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    Stimulation of the endogenous incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide by enteral dextrose improves glucose homeostasis and inflammation in murine endotoxemia.
    Transl Res 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.
    Loss of glucose homeostasis during sepsis is associated with increased organ dysfunction and higher mortality. Novel therapeutic strategies to promote euglycemia in sepsis are needed. We have previously shown that early low-level intravenous (IV) dextrose suppresses pancreatic insulin secretion and induces insulin resistance in septic mice, resulting in profound hyperglycemia and worsened systemic inflammation. Read More

    Association between β-cell function estimated by HOMA-β and prognosis of nondiabetic patients with ischaemic stroke.
    Eur J Neurol 2017 Dec 9. Epub 2017 Dec 9.
    Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Background And Purpose: Studies showed β-cell dysfunction was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between β-cell function and prognosis of nondiabetic patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Methods: Ischaemic stroke patients without diabetes in the Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients with Acute Stroke across China registry were included in this analysis. Read More

    Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy on perioperative glucose metabolism during oral- maxillofacial surgery: randomised clinical trial.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(1):137-143
    Department of Dental Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: Preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy has been suggested to attenuate postoperative insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage given preoperatively on intraoperative glucose metabolism.

    Methods And Study Design: This study was a randomised, open-label, placebo-controlled trial. Read More

    Obesity, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in children after liver transplantation.
    Acta Biochim Pol 2017 Dec 10. Epub 2017 Dec 10.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Nutritional Disturbances and Pediatrics. The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Purpose: In adult liver transplant recipients, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure are significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This may be attributed to the long-term immunosuppressive treatment, mostly with calcineurin inhibitors and steroids, which in long-term may be associated with hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and cardiovascular complications. Since such data for children is sparse, the aim of this study was to assess the lipid and oxidative stress markers after pediatric liver transplantation (LTx). Read More

    BMPs as new insulin sensitizers: enhanced glucose uptake in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes via PPARγ and GLUT4 upregulation.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 8;7(1):17192. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry - Biochemistry, Berlin, Germany.
    Insulin-resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of BMP2 and BMP6 as new insulin-sensitizing growth factors in mature adipocytes. We show that BMP2 and BMP6 lead to enhanced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and -insensitive adipocytes. Read More

    Brain insulin resistance impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory by increasing GluA1 palmitoylation through FoxO3a.
    Nat Commun 2017 Dec 8;8(1):2009. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Institute of Human Physiology, Università Cattolica Medical School, 00168, Rome, Italy.
    High-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic diseases cause detrimental effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory through molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HFD increases palmitic acid deposition in the hippocampus and induces hippocampal insulin resistance leading to FoxO3a-mediated overexpression of the palmitoyltransferase zDHHC3. The excess of palmitic acid along with higher zDHHC3 levels causes hyper-palmitoylation of AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluA1, hindering its activity-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane. Read More

    Adiposity, Inflammation and Breast Cancer Pathogenesis in Asian Women.
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College
    Obesity is associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation in the breast, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that predispose to breast cancer development. We examined whether WAT inflammation and its associated systemic effects correlate with body fat levels in an Asian population where body mass index (BMI) is not an accurate assessment of obesity and cancer risk. We also investigated whether biologic differences could account for the greater proportion of premenopausal estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in Asian versus western countries. Read More

    Long-term fermented soybean paste improves metabolic parameters associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    School of Life Science, Handong Global University, Pohang, Gyungbuk, Republic of Korea; Department of Advanced Green Energy and Environment, Handong Global University, Pohang, Gyungbuk, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Recently, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, called Doenjang, has attracted attention for its protective effect against diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term fermented soybean pastes (LFSPs) are made by fermentation with naturally-occurring microorganisms for several months, whereas short-term fermented soybean pastes (SFSPs) are produced by shorter-time fermentation inoculated with a starter culture. Here, we demonstrate that administration of LFSP, but not SFSP, protects high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice against non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Read More

