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    The Novel Mechanisms Concerning the Inhibitions of Palmitate-Induced Proinflammatory Factor Releases and Endogenous Cellular Stress with Astaxanthin on MIN6 β-Cells.
    Mar Drugs 2017 Jun 20;15(6). Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan.
    Astaxanthin, an antioxidant agent, can protect pancreatic β-cells of db/db mice from glucotoxicity and resolve chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Nonetheless, the effects of astaxanthin on free-fatty-acid-induced inflammation and cellular stress in β-cells remain to be demonstrated. Meanwhile, palmitate enhances the secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and VEGF120 (vascular endothelial growth factor). Read More

    Endoscopic ultrasound with or without fine-needle aspiration has a meaningful impact on clinical care in the pediatric population.
    Endosc Ultrasound 2017 May-Jun;6(3):195-200
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Background And Objectives: The safety and utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the evaluation and management of gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders among adults has been established. The literature on safety and efficacy in a pediatric referral population (under 21 years of age) is limited. We hypothesized that EUS is safe and useful in the pediatric population. Read More

    Efficacy of laparoscopic ultrasonography in laparoscopic resection of insulinoma.
    Endosc Ultrasound 2017 May-Jun;6(3):149-155
    Department of Pancreatic and Thyroidal Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China.
    Insulinoma is the most common functioning islet cell tumor of the pancreas, with an annual incidence of 4 cases/1 million individuals. It is treated by surgical methods. Open surgery was once considered the standard approach for the treatment of insulinoma. Read More

    Postgastric bypass hypoglycaemia in a patient with end-stage renal disease: a diagnostic and management pitfall.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jun 15;2017. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Endocrinology, Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida, USA.
    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently one of the most popular procedures to aid weight loss. Hypoglycaemia associated with gastric bypass surgery is an underdiagnosed but life-threatening potential consequence of the surgical procedure. We present a case of a 44-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease presenting with refractory hypoglycaemia after 10 years of RYGB. Read More

    IER3IP1 deficiency leads to increased β-cell death and decreased β-cell proliferation.
    Oncotarget 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    Mutations in the gene for Immediate Early Response 3 Interacting Protein 1 (IER3IP1) cause permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus in human. The mechanisms involved have not been determined and the role of IER3IP1 in β-cell survival has not been characterized. In order to determine if there is a molecular link between IER3IP1 deficiency and β-cell survival and proliferation, we knocked down Ier3ip1 gene expression in mouse MIN6 insulinoma cells. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    From: 1Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Background: The 72 hour fast is used to document Whipple's triad and understand the mechanism of hypoglycemia. Although hypoglycaemia develops within 24 hours in the majority of fasts, identifying possible determinants of fast duration may help to predict the need for admission. Therefore we determined the relation between anthropometric features on fast duration and assessed end of fast parameters on maximal tumor size, extent of disease or tumor recurrence. Read More

    Exposure to static magnetic fields increases insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.
    Int J Radiat Biol 2017 Jun 13:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    a Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education and Tianjin, College of Biotechnology , Tianjin University of Science and Technology , Tianjin , P.R. China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on insulin secretion and explore the mechanisms underlying exposure to SMF-induced insulin secretion in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells.

    Materials And Methods: INS-1 cells were exposed to a 400 mT SMF for 72 h, and the proliferation of INS-1 cells was detected by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The secretion of insulin was measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the expression of genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins was measured by Western blotting. Read More

    Octreotide LAR was useful for avoiding hypoglycemia in an elderly patient with insulinoma.
    Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2017 ;54(2):172-178
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chiba Aoba Municipal Hospital.
    An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hypoglycemia attack. She was diagnosed with insulinoma based on her high insulin level at the time of the hypoglycemia attack and the presence of a hypervascular tumor in her pancreas. The patient refused surgical treatment and octreotide was used to prevent hypoglycemia. Read More

