116,550 results match your criteria Insulin Resistance


Alteration of gut microbiota by a westernized lifestyle and its correlation with insulin resistance in non-diabetic Japanese men.

J Diabetes Investig 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima city, 734-8551, Japan.

Aims: The severity of insulin resistance is higher in Japanese-American people with American lifestyles than in native Japanese people with Japanese lifestyles. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in the control of host metabolic homeostasis and organ physiology has been recognized. In addition, gut microbiota alterations have been suggested to contribute to pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13048DOI Listing

Aberrant insulin receptor expression is associated with insulin resistance and skeletal muscle atrophy in myotonic dystrophies.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(3):e0214254. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Laboratory of Muscle Histopathology and Molecular Biology, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy.

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant multisystemic disorders linked to two different genetic loci and characterized by several features including myotonia, muscle atrophy and insulin resistance. The aberrant alternative splicing of insulin receptor (IR) gene and post-receptor signalling abnormalities have been associated with insulin resistance, however the precise molecular defects that cause metabolic dysfunctions are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate in DM skeletal muscle biopsies if beyond INSR missplicing, altered IR protein expression could play a role in insulin resistance and to verify if the lack of insulin pathway activation could contribute to skeletal muscle wasting. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214254PLOS

Association of paraoxonase-1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms with PCOS risk and potential risk factors for atherosclerosis.

Biomark Med 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey.

Aim: To examine the PON1-L55M and -Q192R polymorphisms for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) risk in relation with atherosclerosis risk markers.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 203 women (PCOS [n = 151], control [n = 52]). Genomic DNA was extracted and RFLP method was performed following the amplifications of the target regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2018-0271DOI Listing

Relationship among obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia in the polycystic ovary syndrome.

Endocrine 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using a gold standard test.

Methods: A retrospective database analysis of 75 women with PCOS and 118 normal controls who underwent a modification of the insulin suppression test. The relationships between body mass index (BMI) and steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) levels were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-01899-9DOI Listing

Selenium supplementation and insulin resistance in a randomized, clinical trial.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2019 7;7(1):e000613. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, New York City, New York, USA.

Objective: While controversial, observational and randomized clinical trial data implicate the micronutrient selenium (Se) in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Se supplementation adversely affects pancreatic β-cell function and insulin sensitivity.

Research Design And Methods: In a subset of 400 individuals participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Se at 200 µg/day for colorectal adenomatous polyps, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured before randomization and within 6 months of completing intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398811PMC
February 2019

Higher circulating adiponectin and lower orosomucoid were associated with postload glucose ≤70 mg/dL, a possible inverse marker for dysglycemia, in young Japanese women.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2019 7;7(1):e000596. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Research Institute for Nutrition Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.

Objective: To examine whether serum adiponectin and orosomucoid were associated with postload glucose ≤70 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), termed as postload low glycemia, a possible inverse marker for dysglycemia.

Research Design And Methods: 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 normal-weight Japanese women (18-24 years). Insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function inferred from serum insulin kinetics during OGTT, fat mass and distribution by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum adiponectin and inflammatory markers were compared cross-sectionally between 39 women with and 129 women without postload low glycemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398809PMC
February 2019

Plant-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids and markers of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled feeding trials.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2019 8;7(1):e000585. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Future Health and Wellness, Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of plant-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Scopus and PubMed databases were searched until January 2018. Eligible studies were randomized controlled feeding trials that investigated the effects of a diet high in plant-derived PUFA as compared with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates and measured markers of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance as outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398820PMC
February 2019

MiR-21, miR-34a, miR-125b, miR-181d and miR-648 levels inversely correlate with MGMT and TP53 expression in primary glioblastoma patients.

Arch Med Sci 2019 Mar 31;15(2):504-512. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Genetics, Chair of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland.