    DNA methylation signatures at endoplasmic reticulum stress genes are associated with adiposity and insulin resistance.
    Mol Genet Metab 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Pamplona, Spain; Biomedical Research Centre Network in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn), Carlos III Institute, Madrid, Spain; Madrid Institute of Advanced Studies (IMDEA Food), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    A sustained activation of the unfolded protein response and the subsequent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been involved in the onset and severity of several metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at ER stress genes with adiposity traits and related metabolic disorders. An epigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in an adult population (n=474). Read More

    Physical activity, sedentary time, TV viewing, physical fitness and cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: The HELENA study.
    Int J Cardiol 2017 Nov 26. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Nutrición y la Obesidad (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS Aragón), Spain.
    Background: To examine the independent associations between physical activity (PA) intensities, sedentary time (ST), TV viewing, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in youth.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study on 534 European adolescents (252 males, 282 females, 12.5-17. Read More

    Inflammation in the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension in Healthy Adults.
    Arch Med Res 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
    Background: While inflammation is associated with obesity and insulin resistance, their inter-relationships in the development of type 2 diabetes or hypertension are not clear.

    Aim Of The Study: To evaluate inflammatory markers in prediction of type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

    Methods: The study population of this retrospective cohort study consisted of individuals who participated in a comprehensive health screening program with measurement of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein from 2002-2010 (N = 96,606) in nondiabetic and normotensive Koreans. Read More

    FAM3 gene family: a promising therapeutical target for NAFLD and type 2 diabetes.
    Metabolism 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Center for Noncoding RNA Medicine, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science of the Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are severe public health issues worldwide. The Family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family consists of four members designated as FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D, respectively. Recently, there had been increasing evidence that FAM3A, FAM3B and FAM3C are important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. Read More

    The influence of adiposity and acute exercise on circulating hepatokines in normal weight and overweight/obese men.
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Loughborough University , John Beckwith Building , Loughborough University , Leicestershire , Loughborough, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , LE11 3TU ;
    Hepatokines are liver-secreted proteins with potential to influence glucose regulation and other metabolic parameters. This study investigated differences in adiposity status on five novel hepatokines and characterised their response to acute moderate-intensity exercise in groups of normal weight and overweight/obese men. Twenty-two men were recruited into normal weight and overweight/obese groups (BMI: 18. Read More

    Impact of moderate alcohol discontinuation on insulin action and secretion in Latinos with and without hepatitis C.
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    Background/aims: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with hepatitis C infection (HCV), and Latinos are both at risk for IR and are disproportionately affected by HCV. Moderate alcohol consumption improves insulin sensitivity and may modify HCV-associated IR. We investigated the impact of moderate alcohol discontinuation on insulin sensitivity and secretion in Latinos using direct measurements. Read More

    Impaired Lipolysis, Diminished Fat Oxidation and Metabolic Inflexibility in Obese Girls with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Center for Pediatric Research in Obesity and Metabolism, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Context: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility.

    Objective: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. Read More

    Comparison of Goto-Kakizaki rats and high fat diet-induced obese rats: Are they reliable models to study Type 2 Diabetes mellitus?
    PLoS One 2017 8;12(12):e0189622. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an evident growing disease that affects different cultures throughout the world. T2DM occurs under the influence of three main factors: the genetic background, environmental and behavioral components. Obesity is strongly associated to the development of T2DM in the occident, while in the orient most of the diabetic patients are considered lean. Read More

    Dose rectification of an unbalance between DPP4 and GLP-1 ameliorates chronic stress-related vascular aging and atherosclerosis?
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Cardiology and Heart Center, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, 133000, Jilin Prov, China.
    Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g. Read More

    Replacement of Sedentary Time with Physical Activity: Impact on Lipoproteins.
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    HRB Centre for Diet and Health Research, School of Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Purpose: Limited data on the relationship between physical activity and lipoprotein particle profiles exist. Our objective was to investigate associations between objectively measured physical activity and lipoprotein particle size and number, and specifically whether substituting daily sedentary behaviour with light activity or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), is associated with beneficial alterations to the lipoprotein profile among adults and those at increased cardiometabolic risk (obese and insulin resistant subjects).

    Methods: Sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensity and duration were measured for 7-consecutive days using the GENEActiv accelerometer in a cross-sectional adult cohort (n=396, mean age 59. Read More

    Cardiovascular and Metabolic Complications - Diagnosis and Management in Obese Children.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Medicine, Metabolic Research Group, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.
    The world at present is facing a burden of rising prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. The developing countries are particularly facing the dual burden on under-nutrition and obesity. This is associated with appearance and clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities at an early age with development of chronic complications early and possible decrease in life span of these children and adolescents. Read More

    Peer Education Group Intervention to Reduce Psychological Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Mixed-Method Study in a Chinese Population.
    Diabetes Ther 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Introduction: Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) is common among type II diabetes (DM) patients. Although interventions to reduce PIR have been suggested, there is no standardized intervention to reduce PIR. This trial aimed to assess the preliminary effectiveness of a well-structured interventional patient group (for sample size calculation for larger trials), as well as the acceptability and feasibility of this intervention group. Read More

    Cadm2 regulates body weight and energy homeostasis in mice.
    Mol Metab 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rössle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Objective: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2), which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain. Read More

    Association of platelet count with sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: A nationwide population-based study.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Family Medicine, Yong-In Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yong-In, Republic of Korea; Department of Medicine, Graduate School of Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between platelet count and sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted using nationally representative data. A total of 2810 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were included in this study. Read More

    Adiponectin levels and insulin resistance among patients with chronic hepatitis C.
    Acta Trop 2017 Dec 5;178:258-263. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170115, Rua Barão de Jeremoabo 147, Salvador, BA, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), rapid disease progression, and decreased virological response to antiviral treatment. In addition, obesity is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis C evolution and is associated with IR. As adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity and IR, this study aimed to investigate serum levels of adiponectin among patients with HCV infection and IR. Read More

    Insulin-mediated synaptic plasticity in the CNS; Anatomical, functional and temporal contexts.
    Neuropharmacology 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208, USA; W.J.B. Dorn VA Medical Center, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
    For decades the brain was erroneously considered an insulin insensitive organ. Although gaps in our knowledge base remain, conceptual frameworks are starting to emerge to provide insight into the mechanisms through which insulin facilitates critical brain functions like metabolism, cognition, and motivated behaviors. These diverse physiological and behavioral activities highlight the region-specific activities of insulin in the CNS; that is, there is an anatomical context to the activities of insulin in the CNS. Read More

    Ovarian Morphology by Transabdominal Ultrasound Correlates With Reproductive and Metabolic Disturbance in Adolescents With PCOS.
    J Adolesc Health 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Endocrinology, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To determine whether ovarian morphology imaged using transabdominal ultrasonography reflects clinical and metabolic features in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Methods: A retrospective pilot study was conducted in 33 adolescents (12-18 years) with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and irregular cycles. Adolescents underwent the following assessments at a random time during the menstrual cycle: transabdominal ultrasonography, physical examination (height, weight, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), fasting hormonal tests (free, percent free, and total testosterone, androstenedione, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone), and metabolic tests (including an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting and 2-hour insulin and glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and whole-body insulin sensitivity index). Read More

    Risks, benefits size and clinical implications of combined oral contraceptive use in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2017 Dec 8;15(1):93. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT, 78055-728, Brazil.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition with high risk for dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, venous thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Because the combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has also been associated with impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance and increased risk of thromboembolism disease, it is rationale to think that the combination of oral contraceptive and PCOS could make it worse or increase the risks.

