395,127 results match your criteria Insulin [Journal]


Physical Exercise as Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: From Mechanism to Orientation.

Ann Nutr Metab 2019 Apr 23;74(4):313-321. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China,

Background: Exercise therapy plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The mechanism of exercise therapy in the improvement of glycolipid metabolism of T2DM is very complex and not completely clear.

Summary: Exercise training improves the whole body metabolic health in patients with T2DM, leading to an increase in glycolipid uptake and utilization, improved insulin sensitivity, optimized body mass index, and modulated DNA methylation, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500110DOI Listing

Mathematical predictions of oxygen availability in micro- and macro-encapsulated human and porcine pancreatic islets.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, California.

Optimal function of immunoisolated islets requires adequate supply of oxygen to metabolically active insulin producing beta-cells. Using mathematical modeling, we investigated the influence of the pO on islet insulin secretory capacity and evaluated conditions that could lead to the development of tissue anoxia, modeled for a 300 μm islet in a 500 μm microcapsule or a 500 μm planar, slab-shaped macrocapsule. The pO was used to assess the part of islets that contributed to insulin secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34393DOI Listing

Transcriptional Regulation of Early Growth Response Gene-1 (EGR1) is Associated with Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in Patients with Insulin Resistance.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Apr 23;25:2293-3004. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to type 2 diabetes, especially in patients with insulin resistance. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the major genes and transcriptional regulation of insulin resistance in the progression of NAFLD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We downloaded the gene expression matrix of GSE89632 from Gene Expression Omnibus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.914044DOI Listing

Into the deep blue sea: A review of the safety of recreational diving in people with diabetes mellitus.

Eur J Sport Sci 2019 Apr 23:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Diabetes Center, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University Hospital , Thessaloniki , Greece.

People with diabetes, particularly those being insulin treated, have been for many years considered ineligible for diving, because of the high risk of adverse events. Blood glucose levels tend to decline during diving, probably because of changes in insulin requirements and resistance, due to increased physical activity and effects of hyperbaric environment on glucose tolerance. Strict adherence to safety protocols, in conjunction with optimal physical status, lack of diabetic complications (especially impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia) and satisfactory baseline glycaemic control, seem to minimise the risk of complications during diving. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17461391.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1606286DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The autonomic nervous system regulates pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in adult male rats.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Montreal Diabetes Research Center, CRCHUM, and Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, QC, Canada, Canada.

The pancreatic beta-cell responds to changes in the nutrient environment to maintain glucose homeostasis by adapting its function and mass. Nutrients can act directly on the beta-cell and also indirectly through the brain via autonomic nerves innervating islets. Despite the importance of the brain-islet axis in insulin secretion, relatively little is known regarding its involvement in beta-cell proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00385.2018DOI Listing

Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Prevents High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Nephropathy and Apoptosis.

J Food Sci 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak Univ., Nakhon Si Thammarat, 80161, Thailand.

Type II diabetes (T2D) nephropathy, a major cause of end-stage kidney disease, progresses and develops from oxidative stress. Natural polyphenols can protect the kidney from diabetic nephropathy exerting antioxidant activities. The present approach enumerates the reno-protective and anti-apoptotic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR, a phenolic aqueous extract) against high-fat diet (5 g/day up to five weeks)-/streptozotocin (single ip, dose 30 mg/kgBW)-induced T2D nephropathy of albino mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14511DOI Listing

A cholecystokinin receptor agonist (CCK-8) induces adiponectin production in rat white adipose tissue.

Br J Pharmacol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad CEU-San Pablo, Madrid, Spain.

Background And Purpose: A cholecystokinin (CCK) system has been identified in white adipose tissue (WAT). Nevertheless, the endocrine actions of CCK on WAT remain unknown. Our goal was to investigate the role of CCK in regulating the production of adiponectin, an adipokine expressed in WAT, which is pivotal in preserving energy homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14690DOI Listing

Intra-islet glucagon signaling is critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis.

