555 results match your criteria Interface focus[Journal]


Structural colours in the frond of .

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180055. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK.

Blue and near-ultraviolet structural colours have often been reported in understorey plants living in deep shade. While this intense blue coloration is very catchy to the eye of a human observer, there are cases in which structural colours can be hidden either by the scattered light interacting with pigments or because they are found in unexpected positions in the plants. Here, we show that the fronds of produce structural coloration on both the adaxial and abaxial epidermal surface. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304010PMC
February 2019

I see your false colours: how artificial stimuli appear to different animal viewers.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180053. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

The use of artificially coloured stimuli, especially to test hypotheses about sexual selection and anti-predator defence, has been common in behavioural ecology since the pioneering work of Tinbergen. To investigate the effects of colour on animal behaviour, many researchers use paints, markers and dyes to modify existing colours or to add colour to synthetic models. Because colour perception varies widely across species, it is critical to account for the signal receiver's vision when performing colour manipulations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304012PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Nonlinear optical spectroscopy and two-photon excited fluorescence spectroscopy reveal the excited states of fluorophores embedded in a beetle's elytra.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180052. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Micro- and Nanophotonic Materials Group, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.

Upon illumination by ultraviolet light, many animal species emit light through fluorescence processes arising from fluorophores embedded within their biological tissues. Fluorescence studies in living organisms are however relatively scarce and so far limited to the linear regime. Multiphoton excitation fluorescence analyses as well as nonlinear optical techniques offer unique possibilities to investigate the effects of the local environment on the excited states of fluorophores. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304011PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Coherent backscattering of light by an anisotropic biological network.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180050. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK.

The scattering strength of a random medium relies on the geometry and spatial distribution of its components as well as on their refractive index. Anisotropy can, therefore, play a major role in the optimization of the scattering efficiency in both biological and synthetic materials. In this study, we show that, by exploiting the coherent backscattering phenomenon, it is possible to characterize the optical anisotropy in beetle scales without the need to change their orientation or their thickness. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304008PMC
February 2019

Quantitative characterization of iridescent colours in biological studies: a novel method using optical theory.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180049. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CEFE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Univ Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, EPHE, IRD, Montpellier, France.

Iridescent colours are colours that change with viewing or illumination geometry. While they are widespread in many living organisms, most evolutionary studies on iridescence do not take into account their full complexity. Few studies try to precisely characterize what makes iridescent colours special: their angular dependency. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304013PMC
February 2019

Functional nanomaterials to augment photosynthesis: evidence and considerations for their responsible use in agricultural applications.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180048. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK.

At the current population growth rate, we will soon be unable to meet increasing food demands. As a consequence of this potential problem, considerable efforts have been made to enhance crop productivity by breeding, genetics and improving agricultural practices. While these techniques have traditionally been successful, their efficacy since the 'green revolution' has begun to significantly plateau. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsfs.2018.
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304006PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Phenotypic variation in crosses shows that iridescent structural colour is sex-linked and controlled by multiple genes.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180047. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Alfred Denny Building, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

Bright, highly reflective iridescent colours can be seen across nature and are produced by the scattering of light from nanostructures. butterflies have been widely studied for their diversity and mimicry of wing colour patterns. Despite iridescence evolving multiple times in this genus, little is known about the genetic basis of the colour and the development of the structures which produce it. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304015PMC
February 2019

Thin-film structural coloration from simple fused scales in moths.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180044. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

The metallic coloration of insects often originates from diverse nanostructures ranging from simple thin films to complex three-dimensional photonic crystals. In Lepidoptera, structural coloration is widely present and seems to be abundant in extant species. However, even some basal moths exhibit metallic coloration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304009PMC
February 2019

Reflections on iridescent neck and breast feathers of the peacock, .

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180043. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands.

The blue neck and breast feathers of the peacock are structurally coloured due to an intricate photonic crystal structure in the barbules consisting of a two-dimensionally ordered rectangular lattice of melanosomes (melanin rodlets) and air channels embedded in a keratin matrix. We here investigate the feather coloration by performing microspectrophotometry, imaging scatterometry and angle-dependent reflectance measurements. Using previously determined wavelength-dependent refractive indices of melanin and keratin, we interpret the spectral and spatial reflection characteristics by comparing the measured spectra to calculated spectra by effective-medium multilayer and full three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain modelling. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304014PMC
February 2019

Differences in the optical properties of valve and girdle band in a centric diatom.