    Hypoglycemia and decreased insulin requirement caused by malignant insulinoma in a type 1 diabetic patient: when the hoof beats are from a zebra, not a horse.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Jun 6;5(6):761-768. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of PathologyHaukeland University HospitalBergenNorway.
    Insulinomas are uncommon tumors, and in patients with diabetes mellitus they are extremely rare. We describe a patient with type 1 diabetes who developed malignant insulinoma. When hypoglycemic episodes persist in a patient with diabetes and treatment-induced and other causes of hypoglycemia have been ruled out, an insulin-producing tumor should be considered. Read More

    Palmitoleate inhibits insulin transcription by activating the ERK1/2 pathway in rat pancreatic β-cells.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Jun 18;13(6):2805-2811. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Rheumatology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Yiwu, Zhejiang 322000, P.R. China.
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of palmitoleate on insulin secretion and insulin mRNA levels, and to investigate the transcriptional regulation of insulin. INS-1 rat insulinoma cells were treated with palmitoleate in the presence of high glucose, and the amount of secreted insulin was measured via radioimmunoassay. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the mRNA levels of insulin and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) under palmitoleate treatment. Read More

    Surgery in overweight patients with insulinoma: effects on weight loss.
    Scand J Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 6:1-5. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    a Department of General Surgery , Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing , China.
    Objective: Weight loss induced by the complete resection of insulinoma is controversial in overweight patients. The study sought to explore postoperative weight loss and metabolic changes in overweight insulinoma patients.

    Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review the follow-up data of insulinoma patients with a BMI ≥25kg/m(2) who underwent complete lesion resection between May 2010 and May 2015. Read More

    Prevalence of Positive Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies among Type 2 Diabetes and Related Metabolic and Inflammatory Differences in a Sample of the Bulgarian Population.
    J Diabetes Res 2017 9;2017:9016148. Epub 2017 May 9.
    University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Background: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of unrecognized cases with positive autoantibodies among type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a sample of the Bulgarian population and to compare some metabolic and inflammatory markers to those of patients having negative autoantibodies and subjects with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA).

    Methods: Patients with T2D, patients with LADA, and control participants were enrolled. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, anti-insulinoma-associated 2, and antizinc transporter 8 autoantibodies were assayed through ELISA. Read More

    Recurrent insulinoma in a 10-year-old boy with Down's syndrome.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 24;2017. Epub 2017 May 24.
    King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Pediatrics, Jeddah, SASaudi Arabia.
    An insulinoma is a rare tumour with an incidence of four cases per million per year in adults. The incidence in children is not established. There is limited literature available in children with insulinoma, and only one case is reported in association with Down's syndrome in adults. Read More

    Sporadic Insulinoma Presenting as Early Morning Night Terrors.
    Pediatrics 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Departments of Pediatrics and
    A 16-year-old boy with a recent diagnosis of night terrors was evaluated for recurrent early morning hypoglycemia after an early morning seizure. Evaluation in clinic with critical laboratories identified hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Additional investigation revealed a sporadic insulinoma as the etiology of his hypoglycemia and all symptoms were resolved after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Read More

    Early prediction of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes.
    Diabetologia 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University/CRC, Skåne University Hospital, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502, Malmö, Sweden.
    Underlying type 1 diabetes is a genetic aetiology dominated by the influence of specific HLA haplotypes involving primarily the class II DR-DQ region. In genetically predisposed children with the DR4-DQ8 haplotype, exogenous factors, yet to be identified, are thought to trigger an autoimmune reaction against insulin, signalled by insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody to appear. In children with the DR3-DQ2 haplotype, the triggering reaction is primarily against GAD signalled by GAD autoantibodies (GADA) as the first-appearing autoantibody. Read More

    Identification of the matricellular protein Fibulin-5 as a target molecule of glucokinase-mediated calcineurin/NFAT signaling in pancreatic islets.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 24;7(1):2364. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama-City University, Yokohama, Japan.
    Glucokinase-mediated glucose signaling induces insulin secretion, proliferation, and apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrated that glucokinase activation using a glucokinase activator (GKA) significantly upregulated the expression of Fibulin-5 (Fbln5), a matricellular protein involved in matrix-cell signaling, in isolated mouse islets. Read More