Introduction: and alterations play a crucial role in glioblastoma (GB) pathogenesis. and function is affected by several pathologic mechanisms, such as point mutations or promoter methylation, which are well characterized. Expression of both genes can be regulated by other mechanisms as well, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.69374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425218PMC

Long noncoding RNA Mirt2 upregulates USP10 expression to suppress hepatic steatosis by sponging miR-34a-5p.

Gene 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of General Surgery, Shenzhen Luohu People's Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is always characterized by hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs regulate pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, the role of Mirt2 (long noncoding RNA myocardial infraction associated transcript 2) in NAFLD remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.02.096DOI Listing

Could a nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma be a risk factor for increased carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic syndrome.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: This study was designed to detect the potential association of a nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI) with insulin resistance and associated metabolic disturbances, with a subsequent increase in cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: Eighty-three NFAI patients and 56 volunteers (controls) without any adrenal abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) were included. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, lipid profiles, uric acid, homocysteine, fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and adiponectin levels were measured in both groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endinu.2019.01.007DOI Listing

Efficacy and safety of pemafibrate administration in patients with dyslipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 Mar 21;18(1):38. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Ise Red Cross Hospital, 1-471-2, Funae, 1-Chome, Ise-shi, Mie, 516-8512, Japan.

Background: Using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), this study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, in patients with dyslipidemia.

Methods: A search was performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0845-xDOI Listing

Deficiency of Mitophagy Receptor FUNDC1 Impairs Mitochondrial Quality and Aggravates Dietary-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

Autophagy 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

a State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing , China.

There is overwhelming evidence for an association between impaired mitochondrial function and metabolic syndrome. Mitophagy, a process that selectively removes damaged mitochondria via a specialized form of autophagy, is essential for mitochondrial quality control (mitochondrial QC) and metabolic homeostasis. We thus addressed the potential role of defective mitophagy in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1596482DOI Listing

The Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity: A Meta-Analysis of Nine Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nutrients 2019 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Probiotic yogurt is suggested as a nutritional approach in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of probiotic yogurt on glycemic outcomes in T2D or obesity. The databases used to search for RCTs included Medline and Scopus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030671DOI Listing

Low intensity exercise in the prevention of cardiac insulin resistance-related inflammation and disturbances in NOS and MMP-9 regulation in fructose-fed ovariectomised rats.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences , PO Box 522 , Belgrade, Serbia , 11001 ;

Exercise is important nonpharmacological treatment for improvement of insulin sensitivity in menopause. However, its effect on menopausal cardiac insulin resistance is needing further research. We investigated protective effects of low intensity exercise on cardiac insulin signaling, inflammation, regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in ovariectomised (OVX) Wistar rats, submitted to 10% fructose solution during 9 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0785DOI Listing

Portal milieu and the interplay of multiple anti-diabetic effects after gastric bypass surgery.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, United States.

Aims: Diabetes is a worldwide health problem. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) leads to rapid resolution of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D). Decreased hepatic insulin resistance is key but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00389.2018DOI Listing

Bariatric and metabolic endoscopy in the handling of fatty liver disease. A new emerging approach?

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2019 Mar 21;111. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Unidad de Endoscopia Digestiva y Bariátrica, Hospital Universitario Dexeus, España.

Background: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of chronic hepatopathy in our environment. However, the benefits of the bariatric endoscopy in this disease are barely documented.

Objectives: to evaluate changes in NAFLD, via non-invasive methods in obese patients who underwent bariatric restrictive endoscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17235/reed.2019.5949/2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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Hepatic miR‑215 target Rictor and modulation of hepatic insulin signalling in rats.

Mol Med Rep 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Jiangsu Health Vacation College, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210036, P.R. China.

Increasing evidence has suggested that hepatic lipid accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance; however, the underlying mechanism is yet to be determined. It was demonstrated that the levels of microRNA‑215 (miR‑215) expression in the liver of rats fed a high‑fat diet were significantly increased compared with rats on a control diet. Additionally, it was revealed via luciferase assays and western blotting that miR‑215 targets rapamycin‑insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (Rictor), an important protein in the hepatic insulin signalling pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10031DOI Listing

Renal dysfunction in a mouse model of GDM is prevented by metformin through MAPKs.

