

The zebrafish is being increasingly used in biomedical research and drug discovery to conduct large-scale compound screening. However, there is a lack of accessible methodologies to enable automated imaging and scoring of tissue-specific phenotypes at enhanced resolution. Here, we present the development of an automated imaging pipeline to identify chemical modifiers of glomerular cyst formation in a zebrafish model for human cystic kidney disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061290DOI Listing

Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction of ABA, JA, and BRs in Response to Drought Stress of Kentucky Bluegrass.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Kentucky bluegrass (KB, ) is one of the most widely used cool-season turfgrass species, but it is sensitive to drought stress. Molecular studies in KB are hindered by its large and complex genome structure. In this study, a comparative transcriptomic study was conducted between a short and long period of water deficiency. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/6/1289
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061289DOI Listing
March 2019
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Mucins: the Old, the New and the Promising Factors in Hepatobiliary Carcinogenesis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology and Acquired Immunodeficiencies, University of Medical Sciences, Szwajcarska Street 3, 61-285 Poznań, Poland.

Mucins are large -glycoproteins with high carbohydrate content and marked diversity in both the apoprotein and the oligosaccharide moieties. All three mucin types, trans-membrane (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061288DOI Listing

Uncovering the Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Curcumin on Transthyretin Amyloidosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Molecular Neurobiology Group, IBMC-Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses (ATTR amyloidosis) are diseases associated with transthyretin (TTR) misfolding, aggregation and extracellular deposition in tissues as amyloid. Clinical manifestations of the disease are variable and include mainly polyneuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy. The reasons why TTR forms aggregates and amyloid are related with amino acid substitutions in the protein due to mutations, or with environmental alterations associated with aging, that make the protein more unstable and prone to aggregation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061287DOI Listing

Adenosine Induces EBV Lytic Reactivation through ADORA1 in EBV-Associated Gastric Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

College of Pharmacy and Cancer Research Institute and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

species are known to contain numerous bioactive compounds, including cordycepin. Extracts of (CME) are used in diverse medicinal purposes because of their bioactive components. Cordycepin, one of the active components of CME, exhibits anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061286DOI Listing

Obatoclax, a BH3 Mimetic, Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis and Decreases the Clonogenicity of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Cells via Mechanisms That Involve the Inhibition of Pro-Survival Molecules as Well as Cell Cycle Regulators.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Sciences, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy (CNUCOP), Elk Grove, CA 95757, USA.

Several studies by our group and others have determined that expression levels of Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-xL, pro-survival molecules which are associated with chemoresistance, are elevated in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MI-BC). The goal of this study was to determine whether combining Obatoclax, a BH3 mimetic which inhibits pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, can improve responses to cisplatin chemotherapy, the standard of care treatment for MI-BC. Three MI-BC cell lines (T24, TCCSuP, 5637) were treated with Obatoclax alone or in combination with cisplatin and/or pre-miR-34a, a molecule which we have previously shown to inhibit MI-BC cell proliferation via decreasing Cdk6 expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061285DOI Listing
March 2019
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Long Noncoding RNA and Protein Interactions: From Experimental Results to Computational Models Based on Network Methods.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

College of Computer Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Symbol Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Non-coding RNAs with a length of more than 200 nucleotides are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have gained tremendous attention in recent decades. Many studies have confirmed that lncRNAs have important influence in post-transcriptional gene regulation; for example, lncRNAs affect the stability and translation of splicing factor proteins. The mutations and malfunctions of lncRNAs are closely related to human disorders. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/6/1284
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061284DOI Listing
March 2019
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Killing Mechanisms of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Center of Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPS-M) and Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), 80337 Munich, Germany.

Effective adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) comprises the killing of cancer cells through the therapeutic use of transferred T cells. One of the main ACT approaches is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. CAR T cells mediate MHC-unrestricted tumor cell killing by enabling T cells to bind target cell surface antigens through a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) recognition domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061283DOI Listing

Global Gene Expression of Seed Coat Tissues Reveals a Potential Mechanism of Regulating Seed Size Formation in Castor Bean.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China, Ministry of Education, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China.

