1,355 results match your criteria International Journal for Equity in Health [Journal]


The impact of Medicare part D on income-related inequality in pharmaceutical expenditure.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Apr 16;18(1):57. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre for Health Policy, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Level 4, 207 Bouverie St, Carlton, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Background: Income-related inequality measures such as the concentration index are often used to describe the unequal distribution of health, health care access, or expenditure in a single measure. This study demonstrates the use of such measures to evaluate the distributional impact of changes in health insurance coverage. We use the example of Medicare Part D in the United States, which increased access to prescription medications for Medicare beneficiaries from 2006. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0955-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Women in clinical trials: a review of policy development and health equity in the Canadian context.

Authors:
Alla Yakerson

Int J Equity Health 2019 Apr 15;18(1):56. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The Graduate Program in Health, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.

Health equity in pharmaceutical research is concerned with creating equal opportunities for men and women to partake in clinical trials. Equitable representation is imperative for determining the safety, effectiveness, and tolerance of drugs for all consumers. Historically, women have been excluded from participating in clinical research leading to a lack of knowledge regarding drug effects and their consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0954-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466649PMC

Exploring the equity impact of a maternal and newborn health intervention: a qualitative study of participatory women's groups in rural South Asia and Africa.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Apr 11;18(1):55. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: A consensus is developing on interventions to improve newborn survival, but little is known about how to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in newborn mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Participatory learning and action (PLA) through women's groups can improve newborn survival and home care practices equitably across socioeconomic strata, as shown in cluster randomised controlled trials. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mechanisms that led to the equitable impact of the PLA approach across socioeconomic strata in four trial sites in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0957-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458781PMC

Correction to: socioeconomic inequalities in survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia insured by social security in Mexico: a study of the 2007-2009 cohorts.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Apr 8;18(1):54. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional SXXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Col. Doctores, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Following publication of the original article [1], the author reported her name has been erroneously spelled as Blanca E. Pelcastre. The full name is Blanca E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0956-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454686PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Social integration and mental health - a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between the foreign-born and native-born in Sweden.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Apr 3;18(1):48. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Public Health Science, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, SE-105 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The increasing mental health inequalities between native- and foreign-born persons in Sweden is an important public health issue. Improving social integration has been stressed as a key strategy to combat this development. While a vast amount of studies have confirmed the importance of social integration for good mental health, less is known about the role of different types of social integration, and how they relate to mental health inequalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0950-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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A qualitative study of the dissemination and diffusion of innovations: bottom up experiences of senior managers in three health districts in South Africa.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 29;18(1):53. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Centre for Health Policy, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: In 2012 the South African National Department of Health (SA NDoH) set out, using a top down process, to implement several innovations in eleven health districts in order to test reforms to strengthen the district health system. The process of disseminating innovations began in 2012 and senior health managers in districts were expected to drive implementation. The research explored, from a bottom up perspective, how efforts by the National government to disseminate and diffuse innovations were experienced by district level senior managers and why some dissemination efforts were more enabling than others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0952-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441208PMC

Our lives in boxes: perceived community mediators between housing insecurity and health using a PHOTOVOICE approach.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 27;18(1):52. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Plaça Lesseps 1, ES-08023, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: While the negative effects of housing insecurity on health are well known, the mechanisms and mediators of these effects have been less well studied. The aim of this study is to identify perceived mediators involved in the relationship between housing insecurity and health.

Methods: We used a participatory action research approach, the Photovoice methodology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0943-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438010PMC

Assessing national and subnational inequalities in medical care utilization and financial risk protection in Rwanda.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 27;18(1):51. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Ensuring equitable access to medical care with financial risk protection has been at the center of achieving universal health coverage. In this paper, we assess the levels and trends of inequalities in medical care utilization and household catastrophic health spending (HCHS) at the national and sub-national levels in Rwanda.

