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    Tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation reduces hyperglycemia-induced skeletal muscle damage through regulation of insulin signaling and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic mice.
    J Nutr Biochem 2018 Mar 21;57:77-85. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Read More

    The effects of valproate and topiramate use on serum insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin levels in epileptic children.
    Seizure 2018 Apr 11;58:90-95. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Neurology, Trabzon, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Although some drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy are known to affect body weight, the hormonal factors responsible have not been sufficiently described. The purpose of this study was to compare insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin levels in children with epilepsy receiving monotherapy with topiramate (TPM) and valproic acid (VPA), the drugs whose effects on body weight have been most discussed, with those of a control group.

    Method: 48 patients (25 VPA, 23 TPM) aged between 6 and 15. Read More

    Qing brick tea (QBT) aqueous extract protects monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice against metabolic syndrome and involves up-regulation Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Apr 18;103:637-644. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Pharmacy, The First College of Clinical Medical Science, China Three Gorges University & Yichang Central People's Hospital, Yichang, 443000, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Qing brick tea (QBT), traditional and popular beverage for Chinese people, is an important post-fermentation dark tea. Our present study was performed to investigate the ameliorative effects of QBT aqueous extract on metabolic syndrome (Mets) in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice and the potential mechanisms.

    Method: Monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the anti-Mets effects of QBT. Read More

    Dietary habits associated with reduced insulin resistance: The Nagahama Study.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Diabetes, endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:
    Aims: To investigate the association between insulin resistance assessed by a homeostasis model and dietary habits.

    Methods: Cross-sectional analysis using a community-based cohort, the Nagahama Prospective Cohort for Comprehensive Human Bioscience. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with log HOMA-IR or log HOMA- β as the dependent variable and 20 dietary habits, tobacco smoking, medical history, family medical history of diabetes, age and BMI as the simultaneous independent variables in each sex separately. Read More

    Nutrition Therapy Within and Beyond Gestational Diabetes.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes; University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.
    With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Read More

    Longitudinal Association between Periodontitis and Development of Diabetes Running title: Periodontitis and Diabetes Development.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    Background: Clinical trials have shown very modest short-term improvements in glycemic control among participants with diabetes after periodontitis treatment. Few longitudinal studies suggest that periodontitis may be related to prediabetes/diabetes risk.

    Methods: We evaluated 1,206 diabetes free participants in the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS) and 941 with complete 3-year follow-up data were included. Read More

    Treatments for diabetes mellitus type II: New perspectives regarding the possible role of calcium and cAMP interaction.
    Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Departamento de Fisiologia.Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil. Electronic address:
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the top ten causes of death worldwide. It is considered to be one of the major global epidemics of the 21 century, with a significant impact on public health budgets. DM is a metabolic disorder with multiple etiologies. Read More

    Relationship between relative skeletal muscle mass and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A 7-year longitudinal study.
    Hepatology 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 06351, Republic of Korea.
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with relative skeletal muscle mass in several cross-sectional studies. We explored the impacts of relative skeletal muscle mass and changes in relative muscle mass over time on the development of incident NAFLD or the resolution of baseline NAFLD in a large, longitudinal, population-based 7-year cohort study. We included 12,624 subjects without baseline NAFLD and 2,943 subjects with baseline NAFLD who underwent health check-up examinations. Read More

    The role of mitochondrial DNA damage at skeletal muscle oxidative stress on the development of type 2 diabetes.
    Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Instituto de Biociências, Federal University of Jataí, Jataí, Goias, Brazil.
    Reduced cellular response to insulin in skeletal muscle is one of the major components of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mitochondrial dysfunction involves in the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the involvement of mitochondrial DNA damage at ROS generation in skeletal muscle during development of T2D. Read More

    Valsartan Alleviates Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle of Chronic Renal Failure Rats.
    Med Sci Monit 2018 Apr 21;24:2413-2419. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Department of Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Institute of Nephrology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Research, Beijing, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Studies on insulin resistance (IR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are rare, and its exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of IR with chronic renal failure (CRF) and interventions to alleviate IR in patients with CRF. MATERIAL AND METHODS In vivo and in vitro models of CRF were established by 5/6 nephrectomy and urea stimulation C2C12 cells, respectively. Read More