    Evaluation of neurotensin receptor 1 as a potential imaging target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
    Amino Acids 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies and lack of effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Accumulating evidence suggests that the neurotensin (NT) and neurotensin receptors (NTRs) play key roles in pancreatic adenocarcinoma growth and survival. In this study, we not only evaluate the NTR1 expression in pancreatic cancer patient samples, but also explore the PET and fluorescence imaging of NTR1 expression in pancreatic cancer animal models. Read More

    TRB3 mediates advanced glycation end product-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells through the protein kinase C β pathway.
    Int J Mol Med 2017 Jul 16;40(1):130-136. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, P.R. China.
    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in the body during the development of diabetes, may be one of the factors leading to pancreatic β-cell failure and reduced β-cell mass. However, the mechanisms responsible for AGE‑induced apoptosis remain unclear. This study identified the role and mechanisms of action of tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) in AGE-induced β-cell oxidative damage and apoptosis. Read More

    Antibiotics induce mitonuclear protein imbalance but fail to inhibit respiration and nutrient activation in pancreatic β-cells.
    Exp Cell Res 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Mitochondrial Function, Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Chloramphenicol and several other antibiotics targeting bacterial ribosomes inhibit mitochondrial protein translation. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis leads to mitonuclear protein imbalance and reduced respiratory rates as confirmed here in HeLa and PC12 cells. Unexpectedly, respiration in INS-1E insulinoma cells and primary human islets was unaltered in the presence of chloramphenicol. Read More

    Prognostic relevance of UCH-L1 and α-internexin in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 19;7(1):2205. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.
    Prognostic biomarkers for the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are needed. Proteomic study on insulinoma has been rarely reported. We identified the differential expression of proteins between insulinoma and their paired tissues by proteomic analysis, and evaluated the prognostic significance of specific proteins in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors including insulinoma. Read More

    Heterogeneity of proliferative markers in pancreatic β-cells of patients with severe hypoglycemia following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
    Acta Diabetol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Harvard Medical School, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
    Aims: Severe postprandial hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia is an increasingly recognized, debilitating complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Increased secretion of insulin and incretin hormones is implicated in its pathogenesis. Histopathologic examination of pancreas has demonstrated increased islet size and/or nuclear diameter in post-RYGB patients who underwent pancreatectomy for severe refractory hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia (RYGB + NG). Read More

    Sporadic Insulinoma as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Hypoglycemia in Children.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2017 20;2017:4756793. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic tumor in children and adolescents. As a result of insulin hypersecretion, signs and symptoms are more commonly consequences of the pathophysiologic responses to hypoglycemia. According to rarity of this tumor in children and nonspecificity of clinical presentations, diagnosis of insulinoma in this group of patients is usually delayed. Read More

    Phycocyanin-Functionalized Selenium Nanoparticles Reverse Palmitic Acid-Induced Pancreatic β Cell Apoptosis by Enhancing Cellular Uptake and Blocking Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Dysfunction.
    J Agric Food Chem 2017 Jun 23;65(22):4405-4413. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jinan University , Guangzhou 510632, China.
    Accumulation of palmitic acid (PA) in human bodies could cause damage to pancreatic β cells and lead to chronic diseases by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, it is of great significance to search for nutrition-available agents with antioxidant activity to protect pancreatic islet cells against PA-induced damage. Phycocyanin (PC) and selenium (Se) have been reported to have excellent antioxidant activity. Read More

    Management of the hormonal syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors.
    Arch Med Sci 2017 Apr 1;13(3):515-524. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Department of Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP/NET) are unusual and rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They characteristically synthesize store and secrete a variety of peptides and neuroamines which can lead to the development of distinct clinical syndrome, however many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. Management strategies include surgery cure and cytoreduction with the use of somatostatin analogues. Read More

