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    Micro-environment and Intracellular Metabolism Modulation of Adipose Tissue Macrophage Polarization in Relation to Chronic Inflammatory Diseases.
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Research Lab of Translational Medicine, Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, China.
    Background: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Scope Of Review: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Conclusions: Obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, including those of glucose, fatty acid, cholesterol and other nutrient substrates such as vitamin D and iron in AT, promote the pro-inflammatory polarization of ATMs and AT inflammation via regulating the interaction between ATMs and adipocytes and intracellular metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and reverse cholesterol transportation (RCT). Read More

    Prep1 deficiency improves metabolic response in white adipose tissue.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Translational Medicine, Federico II University of Naples and URT "Genomic of Diabetes" of Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology, National Council of Research (CNR), Naples, Italy. Electronic address:
    Prep1 is a gene encoding for a homeodomain transcription factor which induces hepatic and muscular insulin resistance. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1) mice, expressing low levels of protein, featured a 23% and a 25% reduction of total body lipid content and epididymal fat, respectively. The percentage of the small adipocytes (25-75 μm) was 30% higher in Prep1animals than in the WT, with a reciprocal difference in the large adipose cells (100-150 and >150 μm). Read More

    Elbasvir/Grazoprevir and Sofosbuvir for HCV Genotype 3 Infection With Compensated Cirrhosis: A Randomized Trial.
    Hepatology 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey.
    Many direct-acting antiviral regimens have reduced activity in people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)3 infection and cirrhosis. The C-ISLE study assessed the efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) plus sofosbuvir (SOF) with and without ribavirin (RBV) in compensated cirrhotic participants with GT3 infection. This was a phase 2, randomized, open-label study. Read More

    Bovine α-Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (α-LAH) Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice.
    Nutrients 2018 Feb 23;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.
    Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), scavenge 2,2'-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS⁺) radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH) on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. Read More

    The effects of exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy on biomarkers of adipose tissue transdifferentiation in obese women.
    Lasers Med Sci 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Physiotherapy, Therapeutic Resources Laboratory, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo, 13565-905, Brazil.
    Investigations suggest the benefits of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to improve noninvasive body contouring treatments, inflammation, insulin resistance and to reduce body fat. However, the mechanism for such potential effects in association with exercise training (ET) and possible implications in browning adiposity processes remains unclear. Forty-nine obese women were involved, aged between 20 and 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m. Read More

    The Role of Statins in Disease Modification and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 8;5:24. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder associated with excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A complex interplay between traditional risk factors (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, obesity, smoking) and chronic inflammation is implicated in the development of premature atherosclerosis and consequently in the higher incidence of cardiovascular events observed in RA patients. Despite the acknowledgment of elevated cardiovascular risk among RA individuals, its management remains suboptimal. Read More

    Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle.
    Front Physiol 2018 30;9:32. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM) and donkey milk (DM) are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. Read More

    Associations of serum leptin, ghrelin and peptide YY levels with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescent boys with different BMI values.
    Biol Sport 2017 Dec 7;34(4):345-352. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in associations of serum acylated and des-acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin levels with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CReF) in adolescent boys (mean age of 14.0 years) with overweight (OWB; n=55) and with normal weight (NWB; n=154).

    Methods: Total PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry (counts/min) and CReF by peak oxygen consumption (VOpeak/kg). Read More

    Androgen interacts with exercise through the mTOR pathway to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
    Biol Sport 2017 Dec 20;34(4):313-321. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Sports and Health Promotion, Scientific Research Center, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou 510000, China.
    This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX). The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. Read More

    Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions.
    Exp Mol Med 2018 Feb 23;50(2):e450. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea.
    The gut microbiota has an important role in the gut barrier, inflammation and metabolic functions. Studies have identified a close association between the intestinal barrier and metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, Akkermansia muciniphila has been reported as a beneficial bacterium that reduces gut barrier disruption and insulin resistance. Read More

    Plasma ceramide levels are altered in low and normal birth weight men in response to short-term high-fat overfeeding.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 22;8(1):3452. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. We hypothesised that LBW individuals exhibit an increased fatty acid flux into lipogenesis in non-adipose tissue with a resulting accumulation of lipotoxic lipids, including ceramides, in the blood. Therefore, we measured fasting plasma levels of 27 ceramides in 18 young, healthy, LBW men and 25 NBW controls after an isocaloric control diet and a 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet by HPLC-HRMS. Read More

    Adrenal activity and metabolic risk during randomized escitalopram or placebo treatment in PCOS.
    Endocr Connect 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    M Andersen, Odense Universitetshospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Background/aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status, and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo.