    EJE PRIZE 2018: A gut feeling about glucagon.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    F Knop, Center for Diabetes Research at Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Hyperglucagonaemia (in the fasting as well as in the postprandial state) is considered a core pathophysiological component of diabetes and to contribute substantially to the hyperglycaemic state of diabetes. Hyperglucagonaemia is usually viewed upon as a consequence of pancreatic alpha cell insensitivity to the glucagon-suppressive effects of glucose and insulin. Since we observed that the well-known hyperglucagonaemic response to oral glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes is exchanged by normal suppression of plasma glucagon levels following isoglycaemic intravenous glucose administration in these patients, we have been focusing on the gut and gut-derived factors as potential mediators of diabetic hyperglucagonaemia. Read More

    Deferoxamine ameliorates adipocyte dysfunction by modulating iron metabolism in ob/ob mice.
    Endocr Connect 2018 Apr;7(4):604-616
    College of Life and Health SciencesNortheastern University, Shenyang, China
    Objective: The mechanisms underlying obesity and anti-obesity processes have garnered remarkable attention as potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Our prior work has shown the healing efficacy of iron reduction therapies for hepatic steatosis in a rodent model of diabetes and obesity. In this study, we investigated how iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) affected adipocyte dysfunction in the epididymal adipose tissues of ob/ob mice. Read More

    Effect of the Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass Liner on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With Obesity: A Meta-analysis With Secondary Analysis on Weight Loss and Hormonal Changes.
    Diabetes Care 2018 May;41(5):1106-1115
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA
    Objective: Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is an endoscopic device that may mimic small bowel mechanisms of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of DJBL at inducing weight loss. We assessed the effect of DJBL on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with obesity. Read More

    Ketogenic diet, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A case study.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Human Bioenergetics & Applied Health Science, Bethel University, MN, USA. Electronic address:
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Read More

    Overexpression of NRK1 ameliorates diet- and age-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    School of Forensic Medicine, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, China; Laboratory of Molecular Metabolism, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, China. Electronic address:
    NAD is a co-enzyme in redox reactions and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including Sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Dietary supplementation of NAD precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR) protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we sought to identify the roles of nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) plays in regulating hepatic NAD biosynthesis and lipid metabolism. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an inflammatory, systemic, lifestyle endocrinopathy.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, Campanile Dr, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder, afflicting females of reproductive age. This syndrome leads to infertility, apart from a gamut of other metabolic co-morbidities such as insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular problems, including a litany of other health issues. PCOS is a polygenic, polyfactorial, systemic, inflammatory, dysregulated steroid state, autoimmune disease, manifesting largely due to lifestyle errors. Read More

    Both oophorectomy and obesity impaired solely hippocampal-dependent memory via increased hippocampal dysfunction.
    Exp Gerontol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Cardiac Electrophysiology Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Our previous study demonstrated that obesity aggravated peripheral insulin resistance and brain dysfunction in the ovariectomized condition. Conversely, the effect of obesity followed by oophorectomy on brain oxidative stress, brain apoptosis, synaptic function and cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory, has not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that oophorectomy aggravated metabolic impairment, brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in obese rats. Read More

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the treatment of diabetes: Current view and future perspectives.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 15;32(2):201-213. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Italy; Fondazione Umberto Di Mario ONLUS c/o Toscana Life Science, Siena, Italy. Electronic address:
    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest receptor family in the genome and are of great interest for the design of novel drugs in a wide variety of diseases including neurologic disorders, obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The latter is a chronic disease characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, affecting >400 million patients worldwide. Here we provide an overview on: a) The molecular basis of GPCR signalling and of its involvement in the regulation of insulin secretion and of glucose homeostasis; b) the role of GPCRs in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and as therapeutic targets of current and future glucose-lowering drugs. Read More

    Gestational glucocorticoid exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis that is accompanied by increased endoglin and DPP-4 activity instead of GSK-3 in rats.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Apr 13;60:66-75. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Physiology & Hope Cardiometabolic Research Team, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Electronic address:
    Gestational glucocorticoid (GC) treatment has been associated with cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) in offspring's in later life. Elevated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, endoglin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has also been implicated in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and/or vascular inflammation. We aimed to investigate the impact of GC exposure on glucose metabolism and the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, DPP-4 activity and GSK-3 in pregnant rats. Read More

    Combined intervention of swimming plus metformin ameliorates the insulin resistance and impaired lipid metabolism in murine gestational diabetes mellitus.
    PLoS One 2018 20;13(4):e0195609. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Hygiene Inspection and Quarantine, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has short- and long- term influence on pregnant women and fetus. Swimming, as an aerobic exercise, can effectively improve the blood glucose level in GDM, but the effect of mild swimming alone was not very substantial. Metformin, as an oral antidiabetic drug, has obvious hypoglycemic effect, and is economic also, but the long-term effect on pregnant women and fetus has not been completely clear. Read More