JCI Insight 2019 Apr 23;5. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Glucagon, a hormone released from pancreatic alpha-cells, plays a key role in maintaining proper glucose homeostasis and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes. In vitro studies suggest that intra-islet glucagon can modulate the function of pancreatic beta-cells. However, because of the lack of suitable experimental tools, the in vivo physiological role of this intra-islet cross-talk has remained elusive. Read More

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http://insight.jci.org/articles/view/127994
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127994DOI Listing

[Ozone oxidizes oleic fatty acid with the highest rate constant and does not oxidize palmitic acid. Different physicochemical parameters of substrates and their role in phylogenesis.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2019 ;64(3):132-139

Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, 119334, Moscow, Russia.

Physicochemical differences between О3 oxidation parameters for palmitic and oleic fatty acids (FA) during phylogenesis (evolution) are fundamental for а) production of palmitoleic monounsaturated fatty (MFA), b) formation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase as a FA transporter to mitochondria, and c) in vivo production of oleic MFA under humoral regulatory effect of insulin. In the strive for the best kinetic parameters of biological organisms without a possibility of modifying physicochemical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial matrix, the mitochondria can be provided with a substrate that increases energy production efficiency and the amount of ATP. Physicochemical parameters of oleic MFA has become the standard of an oxidation substrate for in vivo energy production; this MFA was synthesized in organisms for millions of years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2019-64-3-132-139DOI Listing
January 2019

Substitution of an Internal Disulfide Bridge in Human Insulin by a Diselenide Enhances its Foldability and Stability.

Chemistry 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Chemistry, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Givat Ram, 91904, Jerusalem, ISRAEL.

Insulin analogs exemplify the utility of protein engineering in molecular pharmacology. Whereas chemical syntheses of the individual A and B chains were accomplished in the early 1960s, their combination to form native insulin remains inefficient due to competing disulfide pairing and aggregation. To overcome these limitations, we envisioned an alternative approach: pairwise substitution of cysteine residues by selenocysteine (Sec, U). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201900892DOI Listing

Diabetes: Is there a future for Pharmacogenomics guided treatment?

Authors:
Ewan R Pearson

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Population Health & Genomics, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, DD1 9SY.

Diabetes is a disease defined on the basis of hyperglycaemia. There are monogenic forms of diabetes where defining the genetic cause has a dramatic impact on treatment - with patients being able to transition from insulin to sulphonylureas. However, the majority of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1484DOI Listing

Mediterranean versus Western Diet Effects on Caloric Intake, Obesity, Metabolism, and Hepatosteatosis in Nonhuman Primates.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 May;27(5):777-784

Department of Pathology and Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of humanlike Western and Mediterranean diets on caloric intake, obesity, metabolism, and hepatosteatosis in an established nonhuman primate model of obesity, cardiometabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis.

Methods: A 38-month, randomized, preclinical, nonhuman primate primary prevention trial of 38 socially housed, middle-aged adult females was conducted. The monkeys were characterized during a 7-month baseline phase while consuming chow and then randomized to either Western or Mediterranean diets; the groups were balanced on baseline characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22436DOI Listing

An evaluation of mixed plant protein in the diet of Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio): growth, body composition, biochemical parameters, and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Lab of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Environmental Health, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Tai'an, 271018, Shandong Province, China.

The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of mixed plant protein (MP) (rapeseed meal:cottonseed meal:peanut meal = 1:1:1) on growth, body composition, blood biochemical parameters, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1, and relative non-specific immune response in Yellow River carp Cyprinus carpio. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic trial diets were formulated to replace fish meal at 0 (MP0, control), 25% (MP25), 50% (MP50), 75% (MP75), and 100% (MP100) mixed plant protein, respectively. The 25% mixed plant protein did not affect the weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio, whereas these parameters were depressed by 50% and above mixed plant protein. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10695-019-00641-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-019-00641-6DOI Listing

Effects of long-term exercise on plasma adipokine levels and inflammation-related gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in sedentary dysglycaemic, overweight men and sedentary normoglycaemic men of healthy weight.