    Preclinical evaluation of PAC1 targeting with radiolabeled Maxadilan.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 11;7(1):1751. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, 6500, HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    There is an ongoing search for new tracers to optimize imaging of beta cell-derived tumors (insulinomas). The PAC1 receptor, expressed by insulinomas, can be used for targeting of these tumors. Here, we investigated whether radiolabeled maxadilan could be used for insulinoma imaging. Read More

    Hyperinsulinaemic, hypoglycaemic syndrome due to acquired nesidioblastosis in a cat.
    JFMS Open Rep 2016 Jul-Dec;2(2):2055116916657846. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Australian Specialised Animal Pathology Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Case summary A 6-year-old, neutered female British Shorthair cat presented with acute-onset weakness and mental dullness. Initially the cat was mildly hyperglycaemic (9.9 mmol/l; reference interval [RI] 3. Read More

    In vivo measurement and biological characterisation of the diabetes-associated mutant insulin p.R46Q (GlnB22-insulin).
    Diabetologia 2017 May 6. Epub 2017 May 6.
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Aims/hypothesis: Heterozygous mutations in the insulin gene that affect proinsulin biosynthesis and folding are associated with a spectrum of diabetes phenotypes, from permanent neonatal diabetes to MODY. In vivo studies of these mutations may lead to a better understanding of insulin mutation-associated diabetes and point to the best treatment strategy. We studied an 18-year-old woman with MODY heterozygous for the insulin mutation p. Read More

    T372R Mutation Status in Yin Yang 1 Gene in Insulinoma Patients.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Jun 4;49(6):452-456. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Insulinomas are rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The genetic causes underlying insulinoma are still being investigated. Recently, 3 independent studies reported a recurrent somatic mutation in YY1 gene (C>G; Thr372Arg) among insulinoma patients belonging to Chinese and Western Caucasian populations, which was found to increase insulin secretion by β-cells. Read More

    A rationally designed peptide IA-2-P2 against type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2017 May 1;14(3):184-190. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    1 Minigene Pharmacy Laboratory, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.
    Recent studies have investigated the potential of type 1 diabetes mellitus-related autoantigens, such as heat shock protein 60, to induce immunological tolerance or to suppress the immune response. A functional 24-residue peptide derived from heat shock protein 60 (P277) has shown anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus potential in experimental animals and in clinical studies, but it also carries a potential atherogenic effect. In this study, we have modified P277 to retain an anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus effect and minimize the atherogenic potential by replacing the P277 B epitope with another diabetes-associated autoantigen, insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2), to create the fusion peptide IA-2-P2. Read More

    Demonstration of Interposed Modular Hydrogel Sheet for Multicellular Analysis in a Microfluidic Assembly Platform.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 2;7(1):1289. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.
    Hydrogel sheets have emerged as a promising biomaterial scaffold for the encapsulation and transfer of multicellular structures. Although the improvement of the chemical interactions and the design of micro-scaled geometry have contributed to the development of multipurpose hydrogel scaffolds, the application of hydrogel sheets to assess multicellular structures is still challenging. To expand the technical applicability of hydrogel sheets, we here demonstrate that a single layer of the hydrogel sheet can be integrated as an interposed module in a microfluidic device for multicellular analysis. Read More

    Seizures Due to Insulinoma- A Rare but Treatable Cause.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Mar;65(3):104-105
    Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, Vardhman Mahaveer Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi.
    Hypoglycemia can cause multiple neuroglycopenic symptoms; seizures being one of them. Misdiagnosis and delay in treatment are common and prolonged hypoglycemia can lead to permanent neurological deficit or fatal coma. Hypoglycemia caused by an insulinoma is a readily treatable condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intractable seizures. Read More

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation therapy for pancreatic insulinoma: an unusual strategy.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 6;2017. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Departments of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Summary: Insulinomas are the most frequent cause of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Although surgical enucleation is the standard treatment, a few other options are available to high-risk patients who are elderly or present with co-morbidities. We present a case report of an 89-year-old female patient who was admitted to the emergency department due to recurrent hypoglycaemia, especially during fasting. Read More

