143,410 results match your criteria Insulin Resistance

Sex differences in the relationships between body composition, fat distribution, and mitochondrial energy metabolism: a pilot study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2022 May 21;19(1):37. Epub 2022 May 21.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Adiposity and mitochondrial dysfunction are related factors contributing to metabolic disease development. This pilot study examined whether in vivo and ex vivo indices of mitochondrial metabolism were differentially associated with body composition in males and females.

Methods: Thirty-four participants including 19 females (mean 27 yr) and 15 males (mean 29 yr) had body composition assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Read More

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Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity and risk of vasomotor symptoms in premenopausal women: cross-sectional and cohort studies.

BJOG 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We examined the relationship between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity phenotypes and risk of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in premenopausal women.

Design: Prospective cohort study SETTING: Middle-aged women cohort based on regular health screening exams POPULATION: Premenopausal Korean women aged 42-52 years were recruited and were followed- up for a median of 4.2 years. Read More

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Insulin resistance and weight gain in women treated for early stage breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Baystate Medical Center, 376 Birnie Ave, Springfield, MA, 01107, USA.

Purpose: Both weight gain and insulin resistance have been associated with poorer prognosis in women receiving adjuvant therapy for early stage breast cancer, however, interactions between weight gain and insulin resistance have not been explored longitudinally throughout the breast cancer treatment continuum.

Methods: One hundred non-diabetic women with early stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and /or hormonal therapy were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Metrics of weight, body composition (BMI, waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR)), and cardiometabolic health (fasting insulin, glucose and triglycerides) were obtained prior to adjuvant therapy (baseline) and repeated 6, 12, and 24 months post-diagnosis. Read More

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Childhood poverty, immune cell aging, and African Americans' insulin resistance: A prospective study.

Child Dev 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Center for Family Research, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

The present study investigated developmental pathways that can contribute to chronic disease among rural African Americans. With a sample of 342 African American youth (59% female) from the southeastern United States followed for nearly two decades (2001-2019), we examined the prospective association between family poverty during adolescence (ages 11-18) and insulin resistance (IR) in young adulthood (ages 25-29) as well as underlying biological and psychosocial mechanisms. Results indicated family poverty during adolescence forecast higher levels of IR in young adulthood, with accelerated immune cell aging at age 20 partially mediating this association. Read More

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The inflammatory potential of the diet in childhood is associated with cardiometabolic risk in adolescence/young adulthood in the ALSPAC birth cohort.

Eur J Nutr 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centre for Academic Child Health, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol, BS8 2PS, UK.

Purpose: This study examined the association between a Dietary Inflammatory Score adapted for children (cDIS) and Cardiometabolic Risk (CMR) score in adolescence/early adulthood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

Methods: The cDIS was calculated at 7, 10 and 13 years using diet diary data. Anthropometric and biochemical data at 17 (N = 1937) and 24 (N = 1957) years were used to calculate CMR scores at each age [mean sex-specific z-scores from triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index (FMI)]. Read More

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Diabetes in Pregnancy: Preconception to Postpartum.

Amber M Healy

Prim Care 2022 Jun 13;49(2):287-300. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine (OUHCOM) and Ohio Health O'Bleness Hospital, OUHCOM, Heritage Hall 348C, 191 West Union Street, 1 Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA. Electronic address:

The incidence of all diabetes types are increasing, including the rate of women with diabetes in pregnancy. Preconception counseling continues to be an important part of visits with women who have diabetes and those at risk for gestational diabetes. Intensive control of blood sugar reduces the risk of negative outcomes in mother and baby. Read More

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Concentrated fish oil ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating fibroblast growth factor 21-adiponectin axis.

Nutrition 2022 Mar 23;99-100:111659. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Institute of Nutrition & Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China; School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China; Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Notting Hill, Victoria, Australia; Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-adiponectin axis participates in energy hemostasis and obesity-related syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate whether concentrated fish oil (FO) intervention could alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via the regulation of the FGF21-adiponectin axis.

Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 61 patients with NAFLD, age 55. Read More

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The Transcription Factor YY1 is Essential for Normal DNA Repair and Cell Cycle in Human and Mouse β-cells.

Diabetes 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA.

Identifying the mechanisms behind the β-cell adaptation-to-failure is important to develop strategies to manage type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using db/db mice at early stages of the disease process, we took advantage of unbiased RNAseq to identify genes/pathways regulated by insulin resistance in β-cells. We demonstrate herein that islets from 4-week-old non-obese and non-diabetic leptin-receptor deficient db/db mice exhibited downregulation of several genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and DNA repair. Read More

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Low concentrations of bisphenol A promote the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway on Beta-TC-6 cells via the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2022 May 20:e23099. Epub 2022 May 20.

Diabetes Center, First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Τhe natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell function and insulin resistance. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is used widely in industry; people are exposed to BPA and its products daily. Studies have delineated that BPA alters the function of pancreatic beta cells. Read More

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Anti-obesity effects of fucoidan in high-fat diet-fed mice vary with the gut microbiota structure.

Food Funct 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China.

Previous studies have indicated that fucoidan could resist high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulating the composition of gut microbiota. However, the outcome of dietary intervention may differ between individuals due to large inter-individual variability in gut microbiota. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the possible discrepancy of the anti-obesity effects of fucoidan supplementation in HFD-fed mice models with different gut microbiota communities. Read More

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Myeloid p38 activation maintains macrophage-liver crosstalk and BAT thermogenesis through IL-12-FGF21 axis.

Hepatology 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.

Obesity features excessive fat accumulation in several body tissues and induces a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the development of diabetes, steatosis and insulin resistance. Recent research has shown that this chronic inflammation is crucially dependent on p38 pathway activity in macrophages, suggesting p38 inhibition as a possible treatment for obesity comorbidities Nevertheless, we report here that lack of p38 activation in myeloid cells worsens high fat diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and steatosis. Deficient p38 activation increases macrophage IL-12 production, leading to inhibition of hepatic FGF21 and reduction of thermogenesis in the brown fat. Read More

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Tumour necrosis factor-α -308G/A polymorphism is associated with insulin secretory defects in Bangladeshi prediabetic/diabetic subjects.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2022 Apr 12;17(2):241-247. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Physiology & Molecular Biology, Bangladesh University of Health Science, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, an adipocytokine, is closely linked to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. The relationship between the polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene and IR in Bangladeshi prediabetes and T2D subjects has not yet been fully identified. This study aims to reveal the association between TNF-α gene polymorphism and IR in hyperglycaemic patients of Bangladeshi origin. Read More

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The Impact of Obesity Assessed by Different Criteria on the Metabolic Parameters in Children and Adolescents in Georgia.

Glob Pediatr Health 2022 12;9:2333794X221097569. Epub 2022 May 12.

Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.

The aim of our study was comparative analysis of anthropometric characteristics in children and adolescents significantly correlated with the parameters of metabolic syndrome. The study group is consisted of 113 children and adolescents (study group) with excessive body weight and obesity (group 1-BMI percentile; group 2-waist circumference; group 3-waist to height ratio). The control group consisted of 113 children and adolescents without. Read More

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Deletion of Drives the Activation of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Respiration to Induce Adipose Thermogenesis in Female Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 3;13:877152. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

Thermogenic adipocytes possess a promising approach to combat obesity with its capability promoting energy metabolism. We previously discovered that deletion of (GPRKO), a presumably membrane-associated estrogen receptor, protected female mice from developing obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD). , the metabolic phenotype of wild type (WT) and GPRKO female mice were measured weekly. Read More

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Higher Serum Soluble TREM2 as a Potential Indicative Biomarker for Cognitive Impairment in Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Without Obesity: The DOR-KyotoJ-1.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 3;13:880148. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Hypertension Research, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective: Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for dementia. We investigated whether serum levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (sTREM2), a soluble form of the cell surface receptor TREM2, were predictive of cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes without obesity.

Methods: A total of 166 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes without obesity were followed-up for 2 years. Read More

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Serum Intestinal Metabolites are Raised in Patients with Psoriasis and Metabolic Syndrome.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2022 13;15:879-886. Epub 2022 May 13.

Ulcers Surgical Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100010, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). Increasing evidence indicates that psoriasis is associated with MetS. Read More

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a 7 Year Old Girl.

Int Med Case Rep J 2022 12;15:245-250. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease due to insulin resistance resulting in hyperglycemia. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide in the pediatric population. In the pediatric population, type 2 diabetes typically develops around adolescence; however, patients with a younger age of onset are now being reported. Read More

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Beneficial Effects of a Low-Glycemic Diet on Serum Metabolites and Gut Microbiota in Obese Women With and Enterotypes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Front Nutr 2022 2;9:861880. Epub 2022 May 2.

Food Functionality Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju, South Korea.

Generalized healthy eating patterns may not benefit everyone due to different genetics and enterotypes. We aimed to compare the effects of a low-glycemic diet representing the Korean traditional balanced diet (Low-GID) and westernized diet as a control diet (CD) on anthropometry, serum metabolites, and fecal bacteria in a randomized clinical trial according to enterotypes. We recruited 52 obese women aged 30-50 years, and they consumed Low-GID and CD meals for 1 month, with a 1-month washout period, in a crossover randomized clinical trial. Read More

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Acute bioenergetic insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle cells: ATP-demand-provoked glycolysis contributes to stimulation of ATP supply.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2022 Jul 12;30:101274. Epub 2022 May 12.

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Plymouth, John Bull Building, Plymouth Science Park, 16 Research Way, PL6 8BU, Plymouth, UK.

Skeletal muscle takes up glucose in an insulin-sensitive manner and is thus important for the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis. Insulin resistance during development of type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased ATP synthesis, but the causality of this association is controversial. In this paper, we report real-time oxygen uptake and medium acidification data that we use to quantify acute insulin effects on intracellular ATP supply and ATP demand in rat and human skeletal muscle cells. Read More

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Subcutaneous delivery of FGF21 mRNA therapy reverses obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2022 Jun 18;28:500-513. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Metabolism, Research and Early Development Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg SE-43183, Sweden.

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We show that therapeutic levels of FGF21 were achieved following subcutaneous (s.c. Read More

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Comparison of Heart Rate Variability, QTc, and JT Interval Between Diabetic Patients and Healthy Controls: Role of Gender and Phases of Menstrual Cycle.

Cureus 2022 Apr 16;14(4):e24179. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Kalyani, Kalyani, IND.

Background and objectives Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders with variable degrees of insulin resistance and altered glucose metabolism. Increased attention in studying the role of gonadal hormones in diabetes is not only due to their relation to insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance but also to the gender-specific nature of the prevalence of various diabetic complications. The cyclical change in the hormone level in females will make it necessary to consider the menstrual cycle while analyzing the risk factors for diabetes. Read More

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Relationship Between Four Non-Insulin-Based Indexes of Insulin Resistance and Serum Uric Acid in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 9;15:1461-1471. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Endocrinology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, People's Republic of China.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and four insulin resistance surrogates in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The four non-insulin-based indexes of insulin resistance (IR) include the glucose and triglycerides index (TyG), TyG index with body mass index (TyG-BMI), ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) and metabolic score for insulin resistance (METS-IR).

Methods: A total of 687 patients with T2DM were enrolled in the current study. Read More

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Inhibition of ketohexokinase in adults with NAFLD reduces liver fat and inflammatory markers: A randomized phase 2 trial.

Med (N Y) 2021 Jul 27;2(7):800-813.e3. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Pfizer Inc., Worldwide Research, Development, and Medicine, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Increased consumption of the lipogenic sugar fructose promotes the current epidemic of metabolic disease. Ketohexokinase (KHK) catalyzes the first committed step in fructose metabolism. In animal models, KHK inhibition decreases hepatic de novo lipogenesis and steatosis and corrects many metabolic abnormalities associated with insulin resistance. Read More

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The potential role of miR-27a and miR-320a in metabolic syndrome in obese Egyptian females.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2022 May 19;20(1):75. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medical Molecular Genetics, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of many health complications, such as obesity, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, with an increasing threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. As the MetS develops, an alteration in the expression of some genes regulated by circulating microRNAs may also develop as a consequence. TaqMan microRNA primers specific for both miR-27a and miR-320a were used to estimate their expression levels in plasma samples collected from two groups: obese females with metabolic syndrome (n = 49) and lean healthy female volunteers (n = 23), to detect if their expression levels were deregulated with MetS. Read More

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Effect of excess weight and insulin resistance on DNA methylation in prepubertal children.

Sci Rep 2022 May 19;12(1):8430. Epub 2022 May 19.

Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, regulate gene expression and play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This study evaluates how the BMI z-score (BMIz) and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alone or in combination, relate to clinical outcomes and DNA methylation patterns in prepubertal children. DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and clinical outcomes were measured in a cohort of 41 prepubertal children. Read More

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Palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide treatment had neuroprotective but not anti-obesity effect in fa/fa rats with leptin signaling disturbances.

Nutr Diabetes 2022 May 19;12(1):26. Epub 2022 May 19.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry CAS, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background/objective: Anorexigenic palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide (palm-PrRP) is able to act centrally after peripheral administration in rat and mouse models of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or neurodegeneration. Functional leptin and intact leptin signaling pathways are necessary for the body weight reducing and glucose tolerance improving effect of palm-PrRP. We have previously shown that palm-PrRP31 had glucose-lowering properties but not anti-obesity effect in Koletsky rats with leptin signaling disturbances, so improvements in glucose metabolism appear to be completely independent of leptin signaling. Read More

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and osteoporosis: a potential association with therapeutic implications.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

First Laboratory of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and osteoporosis are two highly prevalent metabolic diseases. Increasing experimental evidence supports a pathophysiological link between NAFLD and osteoporosis. A key feature could be chronic, low-grade inflammation, which characterizes NAFLD and possibly affects bone metabolism. Read More

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The role of arylamine N-acetyltransferases in chronic degenerative diseases: Their possible function in the immune system.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2022 May 16:119297. Epub 2022 May 16.

Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Mexico; Research Center for Health Sciences and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Electronic address:

Since their discovery, arylamine N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2, respectively) have been associated with the metabolism of xenobiotics. NAT2 is the main factor in the therapeutic success of tuberculosis treatment due to its role in the biotransformation of isoniazid. However, researchers have started to investigate the possible participation of NAT1 and NAT2 (NATs) in carcinogenesis, although the mechanisms have not been elucidated fully. Read More

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Polystyrene microplastic exposure induces insulin resistance in mice via dysbacteriosis and pro-inflammation.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 16:155937. Epub 2022 May 16.

Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Institute of Clinical Pharmacy, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Evaluation of Rational Drug Use, Beijing 100038, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) as emerging contaminants have become a global environmental problem. However, studies on the effects of MPs on metabolic diseases remain limited. Here, we evaluated the effects of polystyrene (PS), one of the most prominent types of MPs, on insulin sensitivity in mice fed with normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD), and explained the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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