Methods: Using the Rwanda Integrated Living Conditions Surveys of 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2016, we applied multivariable logit models to generate the levels and trends of adjusted inequalities in medical care utilization and HCHS across the four survey years by four socio-demographic dimensions: poverty, gender, education, and residence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0953-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437855PMC

Determinants of paying national health insurance premium with mobile phone in Ghana: a cross-sectional prospective study.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 25;18(1):50. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Introduction: In an effort to increase Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) enrollment and retention rates, the NHIS introduced membership renewal and premium payment by mobile phone. The success of such an innovation dependents on many factors including personal and community characteristics of members.

Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the determinants of renewing membership and paying the NHIS premium through a mobile phone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0946-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434637PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

"Let's talk about money": how do poor older people finance their healthcare in rural Ghana? A qualitative study.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 20;18(1):47. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Geography and Rural Development, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Older people utilise more healthcare services and are likely to incur higher healthcare expenditure, however, data on their healthcare financing mechanisms are scarce in low-and middle- income countries including Ghana. In this study, we aimed at exploring how poor older people finance their healthcare in rural Ghana.

Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 60 study participants comprising 30 poor older people, 15 healthcare providers and 15 caregivers in Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0927-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425706PMC

Providing equity of care for patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities in Western Switzerland: a descriptive intervention in a University Hospital.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 18;18(1):46. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland, School of Health Sciences, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The purpose of this article is to describe an interventional project in a University Hospital. It explains the adjustments that were made to provide good care for patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities in an acute care setting in Western Switzerland. It is not the exposition of the results of a formalised research or study. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0948-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423855PMC
March 2019
10 Reads

Income gradient in health-related quality of life - the role of social networking time.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 15;18(1):44. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Office of Medical Affairs, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Background: Widening social class discrepancies in health persist in the United States. Although the relationship between social class and health has been well illustrated, the pathways through which social class influences the distribution of health remain unidentified. This study is designed to analyze the income-health relationship by examining the role of social networking time. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0942-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419834PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Maternal and newborn health needs for women with walking disabilities; "the twists and turns": a case study in Kibuku District Uganda.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 12;18(1):43. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: In Uganda 13% of persons have at least one form of disability. The United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities guarantees persons with disabilities the same level of right to access quality and affordable healthcare as persons without disability. Understanding the needs of women with walking disabilities is key in formulating flexible, acceptable and responsive health systems to their needs and hence to improve their access to care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0947-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416885PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Trends and predictors of inequality in childhood stunting in Nepal from 1996 to 2016.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 5;18(1):42. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network - Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Although decreasing in trend, one-in-three children remain stunted in Nepal and its distribution is unequal among different socioeconomic and geographical subgroups. Thus, it is crucial to assess inequalities in stunting for designing equity focused interventions that target vulnerable groups with higher burden of stunting. This study measures trends and predictors of socioeconomic inequalities in childhood stunting in Nepal. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0944-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402091PMC
March 2019
11 Reads

Socioeconomic inequalities in survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia insured by social security in Mexico: a study of the 2007-2009 cohorts.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 4;18(1):40. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional SXXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Col. Doctores, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Background: Although acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5 years survival in minors has reached 90%, socioeconomic differences have been reported among and within countries. Within countries, the difference has been related to the socioeconomic status of the parents, even in the context of public health services with universal coverage. In Mexico, differences in the mortality of children with cancer have been reported among sociodemographic zones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0940-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399870PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Health care equity and access for marginalised young people: a longitudinal qualitative study exploring health system navigation in Australia.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Mar 4;18(1):41. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of General Practice, Westmead Clinical School, The University of Sydney, PO Box 154, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Background: Young people have unique social, emotional and developmental needs that require a welcoming and responsive health system, and policies that support their access to health care. Those who are socially or culturally marginalised may face additional challenges in navigating health care, contributing to health inequity. The aim of this study was to understand health system navigation, including the role of technology, for young people belonging to one or more marginalised groups, in order to inform youth health policy in New South Wales, Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0941-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399978PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Challenges to hypertension and diabetes management in rural Uganda: a qualitative study with patients, village health team members, and health care professionals.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 28;18(1):38. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes are expected to increase in sub-Saharan Africa over the next decade. Some studies have documented that lifestyle factors and lack of awareness are directly influencing the control of these diseases. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the barriers to control of these conditions in rural settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0934-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394065PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Trends in mortality inequalities in an urban area: the influence of immigration.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 26;18(1):37. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Lesseps, 1, 08023, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Nearly 20% of the population in Barcelona is foreign-born and this percentage rises to up to 40% in some neighborhoods. Consequently, migration health patterns may play an important role in trends in socioeconomic geographical inequalities in mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality between neighborhoods in Barcelona during the period 2001-2012 in the foreign-born and Spanish-born population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0939-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390301PMC
February 2019