The physiological and molecular basis of seed size formation is complex, and the development of seed coat (derived from integument cells) might be a critical factor that determines seed size formation for many endospermic seeds. Castor bean ( L.), a model system of studying seed biology, has large and persistent endosperm with a hard seed coat at maturity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061282DOI Listing

Innovative Therapeutic Strategies for Effective Treatment of Brain Metastases.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Faculty of Medicine, the University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Herston, Queensland 4029, Australia.

Brain metastases are the most prevalent of intracranial malignancies. They are associated with a very poor prognosis and near 100% mortality. This has been the case for decades, largely because we lack effective therapeutics to augment surgery and radiotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061280DOI Listing

Transcriptional Regulation: Molecules, Involved Mechanisms, and Misregulation.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institute of Genetics and Biophysics "Adriano Buzzati Traverso", CNR, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Transcriptional regulation is a critical biological process that allows the cell or an organism to respond to a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals, to define cell identity during development, to maintain it throughout its lifetime, and to coordinate cellular activity [... Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061281DOI Listing

Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy?

Authors:
Philipp Selenko

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Biological Regulation, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

In-cell nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy offers the possibility to study proteins and other biomolecules at atomic resolution directly in cells. As such, it provides compelling means to complement existing tools in cellular structural biology. Given the dominance of electron microscopy (EM)-based methods in current structure determination routines, I share my personal view about the role of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy in the aftermath of the revolution in resolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061278DOI Listing

Human Heart Explant-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Characterization and Effects on the In Vitro Recellularization of Decellularized Heart Valves.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Laboratory of Basic Biology of Stem Cells, Carlos Chagas Institute, Fiocruz-Paraná, Curitiba 81350-010, Brazil.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles released from different cell types and represent key components of paracrine secretion. Accumulating evidence supports the beneficial effects of EVs for tissue regeneration. In this study, discarded human heart tissues were used to isolate human heart-derived extracellular vesicles (hH-EVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061279DOI Listing

Interactions between WUSCHEL- and CYC2-like Transcription Factors in Regulating the Development of Reproductive Organs in .

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Engineering Research Center of Landscape Environment of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

is a gynomonoecious plant that bears both female zygomorphic ray florets and bisexual actinomorphic disc florets in the inflorescence. This sexual system is quite prevalent in Asteraceae, but poorly understood. CYCLOIDEA (CYC) 2 subclade transcription factors, key regulators of flower symmetry and floret identity in Asteraceae, have also been speculated to function in reproductive organs and could be an entry point for studying gynomonoecy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061276DOI Listing

The Effect of Green and Black Tea Polyphenols on Deficient Chinese Hamster Cells by Synthetic Lethality through PARP Inhibition.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Tea polyphenols are known antioxidants presenting health benefits due to their observed cellular activities. In this study, two tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, which is common in green tea, and theaflavin, which is common in black tea, were investigated for their PARP inhibitory activity and selective cytotoxicity to mutated cells. The observed cytotoxicity of these polyphenols to deficient cells is believed to be a result of PARP inhibition induced synthetic lethality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061274DOI Listing

Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics of the Hydrogen Abstraction Reactions of C₄⁻C₆ Alkenes with Hydroxyl Radical: A Theoretical Exploration.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 14;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

School of Environment and Safety Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China.

The reaction of alkenes with hydroxyl (OH) radical is of great importance to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This work used a combined ab initio/transition state theory (TST) method to study the reaction mechanisms and kinetics for hydrogen abstraction reactions by OH radical on C₄⁻C₆ alkenes. The elementary abstraction reactions involved were divided into 10 reaction classes depending upon the type of carbon atoms in the reaction center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061275DOI Listing