Diabetologia 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Sognsvannsveien 9, 0372, Oslo, Norway.

Aims/hypothesis: Obesity and insulin resistance may be associated with altered expression and secretion of adipokines. Physical activity can markedly improve insulin sensitivity, but the association with adipokines remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of physical activity on the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) secretome and its relationship to insulin sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4866-5DOI Listing

Improvement of growth performance and parameters of intestinal function in liquid fed early weanling pigs.

J Anim Sci 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, and Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Sichuan Province, Ya'an 625014, People's Republic of China.

Liquid feeding, a widely used technique, has been applied as a feeding technique commonly in global swine production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid feeding on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal barrier functions during the early weaning period in pigs. Three hundred and sixty 24-d-old weanling pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) with BW of 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz134DOI Listing

Pancreatic islet surface engineering with a starPEG-chondroitin sulfate nanocoating.

Biomater Sci 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomaterial Research, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China.

Islet transplantation is one of the most promising therapeutic options that could restore euglycaemia in type 1 diabetic individuals. The currently implemented alginate microsphere islet encapsulation approach has led to positive outcomes in improving intraportal islet delivery in rodents. However, results obtained from human clinical trials remain disappointing. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9BM00061E
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9bm00061eDOI Listing
April 2019
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Clinical characteristics and outcomes of care in adult patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: A retrospective study from a tertiary diabetes center in Thailand.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2019 Jun 10;16:100188. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Diabetes and Thyroid Center, Theptarin Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a metabolic catastrophe which could occur in any type of diabetes. Even when fundamental key points of DKA treatment had been followed, some differences exist in treatment protocols in each physician, highlighting the need to assess adherence to DKA guideline.

Aim: This study aimed to examine trend of hospitalized DKA patients and outcomes of treatment over a decade at Theptarin Hospital, a multi-discipline based diabetes center in Thailand

Method: A retrospective study of DKA episodes admitted over a 14-year period (2005-2018) was done. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcte.2019.100188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462756PMC

Hemostatic Abnormality and Associated Factors in Diabetic Patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 Mar;29(2):251-258

School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of heterogeneous disorders of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Diabetes mellitus has been reported to disturb normal hemostasis by various mechanisms. However, data on hemostasis of diabetic patients in the study area are lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i2.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460446PMC

Clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adult hypopituitary patients.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Apr;25(14):1741-1752

Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, The Translational Medicine Center of Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease have the feature of central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, and there is increased prevalence of liver dysfunction consistent with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population. The causes of hypopituitarism in the reported studies varied and combined pituitary hormone deficiency including central diabetes insipidus is much common in this population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to analyze the clinical characteristics and related factors with NAFLD and cirrhosis in Chinese adult hypopituitary/panhypopituitary patients. Read More

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https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v25/i14/1741.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i14.1741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465940PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of Cyclocarya Paliurus on Hypoglycemic Effect in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Apr 23;25:2976-2983. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

College of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of Cyclocarya paliurus extract (CPE) on diabetes mellitus (DM) mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS A DM mouse model was established to test FBG, TC, and TG. The DM mice were divided into 3 groups: a DM group, a DM+CPE (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.913368DOI Listing

p-21 Activated Kinase as a Molecular Target for Chemoprevention in Diabetes.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Oct 19;3(4). Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria.