    Methods: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-weeks SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n=21) or placebo (n=21). Read More

    Childhood cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and adult measures of glucose homeostasis.
    J Sci Med Sport 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Australia; Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Finland. Electronic address:
    Objectives: To assess whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness phenotypes (strength, power, endurance) predict adult glucose homeostasis measures.

    Design: Prospective longitudinal study.

    Methods: Study examining participants who had physical fitness measured in childhood (aged 7-15 years) and who attended follow-up clinics approximately 20 years later and provided a fasting blood sample which was tested for glucose and insulin. Read More

    Exercise reduces body fat and improves insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function in overweight and obese male Taiwanese adolescents.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Feb 22;18(1):80. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Improvements in insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function have been shown following exercise in adults with obesity; however, few adolescent-based studies have been conducted. This study examined the impact of exercise training on body fat and insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight and obese adolescents.

    Methods: The effects of a 12-week exercise program on the parameters of adiposity and glucose homeostasis were investigated in 47 overweight and obese male adolescents. Read More

    High-intensity body weight training is comparable to combined training in changes in muscle mass, physical performance, inflammatory markers and metabolic health in postmenopausal women at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.
    Exp Gerontol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Exercise Biology Research Group (BioEx), Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Department of Sport Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Objective: This study compared the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval body weight training (HIBWT) with combined training (COMT; aerobic and resistance exercises on body composition, a 6-minute walk test (6MWT; physical performance), insulin resistance (IR) and inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women (PW) at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2).

    Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical study, 16 PW at high risk of TDM2 were randomly allocated into two groups: HIBWT (n = 8) and COMT (n = 8). The HIBWT group performed a training protocol (length time ~28 min) consisting of ten sets of 60 s of high intensity exercise interspersed by a recovery period of 60 s of low intensity exercise. Read More

    High fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome: pathophysiological mechanism and treatment by traditional Chinese medicine.
    Pharmacol Res 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, PR China. Electronic address:
    Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data. Read More

    Strong enhancement by IGF1-R antagonists of hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration inhibition by Sorafenib and/or vitamin K1.
    Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Program for Targeted Experimental Therapeutics, Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.
    Purpose: Emerging evidence indicates that combining Sorafenib with vitamin K1 (VK1) may result in a synergistic inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell migration and proliferation. Despite this synergy, its benefits may be limited due to drug resistance resulting from cross-talk with the tumor microenvironment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling acts as an important modulator of HCC cell growth, motility and drug resistance. Read More

    Even effect of milk protein and carbohydrate intake but no further effect of heavy resistance exercise on myofibrillar protein synthesis in older men.
    Eur J Nutr 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital and Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, building 8, 1st floor, 2400, Copenhagen NV, Denmark.
    Purpose: The responsiveness of older individuals' skeletal muscle to anabolic strategies may be impaired. However, direct comparisons within the same experimental setting are sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the resting and post-resistance exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in response to two types of milk protein and carbohydrate using a unilateral exercise leg model. Read More

    Genetic Variants Associated With Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Hispanic Boys With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Science and Pediatrics, LA BioMed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles.
    Background And Objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionately affects Hispanic boys. Further, obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for NAFLD. No gene localization studies had been performed on children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Read More

    Glimepiride treatment in a patient with type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a novel heterozygous missense mutation in the insulin receptor gene.
    J Diabetes Investig 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China.
    Aims: Glimepiride is a sulfonylurea known to have unique insulin mimetic and sensitizing effect. We aimed to study the efficacy of glimepiride in a patient with type A insulin resistance syndrome.

    Methods: A 15-year-old female with type A insulin resistance syndrome was treated with glimpiride for 6 months. Read More

    Vitamin D Supplementation in Adults with Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Effect on Metabolic Syndrome - A Randomized Controlled Study.
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2018 Feb 22:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Medicine, St Johns National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, India.
    Background: Inverse relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels is controversial. Hypovitaminosis-D has long been suspected as a risk factor for glucose intolerance.