    Pediatric metabolic outcome comparisons based on a spectrum of obesity and asthmatic symptoms.
    J Asthma 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    b Department of Pediatrics , West Virginia University School of Medicine.
    Rationale: Asthma and obesity are two of the most prevalent public health issues for children in the U.S. Trajectories of both have roughly paralleled one another over the past several decades causing many to explore their connection to one another and to other associated health issues such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. Read More

    Clinical Characteristics of People with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes between 2015 and 2016: Difference by Age and Body Mass Index.
    Diabetes Metab J 2018 Apr;42(2):137-146
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea.
    Background: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed, drug-naive people with type 2 diabetes by analyzing nationwide cross-sectional data.

    Methods: We collected the clinical data of 912 participants with newly diagnosed diabetes from 83 primary care clinics and hospitals nationwide from 2015 to 2016. The presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥2. Read More

    [Jatrorrhizine regulates GLUTs with multiple manners for hypoglycemic effect in insulin-resistance 3T3-L1 adipocytes].
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 Mar;43(6):1215-1220
    Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Etiopathogenisis, Research Center for Differentiation and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine Basic Theory, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China.
    This paper aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect and relative mechanism of jatrorrhizine in insulin-resistance (IR)-3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used to induce mature adipocytes, then the stable IR model was established with 1 μmol·L⁻¹ dexamethasone. The adipocytes were divided into normal group, IR model group, rosiglitazone positive group and jatrorrhizine group (0. Read More

    Tributyltin reduces the levels of serum adiponectin and activity of AKT and induces metabolic syndrome in male mice.
    Environ Toxicol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Tributyltin (TBT), a proven environmental obesogen, functions as a nanomolar agonist of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the adverse effects of TBT on metabolism are incompletely understood. In this study, male ICR mice were administered TBT (5 and 50 μg·kg ) by an intraperitoneal injection once every 3 days for 30 days from 28 days of age and bred for another 30 days after the last administration of TBT. Read More

    Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy with Retinal Neurodegeneration on the Background of Diabetes Mellitus. Overview of Recent Medical Studies with an Assessment of the Impact on Healthcare systems.
    Open Med (Wars) 2018 18;13:130-136. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Ophthalmology Clinic Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education Warsaw, Warsaw Poland.
    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the biggest healthcare and financial problems worldwide. The disease is strongly associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications, causing co-existing diseases like Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Neuropathy and Diabetic Nephropathy. Annual healthcare expenditures for diabetes treatment and complications prevention cost 727 billion USD in year 2017. Read More

    Serum Levels of Interleukin-13 Increase in Subjects with Insulin Resistance but Do Not Correlate with Markers of Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation.
    J Diabetes Res 2018 21;2018:7209872. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Unit of Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, National University of Mexico, General Hospital of Mexico "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", 06726 Mexico City, Mexico.
    Experimental evidence in mice suggests a role for interleukin- (IL-) 13 in insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. However, IL-13 serum levels have not been assessed in subjects with insulin resistance, and associations of IL-13 with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation are still unknown. Our main goal was to examine the systemic levels of IL-13 in patients with insulin resistance, while also studying the relationship of IL-13 with anthropometric, metabolic, and low-grade systemic inflammatory markers. Read More

    Pancreatic Aquaporin-7: A Novel Target for Anti-diabetic Drugs?
    Front Chem 2018 5;6:99. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Metabolic Research Laboratory, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Read More

    Glycine Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Glutathione Biosynthesis and Protects against Oxidative Stress in a Model of Sucrose-Induced Insulin Resistance.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 21;2018:2101562. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Departamento de Endocrinología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Juan Badiano No. 1, Colonia Sección XVI, Tlalpan, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico.
    Oxidative stress and redox status play a central role in the link between insulin resistance (IR) and lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome. This mechanistic link may involve alterations in the glutathione redox state. We examined the effect of glycine supplementation to diet on glutathione biosynthesis, oxidative stress, IR, and insulin cell signaling in liver from sucrose-fed (SF) rats characterized by IR and oxidative stress. Read More

    Genetic Variability in eIF2 Gene Is Associated with Islet -Cell Function in the Development of Diabetes in a Chinese Han Population.
    Int J Endocrinol 2018 20;2018:6590532. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Endocrinology Department, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Aims: Protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha () pathway mutations lead to failure of -cell function. The aim of this article was to assess the association between and the risk of glucose metabolism abnormalities.