Interface Focus 2019 Feb 14;9(1):20180031. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Marine Biology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark.

Diatoms are phototrophic single-celled microalgae encased in a cell wall (frustule) made of amorphous silicate. The frustule comprises two valves connected by a variable number of girdle bands, all exhibiting periodic micro/nanoporous structures. We studied the optical properties in water of girdle bands from the centric diatom , a frustule part that so far has received little attention by the scientific community. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304007PMC
February 2019

Semantic information, autonomous agency and non-equilibrium statistical physics.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180041. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA.

Shannon information theory provides various measures of so-called syntactic information, which reflect the amount of statistical correlation between systems. By contrast, the concept of 'semantic information' refers to those correlations which carry significance or 'meaning' for a given system. Semantic information plays an important role in many fields, including biology, cognitive science and philosophy, and there has been a long-standing interest in formulating a broadly applicable and formal theory of semantic information. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227811PMC
December 2018

Haematopoietic stem cells: entropic landscapes of differentiation.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180040. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Computational Biology and Biological Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund 223 62, Sweden.

The metaphor of a potential epigenetic differentiation landscape broadly suggests that during differentiation a stem cell approaches a stable equilibrium state from a higher free energy towards a stable equilibrium state which represents the final cell type. It has been conjectured that there is an analogy to the concept of entropy in statistical mechanics. In this context, in the undifferentiated state, the entropy would be large since fewer constraints exist on the gene expression programmes of the cell. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227807PMC
December 2018

Intrinsic limits of information transmission in biochemical signalling motifs.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180039. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Center for Computational Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

All living things have evolved to sense changes in their environment in order to respond in adaptive ways. At the cellular level, these sensing systems generally involve receptor molecules at the cell surface, which detect changes outside the cell and relay those changes to the appropriate response elements downstream. With the advent of experimental technologies that can track signalling at the single-cell level, it has become clear that many signalling systems exhibit significant levels of 'noise,' manifesting as differential responses of otherwise identical cells to the same environment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227803PMC
December 2018

Computational modelling unravels the precise clockwork of cyanobacteria.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180038. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Institute for Synthetic Microbiology, Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany.

Precisely timing the regulation of gene expression by anticipating recurring environmental changes is a fundamental part of global gene regulation. Circadian clocks are one form of this regulation, which is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, providing a fitness advantage for these organisms. Whereas many different eukaryotic groups harbour circadian clocks, cyanobacteria are the only known oxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes to regulate large parts of their genes in a circadian fashion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227802PMC
December 2018

A thermodynamically consistent model of finite-state machines.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180037. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Centre for Complex Systems, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

Finite-state machines (FSMs) are a theoretically and practically important model of computation. We propose a general, thermodynamically consistent model of FSMs and characterize the resource requirements of these machines. We model FSMs as time-inhomogeneous Markov chains. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227804PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Thermodynamic efficiency of contagions: a statistical mechanical analysis of the SIS epidemic model.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180036. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Centre for Complex Systems, Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

We present a novel approach to the study of epidemics on networks as thermodynamic phenomena, quantifying the thermodynamic efficiency of contagions, considered as distributed computational processes. Modelling SIS dynamics on a contact network statistical-mechanically, we follow the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle to obtain steady-state distributions and derive, under certain assumptions, relevant thermodynamic quantities both analytically and numerically. In particular, we obtain closed-form solutions for some cases, while interpreting key epidemic variables, such as the reproductive ratio of a SIS model, in a statistical mechanical setting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227806PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Something has to give: scaling combinatorial computing by biological agents exploring physical networks encoding NP-complete problems.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180034. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 0E9.

On-chip network-based computation, using biological agents, is a new hardware-embedded approach which attempts to find solutions to combinatorial problems, in principle, in a shorter time than the fast, but sequential electronic computers. This analytical review starts by describing the underlying mathematical principles, presents several types of combinatorial (including NP-complete) problems and shows current implementations of proof of principle developments. Taking the subset sum problem as example for in-depth analysis, the review presents various options of computing agents, and compares several possible operation 'run modes' of network-based computer systems. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227808PMC
December 2018
11 Reads

From statistical inference to a differential learning rule for stochastic neural networks.