Mol Med Rep 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P.R. China.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) incidence is increasing worldwide. In the present study, the effects of metformin on high fat diet (HFD)‑induced renal dysfunction were investigated in GDM mice. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying metformin function were examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10060DOI Listing

Serum activities of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and adenosine deaminase in polycystic ovary syndrome: association with obesity.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2019 Mar 21:1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

b Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism , Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University , Ankara , Turkey.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) plays a role in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Increased adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been suggested to induce insulin resistance and inflammation. We measured serum DPP-4 and ADA activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2019.1581165DOI Listing
March 2019
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Childhood health motivation and adult cardiometabolic health in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) study.

Health Psychol 2019 Apr;38(4):297-305

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania.

Objective: This research examined if childhood health motivation was associated with adult health behaviors and objectively measured health outcomes.

Method: Data were from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. Children aged 9 to 15 years in 1985 completed a questionnaire with health motivation items. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/hea0000718
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000718DOI Listing
April 2019
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CILP-2 is a novel secreted protein and associated with insulin resistance.

J Mol Cell Biol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, Chongqing, China.

Genetic association studies have implicated that cartilage intermediate layer protein 2 (CILP-2) confers the risk susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, it is still unknown whether CILP-2 is involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance (IR). In the current study, we initially observed that CILP-2 as a secreted protein was detected in both conditioned medium and lysates of cells transfected with an overexpressed vector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjz016DOI Listing

The clinical effects of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) seeds on metabolic profiles in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver diseases associated with unfavorable metabolic profiles and oxidative stress parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of purslane seeds consumption with a low-calorie diet on insulin resistance, lipid profile, and oxidative stress indices in patients with NAFLD. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 54 individuals with NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6342DOI Listing

A Swine Model of Severe Propranolol Toxicity Permitting Direct Measurement of Brain Tissue Oxygenation.

J Med Toxicol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Regions Hospital, 640 Jackson St., St. Paul, MN, 55101, USA.

Introduction: High-dose insulin (HDI) therapy has been used successfully for beta-blocker toxicity, but needs further study when hypotension persists despite HDI. The objective was to develop a model of propranolol toxicity with persistent hypotension despite HDI and to develop means to measure cerebral oxygen tension (PbrO).

Methods: Eight anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were instrumented with a tracheostomy, Swan-Ganz catheter, arterial catheter, and intra-cerebral pressure and oxygen monitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-019-00707-0DOI Listing

Low Protein Diets for Pregnant Women and Its Association with Insulin Secretion and Resistance.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Feb 25;7(4):686-689. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, str. Armeyska 11, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates 3.5% of pregnancies in England and Wales and continues to show an increase in incidence each year. GDM can lead to diabetes postpartum, it is associated with an increased perinatal risk, and an increase in neonatal mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420940PMC
February 2019

Effects of Aerobic Exercises on Serum Levels of Myonectin and Insulin Resistance in Obese and Overweight Women.

J Med Life 2018 Oct-Dec;11(4):381-386

Neuroscience Research Centre, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes and insulin resistance. Myonectin is a myokine mostly secreted from skeletal muscles and inversely associated with obesity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic exercises on serum levels of myonectin and insulin resistance in obese and overweight women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2018-0033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418335PMC

ROR1-CAVIN3 interaction required for caveolae-dependent endocytosis and pro-survival signaling in lung adenocarcinoma.

Oncogene 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a transcriptional target of the lineage-survival oncogene NKX2-1/TTF-1 in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition to its kinase-dependent role, ROR1 functions as a scaffold protein to facilitate interaction between caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAVIN1, and consequently maintains caveolae formation, which in turn sustains pro-survival signaling toward AKT from multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MET (proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), and IGF-IR (insulin-like growth factor receptor 1). Therefore, ROR1 is an attractive target for overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance due to various mechanisms such as EGFR T790M double mutation and bypass signaling from other RTKs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0785-7DOI Listing

Insulin, ghrelin and early return of hunger in women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Physiol Behav 2019 Mar 17. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have greater predisposition to obesity, but the mechanisms are still unknown. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and low levels of ghrelin are common in this group. For the purposes of the present study, it was assumed that such changes could have an influence on hunger. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.03.013DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Transcriptome profiling reveals association of peripheral adipose tissue pathology with type-2 diabetes in asian Indians.