    Methods: Two SNPs (rs9840992 T>C and rs13072593 A>G) were selected based on CHB data from HapMap, and 1466 unrelated nondiabetes individuals were genotyped. Read More

    Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Psoriasis Patients: Causes and Consequences.
    Front Immunol 2018 5;9:579. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by the appearance of red scaly plaques that can affect any part of the body. High prevalence, chronicity, disfiguration, disability, and associated comorbidity make it a challenge for clinicians of multiple specialties. Likewise, its complex pathogenesis, comprising inflammation, hyperproliferation, and angioneogenesis, intrigues numerous scientific disciplines, namely, immunology. Read More

    Association Between Thyroid Hormones, Thyroid Antibodies, and Cardiometabolic Factors in Non-Obese Individuals With Normal Thyroid Function.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 5;9:130. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Background: Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. Read More

    Reduced oxidative capacity in macrophages results in systemic insulin resistance.
    Nat Commun 2018 Apr 19;9(1):1551. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Research Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Medical Science, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 35015, Korea.
    Oxidative functions of adipose tissue macrophages control the polarization of M1-like and M2-like phenotypes, but whether reduced macrophage oxidative function causes systemic insulin resistance in vivo is not clear. Here, we show that mice with reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) due to myeloid-specific deletion of CR6-interacting factor 1 (Crif1), an essential mitoribosomal factor involved in biogenesis of OxPhos subunits, have M1-like polarization of macrophages and systemic insulin resistance with adipose inflammation. Macrophage GDF15 expression is reduced in mice with impaired oxidative function, but induced upon stimulation with rosiglitazone and IL-4. Read More

    Perit Dial Int 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Background: Although the association between adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, and body composition has been noted, whether they could predict the change of fat mass and lean body mass is unknown. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) through a prospective cohort study.

    Methods: Body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) including fat mass and lean body mass were examined at baseline and then at year 3. Read More

    APP deficiency results in resistance to obesity but impairs glucose tolerance upon high fat feeding.
    J Endocrinol 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    S McGee, Metabolic Research Unit, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, 3217, Australia
    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a number of peptides when processed through different cleavage mechanisms, including the Aβ peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is well established that APP via its cleaved peptides regulates aspects of neuronal metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of APP can lead to altered systemic metabolism, similar to that observed in metabolic disease states. Read More

    Possible Mechanisms Underlying Fatty Liver in a Rat Model of Male Hypogonadism: A Protective Role for Testosterone.
    Steroids 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Basic Medical Sciences Dept. College of Medicine at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), Riyadh, KSA.
    Aims: To investigate the effects of testosterone (Test) deficiency and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated peripheral insulin resistance (IR) in male rats and to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of action.

    Materials And Methods: male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups as follows: 1) sham-operated group (n=11), 2) ORCD-induced group (n=9) exposed to orchidectomy (ORCD), achieved by complete surgical removal of testicles, and 3) ORCD+ Test treated group (n=10) (11 ng/ mL Test propionate, 3x/week, S.C. Read More

    Tanshinone IIA suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell signaling and anaphylaxis by activation of the Sirt1/LKB1/AMPK Pathway.
    Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream mediators liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) are generally known as key regulators of metabolism. We have recently reported that the AMPK pathway negatively regulates mast cell activation and anaphylaxis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract that is currently used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, shows anti-diabetic activity and improves insulin resistance in db/db mice through activation of AMPK. Read More

    Novel adipokines vaspin and irisin as risk biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Medical Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Aims: Vaspin and irisin are novel cytokines proposed as potential new biomarkers of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. This work is to investigate circulating levels of vaspin and irisin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) to study potential association with disease risk.