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180033. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine, Torino, Italy.

Stochastic neural networks are a prototypical computational device able to build a probabilistic representation of an ensemble of external stimuli. Building on the relationship between inference and learning, we derive a synaptic plasticity rule that relies only on delayed activity correlations, and that shows a number of remarkable features. Our (DCM) rule satisfies some basic requirements for biological feasibility: finite and noisy afferent signals, Dale's principle and asymmetry of synaptic connections, locality of the weight update computations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227809PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Towards fungal computer.

Authors:
Andrew Adamatzky

Interface Focus 2018 Dec 19;8(6):20180029. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Unconventional Computing Lab, UWE, CSCT, Bristol, UK.

We propose that fungi Basidiomycetes can be used as computing devices: information is represented by spikes of electrical activity, a computation is implemented in a mycelium network and an interface is realized via fruit bodies. In a series of scoping experiments, we demonstrate that electrical activity recorded on fruits might act as a reliable indicator of the fungi's response to thermal and chemical stimulation. A stimulation of a fruit is reflected in changes of electrical activity of other fruits of a cluster, i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227805PMC
December 2018

Membrane remodelling by a lipidated endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III chimera, .

Interface Focus 2018 Oct 17;8(5):20180035. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Membrane Interactions and Dynamics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

The complexity of eukaryotic cells is underscored by the compartmentalization of chemical signals by phospholipid membranes. A grand challenge of synthetic biology is building life from the 'bottom-up', for the purpose of generating systems simple enough to precisely interrogate biological pathways or for adapting biology to perform entirely novel functions. Achieving compartmentalization of chemistries in an addressable manner is a task exquisitely refined by nature and embodied in a unique membrane remodelling machinery that pushes membranes away from the cytosol, the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III) complex. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227774PMC
October 2018

Liquid-liquid phase separation in artificial cells.

Interface Focus 2018 Oct 17;8(5):20180032. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in biology is a recently appreciated means of intracellular compartmentalization. Because the mechanisms driving phase separations are grounded in physical interactions, they can be recreated within less complex systems consisting of only a few simple components, to serve as artificial microcompartments. Within these simple systems, the effect of compartmentalization and microenvironments upon biological reactions and processes can be studied. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227770PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Urea-mediated anomalous diffusion in supported lipid bilayers.

Interface Focus 2018 Oct 17;8(5):20180028. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Chemistry, Britannia House, King's College London, 7 Trinity Street, London SE1 1DB, UK.

Diffusion in biological membranes is seldom simply Brownian motion; instead, the rate of diffusion is dependent on the time scale of observation and so is often described as anomalous. In order to help better understand this phenomenon, model systems are needed where the anomalous diffusion of the lipid bilayer can be tuned and quantified. We recently demonstrated one such model by controlling the excluded area fraction in supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) through the incorporation of lipids derivatized with polyethylene glycol. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227775PMC
October 2018

Human ubiquitin-like proteins as central coordinators in autophagy.

Interface Focus 2018 Oct 17;8(5):20180025. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Membrane Biochemistry and Transport, Institute Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France.

Autophagy is one of the most versatile recycling systems of eukaryotic cells. It degrades diverse cytoplasmic components such as organelles, protein aggregates, ribosomes and multi-enzyme complexes. Not surprisingly, any failure of autophagy or reduced activity of the pathway contributes to the onset of various pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cancer and metabolic disorders such as diabetes or immune diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227773PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

Functionalizing cell-mimetic giant vesicles with encapsulated bacterial biosensors.

Interface Focus 2018 Oct 17;8(5):20180024. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

The design of vesicle microsystems as artificial cells (bottom-up synthetic biology) has traditionally relied on the incorporation of molecular components to impart functionality. These cell mimics have reduced capabilities compared with their engineered biological counterparts (top-down synthetic biology), as they lack the powerful metabolic and regulatory pathways associated with living systems. There is increasing scope for using whole intact cellular components as functional modules artificial cells, as a route to increase the capabilities of artificial cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227772PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

The hallmarks of living systems: towards creating artificial cells.

Interface Focus 2018 Oct 17;8(5):20180023. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513 (STO 3.31), Eindhoven, MB, The Netherlands.