    Objective: To examine the current data regarding potential additional risks and benefits of contraceptive use, highlights the major gap in knowledge for designing future studies and, when possible, suggests an adequate COC formulation for a determined PCOS phenotype. Read More

    Effects of Sex Hormone Treatment on the Metabolic Syndrome in Transgender Individuals: Focus on Metabolic Cytokines.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Endocrinology and Center of Sexology and Gender, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Context: Hormone treatment (HT) in transgender persons affects many components of the metabolic syndrome (MS).

    Objective: To determine the role of direct hormonal effects, changes in metabolic cytokines and body composition on metabolic outcomes.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: 24 transwomen and 45 transmen from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) investigated at baseline and following 12 months of HT. Read More

    A randomized controlled trial of Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy vs. gastroduodenostomy with respect to the improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus after distal gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(12):e0188904. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of diabetes control induced by Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy(RY) vs Billroth-I reconstruction(BI) after distal gastrectomy in patients with early gastric cancer(EGC) and type 2 diabetes(T2DM). Forty EGC patients with T2DM, aged 20-80 years, who were expected to undergo curative distal gastrectomy were randomized 1:1 to RY(n = 20) or BI(n = 20). Diabetes medication status, biochemical and hormonal data including blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR, ghrelin, leptin, GLP-1, PYY, and GIP were evaluated for 12 months after surgery. Read More

    The nutraceutical benefits of subfractions of Abelmoschus esculentus in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(12):e0189065. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Division of Basic Medical Science, Hungkuang University, Shalu District, Taichung City, Taiwan.
    Abelmoschus esculentus (AE), a commonly consumed vegetable, is well-known for its anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, few scientific reports have identified its targets because mucilage increases the difficulty of manipulation. We recently reported extraction steps to obtain subfractions of AE, which were found to attenuate the adverse effects of high glucose and fatty acid in vitro. Read More

    The adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to nonylphenol on type 2 diabetes mellitus in high sucrose-high fat diet-treated rats.
    Islets 2017 Dec 7:e1404211. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    a School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University , Zunyi , Guizhou , China.
    Objectives: Although it has been shown that exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) has been implicated as a potential risk factor for metabolic disease, information on adverse effect of chronic low-dose exposure to nonylphenol (NP), on the development and progress of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is scarce. NP, as an EDC, is a ubiquitous degradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPE) that is primarily used in cleaning and industrial processes.

    Method: Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 8 groups (n = 10 per group): rats fed a normal-diet (ND) as the control (C-ND); rats fed a normal diet and were gavaged with NP at a dose level of 0. Read More

    Cardiovascular biochemical risk factors among women with spontaneous preterm delivery.
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Obstetrics Division of Woman and Baby, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Objective: To determine whether women delivering preterm have unfavorable cardiovascular profiles as compared with women who deliver at term.

    Methods: A prospective observational cohort study enrolled 165 women with spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) at 24+0 and 36+6 gestational weeks in three perinatal care centers in The Netherlands between August 2012 and August 2014. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein, glucose, and homocysteine were measured within 24 hours after delivery. Read More

    Apolipoprotein E4 mediates insulin resistance-associated cerebrovascular dysfunction and the post-prandial response.
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2017 Jan 1:271678X17746186. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Metabolic dysfunction, commonly a result of diets high in saturated fats and sugar, is associated with impaired cognitive function and an increased risk of age-related cognitive decline (ACD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared to the E3 isoform of apolipoprotein (apoE), the E4 isoform is a major genetic risk factor for ACD, AD, and for developing cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges, including dietary challenges such as a high-fat diet (HFD). Both insulin resistance (IR) and E4 are associated with metabolic and vascular impairments. Read More

    Complex Assessment of Metabolic Effectiveness of Insulin Pump Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Beyond HbA1c Reduction.
    Diabetes Technol Ther 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    7 Medtronic , Tolochenaz, Switzerland .
    Background: This prospective single-center study recruited insulin-resistant continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using insulin analog-based multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy and metformin.

    Methods: A total of 23 individuals with T2D (70% male), aged a mean ± standard deviation 57.2 ± 8. Read More

    A novel PTP1B inhibitor extracted from Ganoderma lucidum ameliorates insulin resistance by regulating IRS1-GLUT4 cascades in the insulin signaling pathway.
    Food Funct 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.
    Insulin resistance caused by the overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B (PTP1B) as well as the dephosphorylation of its target is one of the main causes of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A newly discovered proteoglycan, Fudan-Yueyang Ganoderma lucidum (FYGL) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, was first reported to be capable of competitively inhibiting PTP1B activity in vitro in our previous work. In the present study, we sought to reveal the mechanism of PTP1B inhibition by FYGL at the animal and cellular levels. Read More

    Aerobic training performed at ventilatory threshold improves liver enzymes and lipid profile related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents with obesity.
    Nutr Health 2017 Dec;23(4):281-288
    3 Department of Human Movement Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Despite the positive effects of high-intensity training on weight management and health-related outcomes, it is postulated that high-intensity training may also induce oxidative stress, increasing hepatic damage.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low versus high-intensity training on biomarkers related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents with obesity.

    Methods: For this study 107 adolescents (15 ± 1 years) with obesity (BMI = 34. Read More

    Assessing Truncal Obesity in Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: Clinical Measures versus Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry.
    Acta Paediatr 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.
    Aim: The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the accuracy of waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) by determining their association with reference-standard measures derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 2) assess the relationship of DXA, WHR, and WHtR to measures of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation in children.

    Methods: Subjects aged four to 21 were prospectively recruited. Truncal obesity by DXA was defined as the trunk fat:height ratio and trunk fat:non-trunk fat ratio. Read More

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease.
    Dement Neuropsychol 2017 Apr-Jun;11(2):105-113
    Physiotherapist, Specialist in Neurofunctional Physical Therapy, Master of Neurosciences from the (UFSC), SC, Brazil, and PhD in Sciences (Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry) from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ, Brazil.
    Both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are two common forms of disease worldwide and many studies indicate that people with diabetes, especially DM, are at higher risk of developing AD. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) forming senile plaques. DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. Read More

    Liraglutide attenuates atherosclerosis via inhibiting ER-induced macrophage derived microvesicles production in T2DM rats.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 1;9:94. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development (Ministry of Health), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, No. 22, Qixiangtai Road, Tianjin, 300070 People's Republic of China.
    Background: We investigated the effects of liraglutide on the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats.

    Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control group, diabetes group and liraglutide treated group. The T2DM rats model with atherosclerosis were induced by high fat diet followed small dosage streptozotocin injection. Read More

    Effect of Combined Exercise Versus Aerobic-Only Training on Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in a Rodent Model of Type1 Diabetes.
    Can J Diabetes 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. Read More

    The Effects of Physical Exercise on Fatty Liver Disease.
    Gene Expr 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    The increasing prevalence of obesity has made non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the most common chronic liver disease. As a consequence, NAFLD and especially its inflammatory form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the fastest increasing etiology of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Physical inactivity is related to the severity of fatty liver disease irrespective of body weight, supporting the hypothesis that increasing physical activity through exercise can improve fatty liver disease. Read More

    COMP-angiopoietin-1 mitigates changes in lipid droplet size, macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and renal inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
    Oncotarget 2017 Nov 23;8(55):94805-94818. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.
    Adipose tissue is considered to be an endocrine organ, and adipocyte size correlates with insulin resistance and metabolic parameters in obesity. There is little data on the effects of angiopoietin-1 in adipose tissue and kidney in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of COMP-angiopoietin-1 (COMP-Ang1), a potent variant of angiopoietin-1, on vascular endothelial cells in epididymal adipose tissue and its regulatory effect on other metabolic parameters, such as lipid droplet diameter, macrophage infiltration, and renal inflammation in STZ-treated mice. Read More