Hypothesis: Anti-diabetic drugs modulate p-21 activated kinase (PAK) signaling. : Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cancer risk. PAK signaling is implicated in cellular homeostasis when regulated, and cancer when unrestrained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040073DOI Listing
October 2018

Genetic Regulation of enoyl-CoA hydratase Domain-Containing 3 in Adipose Tissue Determines Insulin Sensitivity in African Americans and Europeans.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157

Insulin resistance (IR) is a harbinger of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and partly determined by genetic factors. However, genetically-regulated mechanisms of IR remain poorly understood. Using gene expression, genotype, and insulin sensitivity data from an African American cohort (AAGMEx), we performed transcript-wide correlation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses to identify IR-correlated -regulated transcripts (-eGenes) in adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1229DOI Listing

Statins Promote IL-1β-Dependent Adipocyte Insulin Resistance via Lower Prenylation not Cholesterol.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences and Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8N 3Z5 Canada.

Statins lower cholesterol and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but this drug class increases diabetes risk. Statins are generally anti-inflammatory. However, statins can promote inflammasome-mediated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance through an unidentified immune effector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0999DOI Listing

AMPK and TBC1D1 Regulate Muscle Glucose Uptake After - But Not During - Exercise and Contraction.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark

Exercise increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle independently of insulin signaling. This makes exercise an effective stimulus to increase glucose uptake in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. AMPK has been suggested to regulate muscle glucose uptake during exercise/contraction but findings from studies of various AMPK transgenic animals have not reached consensus on this matter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-0050DOI Listing

Modified Ucn2 Peptide Acts as an Insulin Sensitizer in Skeletal Muscle of Obese Mice.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section for Integrative Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

The neuropeptide urocortin 2 (Ucn2) and its receptor corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) are highly expressed in skeletal muscle and play a role in regulating energy balance and glucose metabolism. We investigated a modified Ucn2 peptide as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance, with a specific focus on skeletal muscle. High fat-fed mice (C57Bl/6J) were injected daily with a PEGylated Ucn2 peptide (Compound A) at 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1237DOI Listing

The Microbiota-Produced -Formyl Peptide fMLF Promotes Obesity-Induced Glucose Intolerance.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

The composition of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and associated metabolites changes dramatically with diet and the development of obesity. Although many correlations have been described, specific mechanistic links between these changes and glucose homeostasis remain to be defined. Here we show that blood and intestinal levels of the microbiota-produced formyl peptide, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), are elevated in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1307DOI Listing

Metabolic Culprits in Obese Pregnancies and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Big Babies, Big Twists, Big Picture : The 2018 Norbert Freinkel Award Lecture.

Authors:
Linda A Barbour

Diabetes Care 2019 May;42(5):718-726

Divisions of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes and Maternal Fetal Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO

Pregnancy has been equated to a "stress test" in which placental hormones and growth factors expose a mother's predisposition toward metabolic disease, unleashing her previously occult insulin resistance (IR), mild β-cell dysfunction, and glucose and lipid surplus due to the formidable forces of pregnancy-induced IR. Although pregnancy-induced IR is intended to assure adequate nutrition to the fetus and placenta, in mothers with obesity, metabolic syndrome, or those who develop gestational diabetes mellitus, this overnutrition to the fetus carries a lifetime risk for increased metabolic disease. Norbert Freinkel, nearly 40 years ago, coined this excess intrauterine nutrient exposure and subsequent offspring developmental risk "fuel-mediated teratogenesis," not limited to only excess maternal glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dci18-0048DOI Listing

The Evolving Landscape of Autoantigen Discovery and Characterization in Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2019 May;68(5):879-886

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is caused, in part, by T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. High risk for disease, in those with genetic susceptibility, is predicted by the presence of two or more autoantibodies against insulin, the 65-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8). Despite this knowledge, we still do not know what leads to the breakdown of tolerance to these autoantigens, and we have an incomplete understanding of T1D etiology and pathophysiology. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/dbi1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0066DOI Listing
May 2019
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IGF1R as druggable target mediating PI3K-δ inhibitor resistance in a murine model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Ulm, Germany

Targeted therapy is currently revolutionizing the treatment of cancers, but resistance evolves against these therapies and derogates their success. The PI3K-δ inhibitor idelalisib has been approved for CLL and NHL treatment, but the mechanisms conferring resistance in a subset of patients are unknown. Here, we modelled resistance to PI3K-δ inhibitor using a serial tumor transfer and treatment scheme in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2018881029DOI Listing

Drugs to Control Diabetes During Pregnancy.