    Multi-site Neurogenin3 Phosphorylation Controls Pancreatic Endocrine Differentiation.
    Dev Cell 2017 May 27;41(3):274-286.e5. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Hutchison/MRC Research Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XZ, UK; Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK. Electronic address:
    The proneural transcription factor Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) plays a critical role in pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation, although regulation of Ngn3 protein is largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that Ngn3 protein undergoes cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated phosphorylation on multiple serine-proline sites. Replacing wild-type protein with a phosphomutant form of Ngn3 increases α cell generation, the earliest endocrine cell type to be formed in the developing pancreas. Read More

    Sunitinib specifically augments glucose-induced insulin secretion.
    Cell Signal 2017 Aug 24;36:91-97. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.), Germany; Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases IDM of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen, Germany; University Hospital Tübingen, Internal Medicine IV, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Angiology, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, Otfried-Müller-Str. 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is used for the treatment of numerous cancers in humans. In diabetic patients, sunitinib lowers blood glucose levels and improves glycaemic control. This study aims to analyse whether sunitinib has specific and direct effects on insulin secreting β-cells. Read More

    Baicalein protects rat insulinoma INS-1 cells from palmitate-induced lipotoxicity by inducing HO-1.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(4):e0176432. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Pharmacology, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: β-Cell dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the identification of novel approaches to improve β-cell function is essential to treat this disease. Baicalein, a flavonoid originally isolated from the root of Scutellaria Baicalensis, has been shown to have beneficial effects on β-cell function. Here, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of baicalein against palmitate (PA)-induced impaired β-cell function, and placed focus on the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Read More

    Deciphering Tacrolimus-Induced Toxicity in Pancreatic β Cells.
    Am J Transplant 2017 Apr 22. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
    Centre for Biomedical Research of the Canary Islands (CIBICAN), University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
    β Cell transcription factors such as forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, and neuronal differentiation 1, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Posttransplant diabetes mellitus resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pretransplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus (TAC), cyclosporine A (CsA), and metabolic stressors (glucose plus palmitate) on insulinoma β cells in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Read More

    Obestatin stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion through ghrelin receptor GHS-R.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 20;7(1):979. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexic hormone obestatin are encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. While it is known that ghrelin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), the effect of obestatin on GSIS is unclear. Ghrelin's effect is mediated by its receptor Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), but the physiologically relevant receptor of obestatin remains debatable. Read More

    Hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in a second-trimester pregnant woman with insulinoma: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Apr 21;11(1):117. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloška 7, Ljubljana, 1525, Slovenia.
    Background: Insulinoma associated with pregnancy is a very rare condition and can be difficult to diagnose. Here, we present an interesting case of insulinoma occurring during pregnancy with special attention paid to the use of a continuous glucose monitoring system to detect hypoglycemia.

    Case Presentation: A 36-year-old white woman in the second trimester of pregnancy presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia associated with neuroglycopenic symptoms. Read More

    Prospective comparison of biphasic contrast-enhanced CT, volume perfusion CT, and 3 Tesla MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging for insulinoma detection.
    J Magn Reson Imaging 2017 Apr 17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of biphasic contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), volume perfusion CT (VPCT) and 3 Tesla MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), in patients with clinically suspected insulinomas.

    Materials And Methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Sixty-four patients with clinically suspected insulinomas underwent biphasic CECT, VPCT, and 3T MR with DWI. Read More

    Glycogen phosphorylase inhibition improves beta cell function.
    Br J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Background And Purpose: Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the key enzyme for glycogen degradation. GP inhibitors (GPi-s) are glucose lowering agents that cause the accumulation of glucose in the liver as glycogen. Glycogen metabolism has implications in beta cell function. Read More

    Toward molecular imaging of the free fatty acid receptor 1.
    Acta Diabetol 2017 Jul 13;54(7):663-668. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Division of Molecular Imaging, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 83, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aims: Molecular imaging of the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) would be a valuable tool for drug development by enabling in vivo target engagement studies in human. It has also been suggested as a putative target for beta cell imaging, but the inherent lipophilicity of most FFAR1 binders produces high off-target binding, which has hampered progress in this area. The aim of this study was to generate a suitable lead compound for further PET labeling. Read More