Adipocyte 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

b Sawai Man Singh Medical College and Hospital , JLN Marg, Jaipur 302004 , RJ , India .

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease with an elusive link between its molecular etiology and clinical presentation. Although, the role of visceral adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D is well known, only a limited information is available on the role of peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue especiallyin Asian Indians. In this microarray based study of diabetic and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) Asian Indians, we generated the transcription profile of their thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue and further analyzed the diffrentially expressed genes (DEGs) using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21623945.2019.1595269DOI Listing

Insulin Resistance: A Hidden Risk Factor for Gastric Cancer?

Authors:
Yoon Jin Choi

Gut Liver 2019 Mar;13(2):133-134

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl19060DOI Listing

Increased Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Risk in Individuals with Low Copy Numbers.

J Clin Med 2019 Mar 19;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne 3004, Australia.

Lower copy number variations (CNVs) in the salivary amylase gene () have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance; however, the relationship between and cardiometabolic risk has not been fully elucidated. Using gold-standard measures, we aimed to examine whether CNVs are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in an overweight or obese, otherwise healthy population. Fifty-seven adults (58% male) aged 31. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8030382DOI Listing

Nutritional Regulation of Gene Expression: Carbohydrate-, Fat- and Amino Acid-Dependent Modulation of Transcriptional Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 19;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Food Campus Torribera, University of Barcelona, E-08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain.

The ability to detect changes in nutrient levels and generate an adequate response to these changes is essential for the proper functioning of living organisms. Adaptation to the high degree of variability in nutrient intake requires precise control of metabolic pathways. Mammals have developed different mechanisms to detect the abundance of nutrients such as sugars, lipids and amino acids and provide an integrated response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061386DOI Listing

Multi-dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling by Physiological Insulin In Vivo.

Cell Rep 2019 Mar;26(12):3429-3443.e3

Section of Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Regulation of gene expression is an important aspect of insulin action but in vivo is intertwined with changing levels of glucose and counter-regulatory hormones. Here we demonstrate that under euglycemic clamp conditions, physiological levels of insulin regulate interrelated networks of more than 1,000 transcripts in muscle and liver. These include expected pathways related to glucose and lipid utilization, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, as well as unexpected pathways, such as chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing, and Notch signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.02.081DOI Listing
March 2019
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Metformin use in hidradenitis suppurativa.

J Dermatolog Treat 2019 Mar 20:1-12. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

a The Charles Centre, Department of Dermatology , St Vincent's University Hospital , Elm Park , Dublin 4 , Ireland.

Background: Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease, associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity and insulin resistance. Metformin, an oral hypoglycaemic agent, may play an important role in delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Metformin has been reported as having efficacy in HS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2019.1592100DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

GC-(4→8)-GCG, A Proanthocyanidin Dimer from Camellia ptilophylla, Modulates Obesity and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 Mar 20:e1900082. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

J. Peng, J. Du, K. Li, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, 430070.

Scope: Excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue leads to obesity and related chronic inflammation. This study aimed to examine the effects of gallocatechin -(4→8)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GC-(4→8)-GCG), a main proanthocyanidin dimer from Camellia ptilophylla (Cocoa tea), on adipocyte- and adipose-related inflammation in vivo and in vitro.

Methods And Results: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and GC-(4→8)-GCG (40 or 80 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900082DOI Listing

Obesity and Fat Metabolism in HIV-infected Individuals: Immunopathogenic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.