Clin Perinatol 2019 Jun 26;46(2):257-272. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Maternal Infant Research Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Research, Tufts University School of Medicine, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, 800 Washington Street, Box 394, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Diabetes is a common complication of pregnancy associated with both short- and long-term adverse maternal and offspring effects. All types of diabetes in pregnancy are increasing in prevalence. Treatment of diabetes in pregnancy, targeting glycemic control, improves both maternal and offspring outcomes, albeit imperfectly for many women. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00955108193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2019.02.005DOI Listing

Skeletal muscle as a protagonist in the pregnancy metabolic syndrome.

Med Hypotheses 2019 May 28;126:26-37. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Physiology and Biochemistry Research Group PHYSIS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. Electronic address: http://www.udea.edu.co/physis.

The pregnant woman normally shows clinical manifestations similar to a metabolic syndrome (MS), due to her metabolic and hemodynamic adaptations in order to share nutrients with the child. If those adjustments are surpassed, a kind of pregnancy MS (PregMS) could appear, characterized by excessive insulin resistance and vascular maladaptation. Skeletal muscle (SKM) must be a protagonist in the PregMS: SKM strength and mass have been associated inversely with MS incidence in non-pregnant patients, and in pregnant women muscular activity modulates metabolic and vascular adaptations that favor better outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2019.02.049DOI Listing

A hypothesis on paradoxical privileged portal vein metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Can organ evolution shed light on patterns of human pathology, and vice versa?

Med Hypotheses 2019 May 25;126:109-128. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Arrowhead Parmaceuticals, Madison, WI 53719, USA; University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. Electronic address:

Unlike other carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizes to distant organs relatively rarely. In contrast, it routinely metastasizes to liver vasculature/liver, affecting portal veins 3-10 times more often than hepatic veins. This portal metastatic predominance is traditionally rationalized within the model of a reverse portal flow, due to accompanying liver cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2019.03.019DOI Listing

Male PCOS equivalent and nutritional restriction: Are we stepping forward?

Med Hypotheses 2019 May 5;126:1-3. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Via Tindaro 2, 95124 Catania, Italy.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder characterized by alteration of menses, polycystic ovaries, clinical and or biochemical signs of hyper-androgenism in the context of metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and insulin resistance that play a fundamental role in pathogenesis of the disease as well as in development of long-term complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). Latest evidence supports the hypothesis of a genetic component in the aetiology of PCOS that seems to be inherited through an oligo-genic mechanism and cluster in families. Recent studies identified the existence of a male PCOS correspondent syndrome in which the genes responsible for PCOS susceptibility in women may be inherited by male relatives of women with PCOS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Effect of thiazolidinedione therapy on the risk of uric acid stones.

Kidney Int 2019 May;95(5):1022-1024

Nephrology Section, VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York, New York, USA; Nephrology Division, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

The most important variable leading to uric acid stones is low urine pH. Major causal conditions associated with low urine pH are metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the study by Maalouf et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2019.02.003DOI Listing

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) alters body fat and lean mass through sex-dependent metabolic mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2019 Apr 22:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

a Department of Food Science , University of Massachusetts , Amherst , USA.

There is increasing interest in the potential role of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in changing body composition to lower body fat with increased lean mass. In this study, we examined the sex-dependent effect of EGCG on body composition, locomotion, feeding behaviour, sugar levels, and transcription levels of key regulators in lipid, carbohydrate, and energy metabolisms in Drosophila melanogaster. EGCG had no effects on body weights in both females and males, but decreased fat accumulation in females compared to the control, accompanied by a reduction in food intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2019.1602113DOI Listing

The relationship between elevated serum xenin and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2019 Apr 23:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

c Department of Biochemistry , Tepecik Education and Research Hospital , Izmir , Turkey.