The health equity measurement framework: a comprehensive model to measure social inequities in health.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 19;18(1):36. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Despite the wealth of frameworks on social determinants of health (SDOH), two current limitations include the relative superficial description of factors affecting health and a lack of focus on measuring health equity. The Health Equity Measurement Framework (HEMF) addresses these gaps by providing a more encompassing view of the multitude of SDOH and drivers of health service utilisation and by guiding quantitative analysis for public health surveillance and policy development. The objective of this paper is to present the HEMF, which was specifically designed to measure the direct and indirect effects of SDOH to support improved statistical modelling and measurement of health equity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0935-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379929PMC
February 2019

Impact of oral health on Australian urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families: a qualitative study.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 18;18(1):34. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Queensland University of Technology, Institute of Health & Biomedical Innovation, Centre for Children's Health Research, 62 Graham Street, South Brisbane, Qld, 4101, Australia.

Background: The oral health of a child not only impacts the physical well-being of the child, but can have quality of life implications for parents and families as they endeavour to provide care and support their child's oral health needs. Within Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are thought to experience a disproportionate burden of poor oral heath compared to non-Indigenous children. Despite the prevalence of oral health challenges, there are limited qualitative studies investigating the oral health experiences of families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0937-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378750PMC
February 2019

Factors influencing oncologists' prescribing hormonal therapy in women with breast cancer: a qualitative study in Córdoba, Argentina.

Authors:
Yolanda Eraso

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 18;18(1):35. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

School of Social Professions, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London, N7 8DB, UK.

Background: Hormonal therapy is an integral component for breast cancer treatment in women with oestrogen receptor positive tumours in early-stage and advanced cases of the disease. Little is known about what factors influence oncologists' prescribing practices, especially non-biological factors, although this information may have important implications for understanding inequalities in health care quality and outcomes. This paper presents findings from research on factors influencing oncologists' prescribing hormonal therapy for women with early and advanced cases of breast cancer in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0936-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379997PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Inequalities in the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Bangladeshi adults: evidence from a nationwide survey.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 15;18(1):33. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, 4068, Queensland, Australia.

Background: In recent years, developing countries like Bangladesh are facing a higher burden of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension as a result of demographic transition. Prevalence of hypertension is often studied in this setting. However, evidence on undiagnosed hypertension is not widely available in the existing literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0930-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377713PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Long-term out of pocket expenditure of people with cancer: comparing health service cost and use for indigenous and non-indigenous people with cancer in Australia.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 12;18(1):32. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.

Background: Indigenous Australians diagnosed with cancer have poorer survival compared to non-Indigenous Australians. We aim to: 1) identify differences by Indigenous status in out-of-pocket expenditure for the first three-years post-diagnosis; 2) identify differences in the quantity and cost of healthcare services accessed; and 3) estimate the number of additional services required if access was equal between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people with cancer.

Methods: We used CancerCostMod, a model using linked administrative data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0931-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371603PMC
February 2019

The evolution of socioeconomic health inequalities in Ecuador during a public health system reform (2006-2014).

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 8;18(1):31. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Área de postgrados en gestión de la salud y la seguridad social, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 #, 22-61, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0905-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368770PMC
February 2019

Health reform in Mexico: governance and potential outcomes.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 7;18(1):30. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Network GRAAL (Research Groups for America and Africa Latins), San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.

Adopting key mechanisms to restructure public policy in developing countries is a crucial political task. The strengthening of infrastructure of health services, care quality, monitoring and population health; all might contribute to assuring the functionality of a national system for health monitoring and care. Over the last decades, the Mexican government has launched wide-ranging political reforms aiming to overcome socioeconomic and environmental problems, namely health, education, finances, energy and pension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0929-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367748PMC
February 2019
1 Read

The effect of China's new cooperative medical scheme on health expenditures among the rural elderly.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 6;18(1):27. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Key Laboratory of Health Technology Assessment of Fujian Province, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang'an Nan Road, Xiang'an District, Xiamen, 361102, Fujian, China.

Background: The alarming progression of an increasingly aging population in China has attracted much attention within the country and abroad. In 2003, the Chinese central government launched the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) to resolve problems of healthcare inequity in regions with inadequate infrastructure and relative poverty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NCMS on health expenditures by the Chinese rural elderly population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0933-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364469PMC
February 2019

Exploring pathways to outpatients' satisfaction with health care in Chinese public hospitals in urban and rural areas using patient-reported experiences.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Feb 6;18(1):29. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Health Outcomes and Economic Evaluation Research Group, Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: This study aimed to measure outpatients' general satisfaction with and experiences of different aspects of health care in Chinese public hospitals and to investigate to what extent general satisfaction could be explained by patients' experiences in public hospitals located at urban and rural areas.

Methods: Data on 4782 outpatients were derived from a patient survey in 9 city-level (urban) and 16 county-level (rural) public hospitals across China in 2016. According to Donabedian's model, questions on patients' experiences were categorized into six aspects under "structure" and "process", with general satisfaction representing "outcome". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0932-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366112PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Trends in female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegal: what can we learn from successive household surveys in sub-Saharan African countries?

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 30;18(1):25. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Box 353100, Seattle, WA, 98195-3100, USA.

Background: Over the last several decades, global efforts to end female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have intensified through combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, and religious and civil society groups. One question asked by donors, program implementers and observers alike is whether there is any evidence that FGM/C is declining. In the last two decades, reliable data have been generated in numerous countries through major household surveys, including repeat cross-sectional surveys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0907-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354388PMC
January 2019

Applying an intersectionality lens to examine health for vulnerable individuals following devolution in Kenya.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 30;18(1):24. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Power imbalances are a key driver of avoidable, unfair and unjust differences in health. Devolution shifts the balance of power in health systems. Intersectionality approaches can provide a 'lens' for analysing how power relations contribute to complex and multiple forms of health advantage and disadvantage. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0917-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352384PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

When abortion is not within reach: Ethiopian university students struggling with unintended pregnancies.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 28;18(1):23. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Health Promotion and Development, University of Bergen, P.O box 7807, 5020, Bergen, Norway.

Background: In spite of increasing international commitment to young people's sexual and reproductive health, unintended pregnancies remain a major problem for young women worldwide. This article explores the issue of unintended pregnancies among Ethiopian university students and investigates narratives of students who carried their pregnancy to term. Ethiopia's relatively permissive abortion law forms part of the backdrop for the exploration. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0925-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350354PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

What accounts for the rise of low self-rated health during the recent economic crisis in Europe?

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 28;18(1):21. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, Dluga 44/50, 00-241, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: A growing literature investigates health effects of the recent economic crisis. This study examines how different economic mechanisms affected low self-rated health (SRH) in Europe over the crisis period (2008-2011). We measure changes in low SRH over 2008-2011 and analyze how they are accounted for by changes in household income levels and income distribution (income poverty, income inequality), labour market developments (increasing unemployment, falling employment, changes in labour market inactivity), and non-income poverty (material deprivation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0926-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350338PMC
January 2019

Co-insurance and health care utilization in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discontinuity regression approach.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 28;18(1):22. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand.

Background: Co-insurance rates in Japan decrease when patients turn 70 years of age. We aim to compare changes in medical demand for Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at age 70 prior to 2014, when there was a reduction in co-insurance rates from 30 to 10%, with changes in medical demand at age 70 after 2014 when co-insurance rates decreased from 30% to only 20%.