Despite the astonishing diversity and complexity of living systems, they all share five common hallmarks: compartmentalization, growth and division, information processing, energy transduction and adaptability. In this review, we give not only examples of how cells satisfy these requirements for life and the ways in which it is possible to emulate these characteristics in engineered platforms, but also the gaps that remain to be bridged. The bottom-up synthesis of life-like systems continues to be driven forward by the advent of new technologies, by the discovery of biological phenomena through their transplantation to experimentally simpler constructs and by providing insights into one of the oldest questions posed by mankind, the origin of life on Earth. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227776PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

A new approach to solving the feature-binding problem in primate vision.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180021. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Oxford Centre for Theoretical Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK.

We discuss a recently proposed approach to solve the classic feature-binding problem in primate vision that uses neural dynamics known to be present within the visual cortex. Broadly, the feature-binding problem in the visual context concerns not only how a hierarchy of features such as edges and objects within a scene are represented, but also the hierarchical relationships between these features at every spatial scale across the visual field. This is necessary for the visual brain to be able to make sense of its visuospatial world. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015810PMC
August 2018
13 Reads

Image interpretation above and below the object level.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180020. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Computational models of vision have advanced in recent years at a rapid rate, rivalling in some areas human-level performance. Much of the progress to date has focused on analysing the visual scene at the object level-the recognition and localization of objects in the scene. Human understanding of images reaches a richer and deeper image understanding both 'below' the object level, such as identifying and localizing object parts and sub-parts, as well as 'above' the object level, such as identifying object relations, and agents with their actions and interactions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015807PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Colour, contours, shading and shape: flow interactions reveal anchor neighbourhoods.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180019. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Two dilemmas arise in inferring shape information from shading. First, depending on the rendering physics, images can change significantly with (even) small changes in lighting or viewpoint, while the percept frequently does not. Second, brightness variations can be induced by material effects-such as pigmentation-as well as by shading effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015805PMC

Accurate and robust localization for walking robots fusing kinematics, inertial, vision and LIDAR.

Authors:
Maurice Fallon

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180015. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Oxford Robotics Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

In this article, we review methods for localization and situational awareness of biped and quadruped robotics. This type of robot is modelled as a free-floating mechanical system subject to external forces and constrained by whole-body distributed rigid contacts. Measurements of the state of the robot can be made using a variety of sensor information-such as kinematics (the sensing of the joint angles of the robot), contact force (pressure sensors in the robot's feet), accelerometers and gyroscopes as well as external sensors such as vision and LIDAR. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015814PMC

The functional neuroanatomy of face perception: from brain measurements to deep neural networks.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180013. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Psychology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

A central goal in neuroscience is to understand how processing within the ventral visual stream enables rapid and robust perception and recognition. Recent neuroscientific discoveries have significantly advanced understanding of the function, structure and computations along the ventral visual stream that serve as the infrastructure supporting this behaviour. In parallel, significant advances in computational models, such as hierarchical deep neural networks (DNNs), have brought machine performance to a level that is commensurate with human performance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015811PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

The perception of colour and material in naturalistic tasks.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180012. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Perceived object colour and material help us to select and interact with objects. Because there is no simple mapping between the pattern of an object's image on the retina and its physical reflectance, our perceptions of colour and material are the result of sophisticated visual computations. A long-standing goal in vision science is to describe how these computations work, particularly as they act to stabilize perceived colour and material against variation in scene factors extrinsic to object surface properties, such as the illumination. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015813PMC

Not-So-CLEVR: learning same-different relations strains feedforward neural networks.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180011. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Carney Institute for Brain Science, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

The advent of deep learning has recently led to great successes in various engineering applications. As a prime example, convolutional neural networks, a type of feedforward neural network, now approach human accuracy on visual recognition tasks like image classification and face recognition. However, here we will show that feedforward neural networks struggle to learn abstract visual relations that are effortlessly recognized by non-human primates, birds, rodents and even insects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015812PMC
August 2018
16 Reads

Rotation invariant visual processing for spatial memory in insects.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180010. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 10 Crichton Street, Edinburgh EH8 9AB, UK.

Visual memory is crucial to navigation in many animals, including insects. Here, we focus on the problem of visual homing, that is, using comparison of the view at a current location with a view stored at the home location to control movement towards home by a novel shortcut. Insects show several visual specializations that appear advantageous for this task, including almost panoramic field of view and ultraviolet light sensitivity, which enhances the salience of the skyline. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015815PMC
August 2018
1 Read

Control of gaze in natural environments: effects of rewards and costs, uncertainty and memory in target selection.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180009. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Center for Perceptual Systems, University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

The development of better eye and body tracking systems, and more flexible virtual environments have allowed more systematic exploration of natural vision and contributed a number of insights. In natural visually guided behaviour, humans make continuous sequences of sensory-motor decisions to satisfy current goals, and the role of vision is to provide the relevant information in order to achieve those goals. This paper reviews the factors that control gaze in natural visually guided actions such as locomotion, including the rewards and costs associated with the immediate behavioural goals, uncertainty about the state of the world and prior knowledge of the environment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015808PMC

Colour and illumination in computer vision.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180008. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

School of Computing Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

In computer vision, illumination is considered to be a problem that needs to be 'solved'. The colour cast due to illumination is removed to support colour-based image recognition and stable tracking (in and out of shadows), among other tasks. In this paper, I review historical and current algorithms for illumination estimation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015817PMC
August 2018
19 Reads

Spiking neural networks for computer vision.

Interface Focus 2018 Aug 15;8(4):20180007. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

School of Computer Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

State-of-the-art computer vision systems use frame-based cameras that sample the visual scene as a series of high-resolution images. These are then processed using convolutional neural networks using neurons with continuous outputs. Biological vision systems use a quite different approach, where the eyes (cameras) sample the visual scene continuously, often with a non-uniform resolution, and generate neural spike events in response to changes in the scene. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015816PMC
August 2018
12 Reads

Improving the glial differentiation of human Schwann-like adipose-derived stem cells with graphene oxide substrates.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20180002. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

School of Materials and National Graphene Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

There is urgent need to improve the clinical outcome of peripheral nerve injury. Many efforts are directed towards the fabrication of bioengineered conduits, which could deliver stem cells to the site of injury to promote and guide peripheral nerve regeneration. The aim of this study is to assess whether graphene and related nanomaterials can be useful in the fabrication of such conduits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915665PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Aquaporin-graphene interface: relevance to point-of-care device for renal cell carcinoma and desalination.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170066. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The aquaporin superfamily of hydrophobic integral membrane proteins constitutes water channels essential to the movement of water across the cell membrane, maintaining homeostatic equilibrium. During the passage of water between the extracellular and intracellular sides of the cell, aquaporins act as ultra-sensitive filters. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, aquaporins self-assemble in phospholipids. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915664PMC
June 2018
10 Reads

Ultrananocrystalline diamond-coated nanoporous membranes support SK-N-SH neuroblastoma endothelial cell attachment.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170063. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) has been demonstrated to have attractive features for biomedical applications and can be combined with nanoporous membranes for applications in drug delivery systems, biosensing, immunoisolation and single molecule analysis. In this study, free-standing nanoporous UNCD membranes with pore sizes of 100 or 400 nm were fabricated by directly depositing ultrathin UNCD films on nanoporous silicon nitride membranes and then etching away silicon nitride using reactive ion etching. Successful deposition of UNCD on the substrate with a novel process was confirmed with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915663PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Mechano-bactericidal mechanism of graphene nanomaterials.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170060. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Faculty of Life and Social Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia.

Growing interest in the bactericidal effect of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials has led to the investigation and effective publication of the bactericidal effects of the substratum, many of which present highly conflicting material. The nature of bacterial cell death on graphene bio-interfaces, therefore, remains poorly understood. Here, we review recent findings on the bactericidal effect of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials, and proposed mechanisms of cell inactivation, due to mechanical contact with graphene materials, including lipid extraction, physical damage to membranes and pore formation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915662PMC
June 2018
7 Reads

Curcumin-loaded graphene oxide flakes as an effective antibacterial system against methicillin-resistant .

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170059. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Physics Institute, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) is responsible for serious hospital infections worldwide and represents a global public health problem. Curcumin, the major constituent of turmeric, is effective against MRSA but only at cytotoxic concentrations or in combination with antibiotics. The major issue in curcumin-based therapies is the poor solubility of this hydrophobic compound and the cytotoxicity at high doses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915661PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

The effect of graphene-poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres on microbial growth.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170058. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE, UK.

A novel class of ultra-thin fibres, which affect microbial growth, were explored. The microbial properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres containing 2, 4 and 8 wt% of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were studied. GNPs were dispersed in a polymeric solution and processed using pressurized gyration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915660PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

New routes to the functionalization patterning and manufacture of graphene-based materials for biomedical applications.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170057. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Centre for Graphene Science, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK.

Graphene-based materials are being widely explored for a range of biomedical applications, from targeted drug delivery to biosensing, bioimaging and use for antibacterial treatments, to name but a few. In many such applications, it is not graphene itself that is used as the active agent, but one of its chemically functionalized forms. The type of chemical species used for functionalization will play a key role in determining the utility of any graphene-based device in any particular biomedical application, because this determines to a large part its physical, chemical, electrical and optical interactions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915659PMC

Graphene and its derivatives as biomedical materials: future prospects and challenges.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170056. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Mechanical and IT Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si 712-749, South Korea.

Graphene and its derivatives possess some intriguing properties, which generates tremendous interests in various fields, including biomedicine. The biomedical applications of graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted great interests over the last decade, and several groups have started working on this field around the globe. Because of the excellent biocompatibility, solubility and selectivity, graphene and its derivatives have shown great potential as biosensing and bio-imaging materials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915658PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Multifunctional chitosan-magnetic graphene quantum dot nanocomposites for the release of therapeutics from detachable and non-detachable biodegradable microneedle arrays.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170055. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AH, UK.

Biodegradable chitosan-magnetic graphene quantum dot (MGQD) nanocomposites were prepared and investigated for the release of small and large molecular weight (MWt) therapeutics from detachable and non-detachable biodegradable microneedle arrays. The presence of MGQDs in chitosan increased the electrical conductivity and biodegradation rate of chitosan while maintaining its mechanical properties. The detachable microneedle arrays were created by including a water-soluble ring of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at the base of the microneedle, which enabled the rapid detachment of the microneedle shaft from the base. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915657PMC

Investigating the bioavailability of graphene quantum dots in lung tissues via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170054. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK.

Biomolecular fractions affect the fate and behaviour of quantum dots (QDs) in living systems but how the interactions between biomolecules and QDs affect the bioavailability of QDs is a major knowledge gap in risk assessment analysis. The transport of QDs after release into a living organism is a complex process. The majority accumulate in the lungs where they can directly affect the inhalation process and lung architecture. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915656PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Hybrid graphene-ceramic nanofibre network for spontaneous neural differentiation of stem cells.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20170037. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University Foundation, Espoo, Finland.

A challenge in regenerative medicine is governed by the need to have control over the fate of stem cells that is regulated by the physical and chemical microenvironment and . The differentiation of the stem cells into specific lineages is commonly guided by use of specific culture media. For the first time, we demonstrate that human mesenchymal stem cells are capable of turning spontaneously towards neurogenic lineage when seeded on graphene-augmented, highly anisotropic ceramic nanofibres without special differentiation media, contrary to commonly thought requirement of 'soft' substrates for the same purpose. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915655PMC
June 2018
2 Reads
1 Citation
2.630 Impact Factor

Graphene-based biosensors.

Interface Focus 2018 Jun 20;8(3):20160132. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Université de Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ISEN, Université de Valenciennes, UMR 8520-IEMN, 59000 Lille, France.

Reliable data obtained from analysis of DNA, proteins, bacteria and other disease-related molecules or organisms in biological samples have become a fundamental and crucial part of human health diagnostics and therapy. The development of non-invasive tests that are rapid, sensitive, specific and simple would allow patient discomfort to be prevented, delays in diagnosis to be avoided and the status of a disease to be followed up. Bioanalysis is thus a progressive discipline for which the future holds many exciting opportunities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2016.0132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915654PMC
June 2018
10 Reads

New perspectives on the ecology of tree structure and tree communities through terrestrial laser scanning.

Interface Focus 2018 Apr 16;8(2):20170052. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Geography, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do. Here we focus on the ecological challenges and benefits of understanding tree form, and highlight some advances related to capturing and describing tree shape that are becoming possible with the advent of TLS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5829190PMC
April 2018
5 Reads