This study aims to determine whether serum xenin-25 levels are altered in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study included 31 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria and 30 healthy controls. The primary outcome was serum xenin-25 levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2019.1604663DOI Listing

Sustained Glycemic Control With Ivacaftor in Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2019 Jan-Dec;7:2324709619842898

1 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a common comorbidity in cystic fibrosis with pancreatic insufficiency occurring early in the disease process. Current treatment is exogenous insulin therapy as CFRD is due to impaired insulin secretion. Recent small studies have shown improvement in endogenous insulin secretion with a short period of ivacaftor therapy in primarily pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations amenable to potentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709619842898DOI Listing

Effects of treadmill exercise on the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics and oxidative stress in the brains of high-fat diet fed rats.

J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2019 Mar;23(1):28-35

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue and mitochondrial dynamic-related proteins in rats fed a long-term high-fat diet (HFD).

Methods: Obesity was induced in experimental animals using high fat feed, and the experimental groups were divided into a normal diet-control (ND-CON; n=12), a high fat diet-control (HFD-CON; n=12) and a high fat diet-treadmill exercise (HFD-TE; n=12) group. The rats were subsequently subjected to treadmill exercise (progressively increasing load intensity) for 8 weeks (5 min at 8 m/min, then 5 min at 11 m/min, and finally 20 min at 14 m/min). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2019.0005DOI Listing

Effects of aerobic exercise training on the risk factors for liver diseases in elderly women with obesity and impaired fasting glucose: A pilot study.

J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2019 Mar;23(1):21-27

Purpose: In the present pilot study, we aimed to investigate the effects of the Silverrobics exercise program, which is similar to aerobic dance, on the factors related to glucose metabolism and liver enzymes.

Methods: Eight elderly women with obesity and impaired fasting glucose participated in the Silverrobics exercise program (60 minutes per session for five times a week for 8 weeks). The program was conducted at 50-60% of the heart rate reserve at 1 to 2 weeks and at 60-80% of the heart rate reserve at 3 to 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2019.0004DOI Listing

Natural and Artificial Sweeteners and High Fat Diet Modify Differential Taste Receptors, Insulin, and TLR4-Mediated Inflammatory Pathways in Adipose Tissues of Rats.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Departamento de Fisiología de la Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México City 14080, Mexico.

It is difficult to know if the cause for obesity is the type of sweetener, high fat (HF) content, or the combination of sweetener and fat. The purpose of the present work was to study different types of sweeteners; in particular, steviol glycosides (SG), glucose, fructose, sucrose, brown sugar, honey, SG + sucrose (SV), and sucralose on the functionality of the adipocyte. Male Wistar rats were fed for four months with different sweeteners or sweetener with HF added. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040880DOI Listing

Age Differences in the Relationship between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 19;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Secondhand smoke (SHS), a common environmental exposure factor, has become a serious public health problem. Metabolic syndrome is another worldwide clinical challenge. Our study tried to determine the age differences in the relationship between SHS and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081409DOI Listing

Pathophysiological, Molecular and Therapeutic Issues of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Overview.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 20;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Catania, Catania 95100, Italy.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents the leading cause of liver disease in developed countries but its diffusion is currently also emerging in Asian countries, in South America and in other developing countries. It is progressively becoming one of the main diseases responsible for hepatic insufficiency, hepatocarcinoma and the need for orthotopic liver transplantation. NAFLD is linked with metabolic syndrome in a close and bidirectional relationship. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/8/1948
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081948DOI Listing

Effects of Long-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Intestinal Morphology, Digestive Enzymes, Gut Hormones, and Colonic Microbiota in Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Using protein-restriction diets becomes a potential strategy to save the dietary protein resources. However, the mechanism of low-protein diets influencing pigs' growth performance is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein-restriction diets on gastrointestinal physiology and gut microbiota in pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9040180DOI Listing

How Charge and Triple Size-Selective Membrane Separation of Peptides from Salmon Protein Hydrolysate Orientate their Biological Response on Glucose Uptake.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 20;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Food Sciences and Laboratory of Food Processing and Electromembrane Processes (LTAPEM), Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The valorization of by-products from natural organic sources is an international priority to respond to environmental and economic challenges. In this context, electrodialysis with filtration membrane (EDFM), a green and ultra-selective process, was used to separate peptides from salmon frame protein hydrolysate. For the first time, the simultaneous separation of peptides by three ultrafiltration membranes of different molecular-weight exclusion limits (50, 20, and 5 kDa) stacked in an electrodialysis system, allowed for the generation of specific cationic and anionic fractions with different molecular weight profiles and bioactivity responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081939DOI Listing

Reducing sedentary time and fat mass may improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in adults surviving 6 months after stroke: A phase I pilot study.

Eur Stroke J 2017 Jun 23;2(2):144-153. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

School of Health Science, La Trobe University, Australia.

Introduction: Deranged glycaemic control is common post-stroke, increasing risks of recurrent stroke and development of diabetes. The aim of the study is to examine glucose metabolism in relation to body composition, physical activity and sedentary time post-stroke.

Patients And Methods: Observational study: Non-diabetic adults, unable to walk independently, were recruited within 2 weeks of first stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987317694469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453210PMC

Impact of pre-stroke sulphonylurea and metformin use on mortality of intracerebral haemorrhage.

Eur Stroke J 2016 Dec 26;1(4):302-309. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Department of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Few proven therapies for intracerebral haemorrhage exist. Preliminary observational evidence suggests that sulphonylurea and metformin may be protective in ischaemic stroke. We assessed the association of pre-intracerebral haemorrhage sulphonylurea and metformin use on outcome in diabetic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987316666617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301244PMC
December 2016
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A Primer on Diabetes Mellitus: Foundations for the Incoming First-Year Resident.

MedEdPORTAL 2016 Sep 28;12:10469. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Associate Professor of Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine.

Introduction: Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, trainees should have a strong foundation in the management of diabetes. Published literature on the knowledge base and comfort level of medical trainees in diabetes care describes varying levels of exposure to diabetes management in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

Methods: This eight-module curriculum provides a foundation in the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of diabetes mellitus in the adult patient, as well as pharmacological treatment, patient education, and complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464467PMC
September 2016

A 2-year Double-Blind RCT Follow-up Study with Fermented Papaya Preparation (FPP) Modulating Key Markers in Middle-Age Subjects with Clustered Neurodegenerative Disease-Risk Factors.

Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 2017 18;6. Epub 2017 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

In recent years a number of studies have reported the significant relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative disease. There is accumulating evidence that the interplay of combined genetic and environmental risk factors (from diet to life style to pollutants) to intrinsic age-related oxi-inflammatory changes may be advocated for to explain the pandemic of neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years a specific Fermented Papaya Preparation (FPP) has been shown to significantly affect a number of redox signalling abnormalities in a variety of chronic diseases and as well in aging mechanisms either on experimental and on clinical ground. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-065X.1000170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474671PMC

Fibroblast growth factor 21 secretion enhances glucose uptake in mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-treated adipocytes.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Previous studies revealed that cellular accumulation of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) disturbed energy metabolism in adipocytes, where glucose uptake was significantly increased. The present study aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying the increased glucose uptake. MEHP-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibited a significantly increased glucose uptake activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2019.04.021DOI Listing

Aerobic exercise improves food reward systems in obese rats via insulin signalling regulation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

The dopaminergic pathway, comprising projections from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, constitutes the core of the brain reward system. Insufficient food reward caused by dopamine signalling dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens is an important contributor to obesity and may be associated with insulin signalling. Aerobic exercise has a positive effect both on preventing and treating obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00022DOI Listing