    Aim: A randomized double blind placebo controlled study to evaluate effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in subjects with hypovitaminosis-D and MetS. Read More

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progresses into Severe NASH when Physiological Mechanisms of Tissue Homeostasis Collapse.
    Ann Hepatol 2018 Mar;17(2):182-186
    University of Buenos Aires Institute of Medical Research A Lanari, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Phenotypic modulation of NAFLD-severity by molecules derived from white (adipokines) and brown (batokines) adipose tissue may be important in inducing or protecting against the progression of the disease. Adipose tissue-derived factors can promote the progression of NAFLD towards severe histological stages (NASH-fibrosis and NASHcirrhosis). This effect can be modulated by the release of adipokines or batokines that directly trigger an inflammatory response in the liver tissue or indirectly modulate related phenotypes, such as insulin resistance. Read More

    Increased endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in patients with Klinefelter Syndrome.
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Gulhane Training and Research Hospital - Endocrinology and Metabolism Ankara. Turkey.
    Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) have increased cardiometabolic risk however the pathogenesis is not clear. We investigated the presence of endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation in an unconfounded population of KS. A total of 32 patients with KS (mean age 21. Read More

    Hormone treatments in congestive heart failure.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Jan 1:300060518761262. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    The common ultimate pathological feature for all cardiovascular diseases, congestive heart failure (CHF), is now considered as one of the main public health burdens that is associated with grave implications. Neurohormonal systems play a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis, pathophysiology, and cardiovascular diseases. Hormone treatments such as the newly invented dual-acting drug valsartan/sacubitril are promising candidates for CHF, in addition to the conventional medications encompassing beta receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Read More

    The effect of dietary soy intake on weight loss, glycaemic control, lipid profiles and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised clinical trial.
    J Hum Nutr Diet 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary soy intake on weight loss and metabolic status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Methods: A randomised clinical trial was conducted among 60 women with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either a test diet (n = 30) or a control diet (n = 30) for 8 weeks. Read More

    Neck circumference is independently associated with relative systemic hypertension in young adults with sickle cell anaemia.
    Clin Hypertens 2018 16;24. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    1HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team and Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State 240003 Nigeria.
    Background: A seemingly interesting observation in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is that they usually have lower systemic blood pressures (BP) and insulin resistance than persons in the general population in spite of chronic inflammation and vasculopathy. However, relative systemic hypertension (rHTN) has been linked to pulmonary hypertension, increased blood viscosity and renal insufficiency, which could indicate a risk of developing cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) in SCA.We therefore hypothesized that neck circumference (NC) and CMD marker; triglyceride glucose (TyG) index would independently predict rHTN in young adults with SCA in steady state. Read More

    A Brief Review of Caprylidene (Axona) and Coconut Oil as Alternative Fuels in the Fight Against Alzheimer's Disease.
    Consult Pharm 2017 Dec;32(12):748-751
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy - Dallas/Fort Worth, Dallas, Texas, USA.
    Type 3 diabetes mellitus has been coined to describe an alternative pathologic pathway of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling seen on positron-emission tomography scans in the brain of those affected by AD support this disease hypothesis. Two products-the medical food caprylidene (Axona) and coconut oil-seek to target the underlying pathology of type 3 diabetes mellitus by providing an alternative fuel source in the brain. Read More

    Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.
    Nutr J 2018 Feb 21;17(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them. Read More

    Altered DNA methylation in liver and adipose tissues derived from individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
    BMC Med Genet 2018 Feb 21;19(1):28. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Inmunogenomics and Metabolic Disease Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, SS México City, Mexico.
    Background: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unknown. In this study we identified alterations of DNA methylation influencing T2D pathogenesis, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, liver, and blood from individuals with obesity.

    Methods: The study included individuals with obesity, with and without T2D. Read More

    Telmisartan reverses antiretroviral-induced adipocyte toxicity and insulin resistance in vitro.
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018 Feb 1:1479164118757924. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    1 Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose-response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects.