J Infect Dis 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

Metabolic complications relating to complex effects of viral and immune mediated mechanisms are now a focus of clinical care among persons living with HIV (PWH) and obesity is emerging as a critical problem. To address knowledge gaps, the NIH sponsored a symposium in May 2018 entitled "Obesity and Fat Metabolism in HIV-infected Individuals." Mechanisms relating to adipose dysfunction and fibrosis, immune function, inflammation, and gastrointestinal integrity were highlighted as contributors to obesity among PWH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz118DOI Listing

Ablating astrocyte insulin receptors leads to delayed puberty and hypogonadism in mice.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 20;17(3):e3000189. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America.

Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and infertility. Mice that lack insulin receptors (IRs) throughout development in both neuronal and non-neuronal brain cells are known to exhibit subfertility due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, attempts to recapitulate this phenotype by targeting specific neurons have failed. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000189
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000189DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The evolving role of diet in prostate cancer risk and progression.

Curr Opin Oncol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This overview examines the rationale for dietary interventions for prostate cancer by summarizing the current evidence base and biological mechanisms for the involvement of diet in disease incidence and progression.

Recent Findings: Recent data have further solidified the association between insulin resistance and prostate cancer with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Data also show that periprostatic adipocytes promote extracapsular extension of prostate cancer through chemokines, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation for the association observed between obesity and high-grade cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0000000000000519DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Bile acid alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: what do the human studies tell?

Curr Opin Lipidol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1011 - EGID, F-59000 Lille, France.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to discuss the influence of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on bile acid metabolism and to analyze whether these findings reinforce current beliefs about the role of bile acids in the pathophysiology of these diseases.

Recent Findings: Discordant results on plasma bile acid alterations in NAFLD patients have been reported. Obesity, insulin resistance, and T2D, common comorbidities of NAFLD, have been associated with bile acid changes, but the individual bile acid species variations differ between studies (summarized in this review), perhaps because of clinicobiological differences between the studied patient populations and the heterogeneity of statistical analyses applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0000000000000597DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Preventive Efficiency of Green Tea and Its Components on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a typical chronic liver disease highly correlated with metabolic syndrome. Growing prevalence of NAFLD is supposed to be linked with the unhealthy lifestyle, especially high-calorie diet and lacking enough exercise. Currently, there is no validated pharmacological therapy for NAFLD except for weight reduction. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05032DOI Listing
March 2019
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THE CORRELATION OF NECK CIRCUMFERENCE AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN NAFLD PATIENTS.

Arq Gastroenterol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Departamento de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia, RS, Brasil.

Background: Insulin resistance, especially that induced by obesity, plays a central role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the evaluation of overweight patients is important, the nutritional assessment tools used in clinical practice have limitations. Neck circumference (NC), from this, becomes a viable and low-cost alternative, which seems to be related to the accumulation of fat in the hepatic tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-2803.201900000-06DOI Listing

Estimate of reduced glomerular filtration rate by triglyceride-glucose index: insights from a general Chinese population.

Postgrad Med 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

a Department of Cardiology , The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University , Shenyang , Liaoning , People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Recent studies have identified triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) as a surrogate of insulin resistance. Since insulin resistance correlates with renal damage, our study aims to investigate the impact of TyG on the risk of reduced eGFR and explore its value to improve the risk stratification and prevention of reduced eGFR.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 6466 participants (mean age:59. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2019.1595983DOI Listing

Innate immune regulatory networks in hepatic lipid metabolism.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, China.

Hepatic lipid metabolism is closely associated with certain diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis results from systemic metabolic dysfunction that occurs via multiple processes. The initial process has been characterized as hepatic lipid accumulation that may be caused by increased liver lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis or decreased lipid oxidation and lipid export; subsequently, multiple additional factors that trigger inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) aggravate the progression of hepatic steatosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-019-01765-1DOI Listing
March 2019
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Branched-chain amino acids have equivalent effects to other essential amino acids on lifespan and ageing-related traits in Drosophila.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Cologne, Germany.