    Materials And Methods: Circulating levels of vaspin and irisin were assayed in serum from 135 T2DM patients (with and without CVD) and 70 control subjects by ELISA. Read More

    Sennoside A protects mitochondrial structure and function to improve high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by targeting VDAC1.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200233, China. Electronic address:
    Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly associated with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. Sennoside A (SA), a commonly used clinical stimulant laxative, is reported to improve energy metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the effect and mechanism of SA on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis remain largely unknown. Read More

    Interactions among the variants of insulin-related genes and nutrients increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
    Nutr Res 2018 Mar 5;51:82-92. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Obesity/Diabetes Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Asians easily develops type 2 diabetes (T2DM) since they have insufficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in insulin resistant states. Since this may be associated with genetic background, the hypothesis of this study was that inter-genetic and gene-nutrient interactions may explain the low insulin secretory capacity of Asians. Accordingly, we identified the best gene-gene and gene-nutrient interactions using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) in a large Korean cohort (n=8,842). Read More

    Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors: Beyond Glucose Lowering.
    Curr Drug Targets 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming College of Health Sciences, Laramie, WY 82071. United States.
    Diabetes is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide. Management of blood glucose is critical for diabetic patients since diabetes carries risk for many diseases and disorders. Although there are several antidiabetic agents in the markets for a long time, some of the agents have dose-limiting side effects, such as hypoglycemia and weight gain which limits their ability to reduce cardiovascular complications. Read More

    Effects of treadmill exercise on PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway and tau protein in high-fat diet-fed rats.
    J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2018 Mar;22(1):9-14
    Purpose: This study aimed to clearly evaluate the effects of obesity on cerebral health. Thus, we induced obesity in rats using a long-term high-fat diet (HFD), then investigated its effects on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. Additionally, we examined the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (TE) on insulin signaling and tau hyperphosphorylation. Read More

    Older Subjects with β-cell Dysfunction have an Accentuated Incretin Release.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Diabetes Division, University of Texas Health Science Center.
    Objective: Insulin secretion declines with age and this contributes to the increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older subjects. Insulin secretion is regulated by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Here we tested the hypotheses that incretin release is reduced in older subjects, and that this decline is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Read More

    The Effects of Synbiotic Supplementation on Body Mass Index, Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Appetite in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.
    J Diet Suppl 2018 Apr 19:1-13. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    d Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services , Tehran , Iran.
    It has been shown recently that metabolic syndrome is associated with gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota may be the main target for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome. Read More

    Insulin resistance is associated with larger thyroid volume in adults with type 1 diabetes independently from presence of thyroid autoimmunity.
    Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2018 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    a Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology , Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Poznan , Poland.
    To investigate the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity (AIT) and thyroid volume in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). 100 consecutive patients with T1DM aged 29 (±6) years with diabetes duration 13 (±6) years were included. Exclusion criteria were: history of thyroid disease, current treatment with L-thyroxin or anti-thyroid drugs. Read More

    Diabetes in South Asians: Phenotype, Clinical Presentation, and Natural History.
    Curr Diab Rep 2018 Apr 18;18(6):30. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Diabetology, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre & Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, ICMR Centre for Advanced Research on Diabetes, WHO Collaborating Centre, Non-Communicable Disease Prevention & Control & IDF Centre of Excellence in Diabetes Care, No 4, Conran Smith Road, Gopalapuram, Chennai, 600 086, India.
    Purpose Of Review: South Asia is one of the epicenters of the global diabetes pandemic. Diabetes in south Asians has certain peculiar features with respect to its pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management. This review aims to summarize some of the recent evidence pertaining to the distinct diabetes phenotype in south Asians. Read More

    Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes in Japan: Similarities and Differences from Type 2 Diabetes in Other Pediatric Populations.
    Curr Diab Rep 2018 Apr 18;18(6):29. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine, 1-6 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8309, Japan.
    Purpose Of Review: To review clinical characteristics of pediatric type 2 diabetes in Japan.

    Recent Findings: It is well recognized that Asian populations, particularly the Japanese, have a higher incidence of childhood type 2 diabetes. Of note, most Asian populations show a higher incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes than that of type 1 diabetes. Read More

    Short-term decreased physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour causes metabolic derangements and altered body composition: effects in individuals with and without a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetologia 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Musculoskeletal Biology II, Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Aims/hypothesis: Low physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of a short-term reduction in physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour on metabolic profiles and body composition, comparing the effects in individuals with first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes (FDR+ve) vs those without (FDR-ve).

    Methods: Forty-five habitually active participants (16 FDR+ve [10 female, 6 male] and 29 FDR-ve [18 female, 11 male]; age 36 ± 14 years) were assessed at baseline, after 14 days of step reduction and 14 days after resuming normal activity. Read More

    Lixisenatide, a novel GLP-1 analog, protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats.
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, El-Minia, 61111, Egypt.
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke accompanied by vascular dysfunction and poor cerebrovascular outcome. Lixisenatide is a glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that is recently used for T2DM treatment with established neuroprotective properties. This study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effect of lixisenatide against glimepiride on diabetic rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Read More

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