    Methods: Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Read More

    Genetic Ablation of miR-33 Increases Food Intake, Enhances Adipose Tissue Expansion, and Promotes Obesity and Insulin Resistance.
    Cell Rep 2018 Feb;22(8):2133-2145
    Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism Program, Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:
    While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Read More

    Unveiling network-based functional features through integration of gene expression into protein networks.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Feb 18. Epub 2018 Feb 18.
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany. Electronic address:
    Decoding health and disease phenotypes is one of the fundamental objectives in biomedicine. Whereas high-throughput omics approaches are available, it is evident that any single omics approach might not be adequate to capture the complexity of phenotypes. Therefore, integrated multi-omics approaches have been used to unravel genotype-phenotype relationships such as global regulatory mechanisms and complex metabolic networks in different eukaryotic organisms. Read More

    Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach.
    PLoS One 2018 21;13(2):e0193138. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, United States of America.
    Background: Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. Read More

    Interplay between gut microbiota and p66Shc affects obesity-associated insulin resistance.
    FASEB J 2018 Feb 21:fj201701409R. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.
    The 66 kDa isoform of the mammalian Shc gene promotes adipogenesis, and p66Shcmice accumulate less body weight than wild-type (WT) mice. As the metabolic consequences of the leaner phenotype of p66Shcmice is debated, we hypothesized that gut microbiota may be involved. We confirmed that p66Shcmice gained less weight than WT mice when on a high-fat diet (HFD), but they were not protected from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Read More

    Metformin reduces the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: An analysis based on the Korean National Diabetes Program Cohort.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Feb;97(8):e0036
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon.
    The epidemiological literature suggests that insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and increased levels of insulin-like growth factors place patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at greater risk of cancer. The association between cancer incidence and the use of antidiabetic medications in patients with T2DM has been recently examined. There have been conflicting reports regarding an association between metformin and cancer risk. Read More

    Functional characterisation of ADP ribosylation factor-like protein 15 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Genetics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi, India.
    Objectives: ARL15 is a novel susceptibility gene identified in a recent GWAS in a north Indian rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. However, the role of ARL15 or ARF family genes in RA aetiology remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to i) establish the expression of ARL15 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) and ii) its functional characterisation by assessing its effects on major inflammatory cytokines and interacting partners using a knockdown approach. Read More

    p32 regulates ER stress and lipid homeostasis by down-regulating GCS1 expression.
    FASEB J 2018 Feb 20:fj201701004RR. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Radiation Oncology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Sustained endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the development of many metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. p32 is a multicompartmental protein involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and glucose oxidation. p32 ablation is associated with resistance to age-associated and diet-induced obesity through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. Read More

    Evaluation of adipokines in children with cystic fibrosis.
    Endokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Chair and Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Silesia, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Poland, ul.3 Maja, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland.
    Introduction: Patients with CF present numerous pathological conditions such as malnutrition, depletion of fat-free mass, metabolic disturbances (abnormal glucose metabolism, increased insulin resistance, chronic energy deficit, local and chronic inflammation), which could affect or be associated with altered adipokines concentrationMaterial and Methods: We aimed in this study to investigate the levels of selected adipokines such as resistin, apelin, adiponectin to demonstrate their application as possible markers of inflammation.

    Results: Serum level of resistin was higher (p<0.001) and adiponectin - lower (p=0. Read More

    Serum concentrations of adipokines in men with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia.
    Endokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, School of Medicine with the Division of Densitry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, plac Traugutta 2, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland.
    Introduction: Obesity and prostate cancer are related, but the causal relationship remains unknown. The aim of the study was to compare concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and chemerin in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and to examine associations of the adipokines with the grade of prostate cancer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin resistance and anthropometric and metabolic variables.

    Material And Methods: The study group consisted of 140 men divided into two groups: I- prostate cancer (n=74) and II- with benign hyperplasia (n=66). Read More

    The impact of serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin levels based on BMI in PCOS.
    Endokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Konya Education and Research Hospital, Meram Yeni Yol, 042090 Konya, Turkey.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index (BMI) on serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels.