    Growth differentiation factor 15 mediates epithelial mesenchymal transition and invasion of breast cancers through IGF-1R-FoxM1 signaling.
    Oncotarget 2017 Nov 10;8(55):94393-94406. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Molecular & Systems Pharmacology PhD Program, Graduate Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Expression of the inflammatory cytokine growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is significantly elevated in many tumor types in association with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), drug resistance, and progressive disease. However, few studies have examined GDF15 expression, signaling, or function in breast cancer. In the current study, we demonstrate that GDF15 is associated with high tumor grade, ER-negativity, and HER2 overexpression in patients with breast cancer. Read More

    Aldosterone is Not Associated with Metabolic and Microvascular Insulin Sensitivity in Abdominally Obese Men.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine, School for Cardiovascular Diseases CARIM, Maastricht University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Context: Impaired insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment (IMMR) in obese individuals may add to the development of metabolic insulin resistance and hypertension. Increased aldosterone levels have been linked to these obesity-related complications in severely to morbidly obese individuals, and have been found to interfere with microvascular function in experimental studies.

    Objectives: To investigate whether aldosterone levels are related to IMMR, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in lean and moderately abdominally obese men, and to study the effect of weight loss on these variables. Read More

    Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study.
    Nutrients 2017 Dec 6;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. Read More

    Fine-tuning of microRNAs in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Institute of Molecular Pathology Biomarkers & Department of Physiology (Cell Physiology Research Group), University of Extremadura, 10003-Caceres. Spain.
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease widely spread across industrialized countries. Sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy alimentary habits lead to obesity, boosting both glucose and fatty acid in the bloodstream and eventually, insulin resistance, pancreas inflammation and faulty insulin production or secretion, all of them very well-defined hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus. miRNAs, are small sequences of non-coding RNA that may regulate several processes within the cells, fine-tuning protein expression, with an unexpected and subtle precision and in time-frames ranging from minutes to days. Read More

    New insights into adipokines as potential biomarkers for type-2 diabetes mellitus.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Physiology (Cell Physiology Research Group), University of Extremadura, 100 Caceres. Spain.
    A large number of studies have been focused on investigating serum biomarkers associated with risk or diagnosis of type-2 diabetes mellitus. In the last decade, promising studies have shown that circulating levels of adipokines could be used as a relevant biomarker for diabetes mellitus progression as well as therapeutic future targets. Here we discuss the possible use of recent described adipokines, including apelin, omentin-1, resistin, FGF-21, neuregulin-4 and visfatin, as early biomarkers for diabetes. Read More

    Type 2 diabetes specifically attenuates purinergic skin vasodilatation without affecting muscarinic and nicotinic skin vasodilatation and sweating.
    Exp Physiol 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    The present study evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) attenuates muscarinic and/or nicotinic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating as well as purinergic cutaneous vasodilatation. Cutaneous vascular conductance and sweat rate were evaluated in 12 healthy nondiabetic older adults (Control, 60 ± 8 years) and 13 older adults with T2D (62 ± 10 years) at three intradermal forearm skin sites perfused with the following: 1) methacholine (muscarinic receptor agonist, 5 doses: 0.0125, 0. Read More

    Phytoceuticals in Fenugreek Ameliorate VLDL Overproduction and Insulin Resistance via the Insig Signaling Pathway.
    Mol Nutr Food Res 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    The Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, USA.
    Scope: This study aimed to characterize the effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed and its phytoceutical trigonelline in anti-metabolic inflammation and ameliorating overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in insulin resistance.

    Methods And Results: Two groups of genetic hyperlipidemic mice generated by depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH) were fed either a chow containing 2% fenugreek seed or vehicle for 7 weeks. Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that fenugreek seed containing diet inhibited hepatic SREBP-1c activation and the subsequent de novo lipogenesis by enhancing expression of insulin-inducible gene-1 (Insig-1) and gene-2 (Insig-2). Read More

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