    Molecular imaging in the investigation of hypoglycaemic syndromes and their management.
    Endocr Relat Cancer 2017 Jun 11;24(6):R203-R221. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Centre for Cancer ImagingPeter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.
    There has been recent progress in molecular imaging using a variety of cellular targets for the investigation of adult non-diabetic hypoglycaemic syndromes and its integration into patient management. These targets include peptide receptors (somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)) the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation system utilising the diphydroxyphenylaline (DOPA) analogue 6-[(18)F]-l-fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA), and glycolytic metabolism with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG). Accurate preoperative localisation and staging is critical to enable directed surgical excision or enucleation with minimal morbidity and preservation of residual pancreatic function. Read More

    Thyroid and Islet Autoantibodies Predict Autoimmune Thyroid Disease at Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1277-1285
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden.
    Context: Screening of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with type 1 diabetes is important but varies between clinics.

    Objective: To determine the predictive value of thyroid autoantibodies, thyroid function, islet autoantibodies, and HLA-DQ at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for autoimmune thyroid disease during follow-up.

    Setting: Forty-three Swedish pediatric endocrinology units. Read More

    [Clinical approach of a suspicion of hypoglycaemic malaise in a nondiabetic adult].
    Rev Med Liege 2016 Sep;71(9):407-413
    Université de Liège, Belgique.
    Malaises are often attributed to hypoglycaemia in nondiabetic people who don't have any other serious medical problem. However, such a diagnosis is often overused, because not really demonstrated in most instances. The diagnosis of hypoglycaemia should be structured, based upon the Whipple triad. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Pathogenesis and management of hypoglycemia.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Jul 5;177(1):R37-R47. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Division of EndocrinologyDiabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Glucose is the main substrate utilized by the brain and as such multiple regulatory mechanisms exist to maintain glucose concentrations. When these mechanisms fail or are defective, hypoglycemia ensues. Due to these robust mechanisms, hypoglycemia is uncommon and usually occurs in the setting of the treatment of diabetes using glucose-lowering agents such as sulfonylureas or insulin. Read More

    A novel multi-epitope vaccine based on Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 prevents streptozotocin-induced diabetes by producing anti-DPP4 antibody and immunomodulatory effect in C57BL/6J mice.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2017 May 31;89:1467-1475. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, PR China. Electronic address:
    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic organ-specific autoimmune disease in which selective destruction of insulin-producing β-cells leads to impaired glucose metabolism and its attendant complications. A series of Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors have been developed and granted approval in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibiting the enzymatic degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). An increasing number of studies have shown the potential benefits of DPP4 inhibitors for type 1 diabetes. Read More

    Pancreas and liver uptake of new radiolabeled incretins (GLP-1 and Exendin-4) in models of diet-induced and diet-restricted obesity.
    Nucl Med Biol 2017 Jun 18;49:57-64. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital das Clínicas, Av. Enéas C. Aguiar, 255, 9th Floor, Rm 9077, São Paulo, 05403-900, Brazil.
    Introduction: Radiolabeled GLP-1 and its analog Exendin-4, have been employed in diabetes and insulinoma. No protocol in conventional Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), and Diet-Restricted Obesity (DRO), has been identified. Aiming to assess pancreatic beta cell uptake in DIO and DRO, a protocol was designed. Read More

    Geniposide improves insulin production and reduces apoptosis in high glucose-induced glucotoxic insulinoma cells.
    Eur J Pharm Sci 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China.
    Our previous work revealed that in the pancreatic β cell line, geniposide modulated ATP production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) induced by the acute stimulation of high glucose concentration. However, the effects of geniposide on functional impairment and the mass of β-cells exposed to elevated levels of glucose remains unknown. In the present study, impaired GSIS and restrained proliferation were observed in the prolonged culture of insulinoma INS-1 cells with 33mM of glucose (high glucose). Read More

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