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been suggested to be particularly potent activators of TOR signalling. Moreover, increased circulating BCAAs are associated with higher risk of insulin resistance and diabetes in both mice and humans, and with increased mortality in mice. However, it remains unknown if BCAAs play a more prominent role in longevity than do other essential amino acids (EAAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz080DOI Listing

Comparative medical characteristics of ZDF-T2DM rats during the course of development to late stage disease.

Animal Model Exp Med 2018 Sep 25;1(3):203-211. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Institute of Medical Biology Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Kunming China.

Background: There are few reports on the comparative medical characteristics of type 2 diabetes models in late stage. An analysis of comparative medical characteristics of Zucker diabetic fatty type 2 diabetes mellitus (ZDF-T2DM) rats during the course of development to late stage disease was performed.

Methods: In this study, ZDF rats were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diets to raise the fasting blood glucose, and develop of type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388085PMC
September 2018
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Serum Calcium Concentrations, Chronic Inflammation and Glucose Metabolism: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCaPS).

Curr Dev Nutr 2019 Mar 25;3(3):nzy085. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Centre for Chronic Conditions and Injuries, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Background: Evidence suggests a role for elevated serum calcium in dysregulated glucose metabolism, linked through low-level chronic inflammation.

Objectives: We investigated the association of elevated serum calcium concentrations (corrected for albumin) with markers of dysregulated glucose metabolism and type II diabetes and tested if these associations were accounted for by chronic inflammation in a rural Indian population.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 40-84 y from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCaPS;  = 2699, 52. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416530PMC

Crosstalk between gut microbiota and antidiabetic drug action.

World J Diabetes 2019 Mar;10(3):154-168

Endocrinology Department, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv 01601, Ukraine.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disorder characterized by chronic inflated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), at first due to insulin resistance and unregulated insulin secretion but with tendency towards global spreading. The gut microbiota is recognized to have an influence on T2D, although surveys have not formed a clear overview to date. Because of the interactions between gut microbiota and host homeostasis, intestinal bacteria are believed to play a large role in various diseases, including metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v10.i3.154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422856PMC
March 2019
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Association study of Apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5 gene) variant with the metabolic syndrome in local Pakistani population.

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 Mar;69(3):301-305

Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Objective: To explore the association of rs662799 variants of Apolipoprotein A5 gene with metabolic syndrome in Pakistani population.

Methods: The case-control study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan from 2014 to2016, and comprised subjects enrolled from the out-patient clinics. Groups were formed on the basis of preliminary screening for risk factors like obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and fasting blood glucose levels. Read More

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March 2019
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Sterol 12α-hydroxylase Aggravates Dyslipidemia by Activating the Ceramide/mTORC1/SREBP1C Pathway via FGF21 and FGF15.

Gene Expr 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272.

Sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) is required for synthesis of cholic acid in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway and plays a role in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of the involvement of Cyp8b1 in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance is not known. CYP8B1 mRNA and protein expression are elevated in diabetic and obese () mouse liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/105221619X15529371970455DOI Listing
March 2019
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Effects of Magnesium Deficiency on Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: Focusing on the Processes of Insulin Secretion and Signaling.

Authors:
Krasimir Kostov

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 18;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria.

Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral for human health and plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin actions. Despite the widespread clinical evidences for the association of Mg deficiency (MgD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), molecular mechanisms by which Mg contributes to insulin resistance (IR) are still under discussion. Mg regulates electrical activity and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061351DOI Listing
March 2019
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Inositol and Antioxidant Supplementation: Safety and Efficacy in Pregnancy.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2019 Mar 19:e3154. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences and Centro Scienze dell'Invecchiamento-Medicina Traslazionale (CeSI-MeT), University G. D'Annunzio, Chieti, Italy.

Pregnancies complicated by diabetes have largely increased in number over the last 50 years. Pregnancy is characterized by a physiologic increase in insulin resistance which, associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammations, could induce alterations of glucose metabolism and diabetes. If not optimally controlled, these conditions have a negative impact on maternal and foetal outcomes. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/dmrr.3154
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3154DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads