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    Insulin and the polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2017 Jun 12;130:163-170. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Read More

    Inhibition of ERK1/2 Restores GSK3β Activity and Protein Synthesis Levels in a Model of Tuberous Sclerosis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 23;7(1):4174. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a multi-organ autosomal dominant disorder that is best characterized by neurodevelopmental deficits and the presence of benign tumors. TS pathology is caused by mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes and is associated with insulin resistance, decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and subsequent increase in protein synthesis. Here, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) respond to insulin stimulation and integrate insulin signaling to phosphorylate and thus inactivate GSK3β, resulting in increased protein synthesis that is independent of Akt/mTORC1 activity. Read More

    Identification of flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of glucose homeostasis and a potential sensor of gut bacteria.
    Drug Metab Dispos 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    University College of London
    We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals. Read More

    On the Role IL-4/IL-13 Heteroreceptor Plays in Regulation of Type 1 Diabetes.
    J Immunol 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212;
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) manifests when the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells are destroyed as a consequence of an inflammatory process initiated by lymphocytes of the immune system. The NOD mouse develops T1D spontaneously and serves as an animal model for human T1D. The IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 heteroreceptor (HR) serves both IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines, which are believed to function as anti-inflammatory cytokines in T1D. Read More

    Metabolism and acetylation contribute to leucine-mediated inhibition of cardiac glucose uptake.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2017 Jun 23:ajpheart.00738.2016. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Université catholique de Louvain, IREC
    High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells suggest that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Read More

    Catalase overexpression modulates metabolic parameters in a new 'stress-less' leptin-deficient mouse model.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Jun 20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, 1700 3rd Ave., Huntington, WV 25755-0001, United States. Electronic address:
    Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. Read More

    AKR1C3-mediated adipose androgen generation drives lipotoxicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder, occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. Read More

    Efficacy of ipragliflozin as monotherapy or as add-on therapy with other oral antidiabetic medications in treating type 2 diabetes in Japanese patients with inadequate glycemic control: A subgroup analysis based on patient characteristics.
    J Diabetes Investig 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Naka Kinen Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, 745-5, Nakadai, Naka, Ibaraki, 311-0113, Japan.
    Aims/introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in treating Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycemic control by investigating diurnal variations of blood glucose and body composition.

    Materials And Methods: This was an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective study with a 6-month treatment period. The primary outcome investigated was change in hemoglobin A1c levels from baseline. Read More

    Oral application of a periodontal pathogen impacts SerpinE1 expression and pancreatic islet architecture in prediabetes.
    J Periodontal Res 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background And Objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest a close association between periodontitis and prediabetes/insulin resistance (IR) but whether periodontitis causes prediabetes in humans is not known. Using various animal models, we have recently established that periodontitis can be an initiator of prediabetes, which is characterized by glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, our in vitro studies indicated that Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β cells and this induction was in part SerpinE1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, PAI1) dependent. Read More

    Combined effects of physical inactivity and acute hyperglycemia on arterial distensibility.
    Vasc Med 2017 Jun 1:1358863X17712103. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    1 Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Arterial distensibility, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events, is transiently increased with acute hyperglycemia (AHG) in healthy individuals. Whether this response interacts with physical inactivity remains unknown. We examined the effects of short-term bed rest (BR) on the response of carotid artery distensibility (CD) to AHG, and the influence of underlying changes in insulin resistance and blood volume. Read More

    Red wine polyphenols do not improve obesity associated insulin-resistance: a randomized controlled trial.
    Diabetes Obes Metab 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Preclinical studies have suggested that polyphenols extracted from red wine (RWPs) favorably affect insulin sensitivity, but controversy exists on whether RWPs exert similar effects in humans. This study aimed to determine whether RWPs improve insulin sensitivity in obese volunteers. Obese (BMI>30) volunteers were randomly allocated to RWPs 600 mg/day (n = 14) or matched placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind fashion (parallel-arm) for 8 weeks. Read More

    Adiponectin isoform patterns in ethnic-specific ADIPOQ mutation carriers: The IRAS family study.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.
    Objective: Adiponectin is found in human serum in three groups of multimers (high molecular weight [HMW], medium molecular weight [MMW], and low molecular weight [LMW]). Two ethnic-specific variants in ADIPOQ, G45R (Hispanic-Americans) and R55C (African-Americans), were previously reported. Although carriers of both variants had mean adiponectin levels ≤ 20% of those of noncarriers, they were not clinically different from noncarriers. Read More

    Bimagrumab improves body composition and insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects.
    Diabetes Obes Metab 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.
    Background: Skeletal muscle is a key mediator of insulin resistance. Bimagrumab, an antibody against activin receptor type II (ActRII), prevents binding of negative muscle regulators, like myostatin, and increases lean mass and decreases fat mass in animal models.

    Objective: We hypothesized that an improving body composition in insulin resistant individuals could enhance insulin sensitivity. Read More

    The association between circulating fetuin-A levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background And Objective: Fetuin-A is a liver-derived circulating protein that is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies was to investigate mean levels of fetuin-A in T2D patients and the relationship between blood fetuin-A levels and T2D risk.

    Materials And Methods: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were systematically searched for potential relevant studies up to 1 December 2016. Read More

    Empagliflozin Improves Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in a Genetic Model of Type 2 Diabetes.
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.
    Purpose: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represent an enormous burden with high mortality and morbidity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new antidiabetic class that improves glucose control, as well as body weight and blood pressure with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. The first CV outcome study terminated with empagliflozin, a specific SGLT2 inhibitor, has shown a reduction in CV mortality and in heart failure hospitalization, suggesting a beneficial impact on cardiac function which remains to be demonstrated. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, Gynecologic and Obstetric Clinic, University of Sassari, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Read More

    Diverse metabolic effects of O-GlcNAcylation in the pancreas but limited effects in insulin-sensitive organs in mice.
    Diabetologia 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa-cho, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192, Japan.
    Aims/hypothesis: O-GlcNAcylation is characterised by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and serves in sensing intracellular nutrients by modulating various cellular processes. Although it has been speculated that O-GlcNAcylation is associated with glucose metabolism, its exact role in whole body glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether loss of O-GlcNAcylation globally and in specific organs affected glucose metabolism in mammals under physiological conditions. Read More

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Insights into the Therapeutic Approach with Inositols.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 8;8:341. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Pharmacology Section, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, Catania UniversityCatania, Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hormonal abnormalities that cause menstrual irregularity and reduce ovulation rate and fertility, associated to insulin resistance. Myo-inositol (cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, MI) and D-chiro-inositol (cis-1,2,4-trans-3,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, DCI) represent promising treatments for PCOS, having shown some therapeutic benefits without substantial side effects. Because the use of inositols for treating PCOS is widespread, a deep understanding of this treatment option is needed, both in terms of potential mechanisms and efficacy. Read More

    Quercetin, a Lead Compound against Type 2 Diabetes Ameliorates Glucose Uptake via AMPK Pathway in Skeletal Muscle Cell Line.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 8;8:336. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Agroprocessing and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchPappanamcode, India.
    Herein we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of the citrus flavonoid, quercetin in skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes). Taking advantage of protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that the effect of quercetin on 2-NBDG uptake in L6 myotubes was not through insulin signaling pathway, but through adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) pathway and its downstream target p38 MAPK. An increase in the cellular AMP to ATP ratio on pretreatment may account for AMPK activation which was coupled with a transient change in mitochondrial membrane potential. Read More

    How lipid droplets "TAG" along: Glycerolipid synthetic enzymes and lipid storage.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:
    Triacylglycerols (TAG) serve as the predominant form of energy storage in mammalian cells, and TAG synthesis influences conditions such as obesity, fatty liver, and insulin resistance. In most tissues, the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway enzymes are responsible for TAG synthesis, and the regulation and function of these enzymes is therefore important for metabolic homeostasis. Here we review the sites and regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), lipin/phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme action. Read More

    Clinical trial of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in maintenance methadone treatment patients.
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R., Iran. Electronic address:
    Background: Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with some complications including nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and periodontal disease in maintenance methadone treatment (MMT) patients. This study was designed to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychological symptoms and metabolic profiles in MMT patients.

    Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out among 68 MMT patients. Read More

    New Trends on Obesity and NAFLD in Asia.
    J Hepatol 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics and, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:
    Traditionally, obesity and its related diseases are considered problems in Western countries. However, in the past two decades, urbanization in many Asian countries has led to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition, and has set the stage for the epidemic of obesity. This article reviews the epidemiological trend of obesity in Asia with special emphasis on the emerging condition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Read More

    The role of Krüppel-like factor 14 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, Medical Research Center, Hunan Province Cooperative Innovation Center for Molecular Target New Drug Study, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, China. Electronic address:
    The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation. Read More

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A sign of systemic disease.
    Metabolism 2017 Jul 27;72:94-108. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Surgery and Cancer Faculty of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease and leading cause of cirrhosis in the United States and developed countries. NAFLD is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, significantly contributing to the exacerbation of the latter. Although NAFLD represents the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, it can also be found in patients prior to their presentation with other manifestations of the syndrome. Read More

    Ultrasonographic fatty liver indicator detects mild steatosis and correlates with metabolic/histological parameters in various liver diseases.
    Metabolism 2017 Jul 13;72:57-65. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Azienda USL, Nuovo Ospedale Sant'Agostino Estense di Baggiovara, Modena, Italy.
    Background And Aims: Fatty liver is a common feature of different types of liver diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for diagnosing fatty liver are variable. A semi-quantitative ultrasound score, i. Read More

    Pregnancy to postpartum transition of serum metabolites in women with gestational diabetes.
    Metabolism 2017 Jul 4;72:27-36. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.
    Context: Gestational diabetes is commonly linked to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a need to characterize metabolic changes associated with gestational diabetes in order to find novel biomarkers for T2DM.

    Objective: To find potential pathophysiological mechanisms and markers for progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM by studying the metabolic transition from pregnancy to postpartum. Read More

    Macrophage functions in lean and obese adipose tissue.
    Metabolism 2017 Jul 18;72:120-143. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management, Boston Medical Center, 88 East Newton Street, Robinson 4400, Boston, MA 02118. Electronic address:
    Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Read More

    Clinical presentations, metabolic abnormalities and end-organ complications in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy.
    Metabolism 2017 Jul 27;72:109-119. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Brehm Center for Diabetes Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Objective: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by partial lack of subcutaneous fat.

    Methods: This multicenter prospective observational study included data from 56 subjects with FPLD (18 independent Turkish families). Thirty healthy controls were enrolled for comparison. Read More

    Recent advances on the role of microRNAs in both insulin resistance and cancer.
    Curr Pharm Des 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, CS. Italy.
    Background: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by the failure of target cells to uptake and metabolizes glucose in response to insulin. In particular, the elevated concentrations of glucose, insulin and free insulin growth factor-1, which result from insulin resistance, may generate a pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic state. These alterations may underlie the increased risk to develop various types of cancer as well as the worse cancer prognosis observed in obese and diabetic patients. Read More

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a new potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance and cancer.
    Curr Pharm Des 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte. Denmark.
    Background: The intake of animal products in food has been associated with both the development of insulin resistance and gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Through the digestion of animal protein and other constituents of animal products, the commensal bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) forms metabolites that can contribute to the development of both insulin resistance and cancer. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is such a molecule and has recently drawn a lot of attention as it may be a risk factor for - and a link between - the gut microbiota and cardiovascular and renal disease. Read More

    Advances on PPARγ Research in the Emerging Era of Precision Medicine.
    Curr Drug Targets 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030. United States.
    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Read More

    Beneficial Role of Citrus Fruit Polyphenols Against Hepatic Dysfunctions: A Review.
    J Diet Suppl 2017 Jun 22:1-29. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    a Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences , North South University , Dhaka , Bangladesh.
    Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. Read More

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; a comprehensive review of clinical interactions and underlying pathophysiology.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Division of Translational and Experimental Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with multiple co-morbidities including, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, as well as mood disorders and impaired quality of life (QoL). Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is also a common medical condition that is often undiagnosed, particularly in women. Read More

    Correlation of disease severity with body weight and high fat diet in the FATZO/Pco mouse.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(6):e0179808. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Crown Bioscience - Indiana, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.
    Obesity in many current pre-clinical animal models of obesity and diabetes is mediated by monogenic mutations; these are rarely associated with the development of human obesity. A new mouse model, the FATZO mouse, has been developed to provide polygenic obesity and a metabolic pattern of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, that support the presence of insulin resistance similar to metabolic disease in patients with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes. The FATZO mouse resulted from a cross of C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice followed by selective inbreeding for obesity, increased insulin and hyperglycemia. Read More

    Glucose dysregulation and response to common anti-diabetic agents in the FATZO/Pco mouse.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(6):e0179856. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.
    The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Read More

    Metabolic milieu associates with impaired skeletal characteristics in obesity.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(6):e0179660. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    High leptin concentration, low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance often coexist in obese subjects; this adverse metabolic milieu may be the main culprit for increased fracture risk and impaired bone quality seen in patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of leptin, hs (high sensitivity)- CRP and insulin resistance with bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone characteristics in 55 young obese adults (median BMI 40 kg/m2) and 65 non-obese controls. Mean age of the subjects was 19. Read More

    Adipose Tissue-Derived Omentin-1 Function and Regulation.
    Compr Physiol 2017 Jun 18;7(3):765-781. Epub 2017 Jun 18.
    Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji-City, Tokyo, Japan.
    Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling. Read More

    A Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related Metabolic Signature Characterizes Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
    Nutrients 2017 Jun 22;9(7). Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, P.O. Box 208020, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

    Evaluation of Plasma TRB3 and Sestrin 2 Levels in Obese and Normal-Weight Children.
    Child Obes 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    6 Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .
    Objective: Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. TRB3 (Tribbles homolog 3) and sestrin 2 are two newly found proteins that have been identified to play an important role in obesity and its complications.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate concentrations of TRB3 and sestrin 2 in plasma of obese and normal-weight children and adolescents, and their association with metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Read More

    [Diabetes mellitus secondary to an endocrine pathology : when to think about it ?]
    Rev Med Suisse 2017 May;13(565):1158-1162
    Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie, hypertension et nutrition, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.
    An endocrine disease can be associated with glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus, and the latter can falsely be considered as type 2 diabetes. Glycemic imbalance can be a direct or indirect consequence of excessive hormone production. Endocrine diseases such as acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma can increase glucose production and cause insulin resistance. Read More

    Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds.
    Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Jun 1:1753944717711379. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that include hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and is strongly associated with an increased risk for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors that contribute to the final pathway of inflammation that leads to CVD. MetS has gained significant importance recently due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. Read More

    Reanalysis and External Validation of a Decision Tree Model for Detecting Unrecognized Diabetes in Rural Chinese Individuals.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 30;2017:3894870. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, 1 Dong Jiao Min Xiang, Beijing 100730, China.
    We reanalyzed previous data to develop a more simplified decision tree model as a screening tool for unrecognized diabetes, using basic information in Beijing community health records. Then, the model was validated in another rural town. Only three non-laboratory-based risk factors (age, BMI, and presence of hypertension) with fewer branches were used in the new model. Read More

    Combination of a high-fat diet with sweetened condensed milk exacerbates inflammation and insulin resistance induced by each separately in mice.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 21;7(1):3937. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Interdisciplinary Post-graduate Program in Health Sciences, Cruzeiro of Sul University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Obesogenic diets increase body weight and cause insulin resistance (IR), however, the association of these changes with the main macronutrient in the diet remains to be elucidated. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with: control (CD), CD and sweetened condensed milk (HS), high-fat (HF), and HF and condensed milk (HSHF). After 2 months, increased body weight, glucose intolerance, adipocyte size and cholesterol levels were observed. Read More

    Effect of Probiotics on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Jun 22;23:3044-3053. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Gerontology, Renmin Hospital of Three Gorges University and The First People's Hospital of Yichang, Yichang, Hubei, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether supplemental probiotics therapy improves clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effect of probiotics on glucose and lipid metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MATERIAL AND METHODS An up-to-date search was performed for all relevant RCTs up to April 2016 from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Read More

    Maternal BMI and Glycemia Impact the Fetal Metabolome.
    Diabetes Care 2017 Jul;40(7):902-910
    Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    Objective: We used targeted metabolomics to determine associations of maternal BMI and glucose levels with cord blood metabolites and associations of cord blood metabolites with newborn birth weight and adiposity in mother-offspring dyads.

    Research Design And Methods: Targeted metabolomic assays were performed on cord blood serum samples from European ancestry, Afro-Caribbean, Thai, and Mexican American newborns (400 from each ancestry group) whose mothers participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and who had anthropometric measurements at birth.

    Results: Meta-analysis across the four cohorts demonstrated significant correlation of all cord blood metabolites analyzed with maternal fasting levels of the same metabolites at ∼28 weeks' gestation except for triglycerides, asparagine/aspartate, arginine, and the acylcarnitine C14-OH/C12-DC. Read More

    The American Heart Association Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.
    J Am Heart Assoc 2017 Jun 21;6(6). Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC.
    Background: The concept of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association primarily for coronary heart disease and stroke prevention, may apply to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks.

    Methods And Results: Our sample included 2668 adults in the Jackson Heart Study with complete baseline data on 6 of 7 American Heart Association CVH metrics (body mass index, healthy diet, smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity). Incident diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes mellitus drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6. Read More

    Association of plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in nondiabetic Chinese population.
    Metabolism 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, China.
    Objective: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is attributed to a "multi-hits hypothesis" involving insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing the"multi-hits". Hence, we investigated the association between plasma DPP4 activity and NAFLD in nondiabetic Chinese population. Read More

    Citrulline decreases hepatic endotoxin-induced injury in fructose-induced non-alcoholic liver disease: an ex vivo study in the isolated perfused rat liver.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Jun 22:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    1EA4466,Faculty of Pharmacy,Paris Descartes University,Sorbonne Paris Cité,75006 Paris,France.
    Steatosis can sensitise the liver to various challenges and favour the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this context, fructose feeding promotes endotoxin translocation from the gut, contributing to disease progression via an inflammatory process. Citrulline is protective against fructose-induced NAFLD; we hypothesised that this property might be related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative action against endotoxin-induced hepatic injuries. Read More

    Socioeconomic status: The missing link between obesity and diabetes mellitus?
    Curr Diabetes Rev 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná - Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Curitiba. Brazil.
    Background: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Read More

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