    Materials And Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 120 women [group1; non-PCOS = 60 (BMI <25 = 30, BMI ≥25 = 30) and group 2; PCOS = 60 (BMI <25 = 30, BMI ≥25 = 30)]. Blood samples were collected between the third and fifth days of the women's menstrual cycles after a night of fasting. Read More

    Insulin resistance in an animal model of polycystic ovary disease is aggravated by vitamin D deficiency: Vascular consequences.
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018 Feb 1:1479164118758580. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hyperandrogenic state in females is accompanied with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and vascular pathologies. A total of 67%-85% of hyperandrogenic women suffer also from vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to check a potential interplay between hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency in producing insulin resistance and effects on coronary resistance arteries. Read More

    Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on liver mitochondrial dynamics in a rat model of obesity.
    Physiol Rep 2018 Feb;6(4)
    Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
    Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Read More

    Time-dependent effect of phytocannabinoid treatments in fat cells.
    Phytother Res 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
    The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. The phytocannabinoids had a more pronounced effect in preadipocytes undifferentiated model rather than the differentiated model. Read More

    Gene-diet-related factors of hyperglycaemia in postmenopausal women.
    J Appl Genet 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznań, Poland.
    As ageing and increased body fat are the signs of insulin resistance, we have studied whether the presence of Pro12Ala and C1431T of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 gene and Trp64Arg of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene may predispose to the hyperglycaemia development in postmenopausal women, who have never undergone hypoglycaemic treatment. The distributions of selected allele and genotype frequencies were determined by the PCR-RFLP method in normo- and hyperglycaemic, who have never been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus were measured. The amount of body fat and lean body mass (LBM) were assessed by the bioimpedance method and nutritional habits by 7-day dietary recall. Read More

    Revisiting the metabolic syndrome: the emerging role of aquaglyceroporins.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field. Read More

    Ganglioside GM1 contributes to extracellular/intracellular regulation of insulin resistance, impairment of insulin signaling and down-stream eNOS activation, in human aortic endothelial cells after short- or long-term exposure to TNFα.
    Oncotarget 2018 Jan 15;9(5):5562-5577. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Research Team for Geriatric Medicine, Vascular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Sakaecho 35-2, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan.
    Vascular insulin resistance induced by inflammatory cytokines leads to the initiation and development of vascular diseases. In humans, circulating TNFα levels are increased during aging, suggesting a correlation between vascular insulin resistance and plasma TNFα levels. Currently, the precise molecular mechanisms of vascular insulin resistance mediated by TNFα are not well characterized. Read More

    Starvation, Stress Resistance, and Cancer.
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Longevity Institute, School of Gerontology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, 3715 McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191, USA; IFOM FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy; Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at USC, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    Cancer cells are characterized by dysregulation in signal transduction and metabolic pathways leading to increased glucose uptake, altered mitochondrial function, and the evasion of antigrowth signals. Fasting and fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) provide a particularly promising intervention to promote differential effects in normal and malignant cells. These effects are caused in part by the reduction in IGF-1, insulin, and glucose and the increase in IGFBP1 and ketone bodies, which generate conditions that force cancer cells to rely more on metabolites and factors that are limited in the blood, thus resulting in cell death. Read More

    Chitin Oligosaccharide Modulates Gut Microbiota and Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice.
    Mar Drugs 2018 Feb 19;16(2). Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Production & Formulation Engineering, PLA, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.
    Gut microbiota has been proved to be an indispensable link between nutrient excess and metabolic syndrome, and chitin oligosaccharide (NACOS) has displayed therapeutic effects on multiple diseases such as cancer and gastritis. In this study, we aim to confirm whether NACOS can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome by rebuilding the structure of the gut microbiota community. Male C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD were treated with NACOS (1 mg/mL) in drinking water for five months. Read More

    The Biased G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Agonism Bridges the Gap between the Insulin Receptor and the Metabolic Syndrome.
    Int J Mol Sci 2018 Feb 17;19(2). Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Biomedical and Molecular Science, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.
    Insulin signaling, as mediated through the insulin receptor (IR), plays a critical role in metabolism. Aberrations in this signaling cascade lead to several pathologies, the majority of which are classified under the umbrella term "metabolic syndrome". Although many of these pathologies are associated with insulin resistance, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. Read More

    The Diagnostic Value of Anti-Mullerian Hormone in Early Post Menarche Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Study Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5-10% of reproductive age females. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the antimullerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. Read More

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