Methods: We used administrative data from large Japanese hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0920-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350300PMC
January 2019

Shaping the abortion policy - competing discourses on the Zambian termination of pregnancy act.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 28;18(1):20. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Centre for international Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Introduction: The Zambian Termination of Pregnancy Act permits abortion on socio-economic grounds, but access to safe abortion services is limited and this constitutes a considerable problem for rights to sexual and reproductive health. The case of Zambia provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between a legal framework that permits abortion on diverse grounds, the moral and political disputes around abortion and access to sexual and reproductive health services.

Methods: This paper draws upon eleven months of ethnographic fieldwork in Zambia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0908-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348644PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Caesarean sections in the in the context of the Chiranjeevi Yojana public private partnership program to promote institutional birth in Gujarat, India; does the embedded disincentive for caesarean section work?

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 24;18(1):17. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18a, Widerströmska Huset, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The government of Gujarat, India runs a large public private partnership program to widen access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC). The program include a disincentive for Cesareans section (CS) which are capped at seven per 100 women. In this paper, we study if the disincentive works by comparing CS rates among similar groups of women who deliver within and outside the program. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0922-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345034PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

'Learning to shape life' - a qualitative study on the challenges posed by a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 24;18(1):19. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Medical Faculty, Institute of Medical Sociology, Magdeburger Str. 8, 06112, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a central challenge for health policy and healthcare in all advanced countries. For the affected persons, living with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is difficult because the disease and its treatment have a considerable effect on daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges associated with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for those affected and the range, depth and complexities of the subjective perspectives of the patients under the conditions of the German healthcare system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0924-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346523PMC
January 2019
10 Reads

Sociodemographic patterns of health insurance coverage in Namibia.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 22;18(1):16. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK.

Introduction: Health insurance has been found to increase healthcare utilisation and reduce catastrophic health expenditures in a number of countries; however, coverage is often unequally distributed among populations. The sociodemographic patterns of health insurance in Namibia are not fully understood. We aimed to assess the prevalence of health insurance, the relation between health insurance and health service utilisation and to explore the sociodemographic factors associated with health insurance in Namibia. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0915-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341740PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

The impact of policy on the intangible service efficiency of the primary health care institution- based on China's health care reform policy in 2009.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 21;18(1):14. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, the Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, the Collaborative Innovation Center for Social Risk Governance in Health, No. 1 Medical School Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Objectives: Analyzing the impact of the China's health care reform policy in 2009 on the intangible service efficiency of PHCI and exploring the way to improve the service efficiency of PHCI.

Methods: The Malmquist productivity index based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to measure the variation of TFP and its decomposition of PHCI before and after the implementation of the health care reform policy in 2009. Then, the Tobit model was applied to estimate the key factors affecting the improvement of the intangible service efficiency of PHCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0901-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341553PMC
January 2019

Benefit incidence analysis in public health facilities in India: utilization and benefits at the national and state levels.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 21;18(1):13. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.

Background: Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) is used to understand the distribution of health care utilization and spending in comparison to income distribution. The results can illustrate how effectively governments allocate limited resources towards meeting the needs of the poor. In analyzing the distribution of public spending on inpatient, outpatient, and deliveries, this paper represents the most recent BIA completed in India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0921-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341563PMC
January 2019
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Socioeconomic inequalities in low back pain among older people: the JAGES cross-sectional study.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 21;18(1):15. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of International and Community Oral Health, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan.

Background: Low back pain is an important public health issue across the world. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with low back pain. This study determines an association between SES and low back pain among older people. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0918-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341699PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

Can social network analysis help to include marginalised young women in structural support programmes in Botswana? A mixed methods study.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 18;18(1):12. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, 5858 chemin de la Côte-des-Neiges, 3rd floor, Montreal, Quebec, H3S 1Z1, Canada.

Background: In Botswana, one fifth of the adult population is infected with HIV, with young women most at risk. Structural factors such as poverty, poor education, strong gender inequalities and gender violence render many young women unable to act on choices to protect themselves from HIV. A national trial is testing an intervention to assist young women to access government programs for returning to education, and improving livelihoods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0911-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339404PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Assessing the relationship between out-of-pocket spending on blood pressure and diabetes medication and household catastrophic health expenditure: evidence from Pakistan.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 15;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Health Metrics and Measurement Cluster, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) is costly and could expose households to financial hardship and vulnerability. This paper examines the association between medication costs of two major NCDs - hypertension (blood pressure) and diabetes, and household-level incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) in a South Asian LMIC, Pakistan.

Methods: The study analyzes self-reported blood pressure and diabetes (BPD) medication expenditure from the latest version (2015-16) of the Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) of Pakistan, a nationally representative survey of 24,238 households. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0906-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334430PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

How does whole of government action address inequities in obesity? A case study from Australia.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 14;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre, Sax Institute, Ultimo, Australia.

Background: There are many factors across different sectors that contribute to inequities in obesity levels. This implies the need for action across different government departments and policy domains (hereafter referred to as whole of government multisectoral action). In this study we explored the public policy attention given to inequities in obesity using an Australian case study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0913-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332679PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

The impact of perceived discrimination on depressive symptoms and the role of differentiated social support among immigrant populations in South Korea.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 11;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Health Science and Services, School of Public Health Seoul National University, 1 Kwanak-ro, Kwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742, South Korea.

Background: Previous studies demonstrated a positive association between perceived discrimination and mental health problems among immigrants in countries that traditionally host immigrants. Recent trends in international migration show that there has been a significant increase in immigrant populations in East Asian countries. These newer host countries have different social contexts from traditional ones, yet mental health among these immigrants and its relationship to discrimination are under-researched. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0910-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329122PMC
January 2019
9 Reads

Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in cigarette smoking: the case of Namibia.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 11;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Health Economics Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Namibia has one of the highest levels of income inequality in the world. Increased smoking prevalence, especially among the youth, may leave the country facing the spectre of higher smoking-related disease prevalence in the years to come. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in Namibia and explores the drivers of this inequality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0912-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329116PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Is there a fair distribution of the structure of dental services in the capitals of the Brazilian Federative Units?

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 8;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Public Health, Postgraduate Program in Public Health, Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil.

Background: Brazilian Primary Care Facilities (PCF) provide primary care and must offer dental services for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases. According to a logic of promoting equity, PCF should be better structured in less developed places and with higher need for oral health services.

Objective: To analyze the structure of dental caries services in the capitals of the Brazilian Federative Units and identify whether socioeconomic factors and caries (need) are predictors of the oral health services structure. Read More

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https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0899-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325759PMC
January 2019
19 Reads

Measurement and decomposition of income-related inequality in self-rated health among the elderly in China.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 8;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Population ageing in China has brought increasing attention to the health inequalities of the elderly. The purpose of this paper is to measure income-related health inequality among the elderly in China and decompose its causes.

Methods: The data are from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) survey in 2013, which contains 6176 individuals aged 60 years and above. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0909-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325844PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

He Pikinga Waiora: supporting Māori health organisations to respond to pre-diabetes.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 7;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Faculty of Māori and Indigenous Studies, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Background: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a common long-term condition affecting the health and wellbeing of New Zealanders; one in every four New Zealanders is pre-diabetic. Māori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, are at an increased risk of developing pre-diabetes and T2D and there are significant inequities between Māori and non-Māori for T2D complications. The purpose of this study was to explore the questions of how the strengths of Māori heath organisations may be leveraged, and how the barriers and constraints experienced by Māori health organisations may be negotiated, for the benefit of Māori; and from a systems perspective, to identify strategic opportunities that may be considered and applied by Māori health organisations, funders and policy makers to respond more effectively to pre-diabetes and reduce health inequities between Māori and non-Māori. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0904-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322250PMC
January 2019
1 Read

The social determinants of chronic disease management: perspectives of elderly patients with hypertension from low socio-economic background in Singapore.

Int J Equity Health 2019 Jan 3;18(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, 12 Science Drive 2 #10-01, Tahir Foundation Building, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.

Background: In Singapore, the burden of hypertension disproportionately falls on the elderly population of low socio-economic status. Despite availability of effective treatment, studies have shown high prevalence of sub-optimal blood pressure control in this group. Poor hypertension management can be attributed to a number of personal factors including awareness, management skills and overall adherence to treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0897-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318975PMC
January 2019
7 Reads