389,281 results match your criteria Insulin [Journal]


Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Humans: Recent Progress and Future Directions.

Endocr Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA.

Pancreatic islet transplantation has become an established approach to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin deficient diabetes. Recent progress in techniques for islet isolation, islet culture, and peri-transplant management of the islet transplant recipient have resulted in substantial improvements in metabolic and safety outcomes for patients. For patients requiring total or sub-total pancreatectomy for benign disease of the pancreas, isolation of islets from the diseased pancreas with intrahepatic transplantation of autologous islets can prevent or ameliorate post-surgical diabetes, and for patients previously experiencing painful recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis, quality-of-life is substantially improved. Read More

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December 2018
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The Gly385(388)Arg Polymorphism of the FGFR4 Receptor regulates Hepatic Lipogenesis under healthy Diet.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Context: The effect of a lifestyle intervention to reduce liver fat content in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is influenced by genetics. We hypothesized that the functionally active amino acid exchange in humans Gly388Arg (mouse homologue: Gly385Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism, may determine the dynamics of hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in humans. Mechanisms of this substitution were studied in mice under normal chow and high-fat diet. Read More

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December 2018
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Improvement in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin concentration after the switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI to raltegravir or dolutegravir in non-diabetic HIV-infected patients.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Infectious Diseases, 'Alma Mater Studiorum' University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, via Massarenti 11, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: An observational, prospective, cohort study was performed to assess changes in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin level after a switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) to raltegravir or dolutegravir in HIV-infected adults on stable combination ART (cART).

Methods: Non-diabetic HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive cART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus one PI/r, who underwent a switch from the PI/r to raltegravir (group A) or dolutegravir (group B), were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of insulin, leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) index were evaluated during a 12 month follow-up. Read More

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December 2018

A 12-wk whole-grain wheat intervention protects against hepatic fat: the Graandioos study, a randomized trial in overweight subjects.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1264-1274

Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Whole-grain wheat (WGW) is described as nutritionally superior to refined wheat (RW) and thus advocated as the healthy choice, although evidence from intervention studies is often inconsistent. The liver, as the central organ in energy metabolism, might be an important target organ for WGW interventions.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of WGW consumption compared with RW consumption on liver health and associated parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Single-Cell Transcriptome Profiling of Mouse and hESC-Derived Pancreatic Progenitors.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1551-1564

Diabetes Research Group, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada; Departments of Surgery and Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, 950 28(th) Avenue West, Vancouver, BC V5Z4H4, Canada. Electronic address:

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential unlimited source of insulin-producing β cells for diabetes treatment. A greater understanding of how β cells form during embryonic development will improve current hESC differentiation protocols. All pancreatic endocrine cells, including β cells, are derived from Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors. Read More

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December 2018

IGFBP7 Induces Differentiation and Loss of Survival of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells without Affecting Normal Hematopoiesis.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3021-3035.e5

Department of Hematology, Cancer Center Amsterdam (CCA), Amsterdam UMC, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are thought to be the major cause of the recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) due to their potential for self-renewal. To identify therapeutic strategies targeting LSCs, while sparing healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we performed gene expression profiling of LSCs, HSCs, and leukemic progenitors all residing within the same AML bone marrow and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) as differentially expressed. Low IGFBP7 is a feature of LSCs and is associated with reduced chemotherapy sensitivity. Read More

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December 2018
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Adherence to quality of care measurements among 58,182 patients with new onset diabetes and its association with mortality.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208539. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Department of Family Medicine, The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, University of Tel Aviv, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: Disease registry for diabetes care encourages transparency and benchmarking of quality of care (QoC) measurements for all service providers and seems to improve diabetes care. This study evaluate changes over time in QoC measurement performance in a large diabetes registry among newly diagnosed diabetics and it association with mortality.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients in a large health maintenance organization diabetes registry from years 2000 to 2013. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of intravenous AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboximide riboside) administration on insulin signaling and resistance in premature baboons, Papio sp.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208757. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States of America.

Premature baboons exhibit peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling. 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation improves insulin sensitivity by enhancing glucose uptake (via increased glucose transporter type 4 [GLUT4] translocation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/ atypical protein kinase C [aPKC] pathway), and increasing fatty acid oxidation (via inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 [ACC]), while downregulating gluconeogenesis (via induction of small heterodimer partner [SHP] and subsequent downregulation of the gluconeogenic enzymes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [PEPCK], glucose 6-phosphatase [G6PASE], fructose- 1,6-bisphosphatase 1 [FBP1], and forkhead box protein 1 [FOXO1]). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pharmacologic activation of AMPK with AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboximide riboside) administration improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in preterm baboons. Read More

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December 2018

Lower circulating levels of CTRP12 and CTRP13 in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Irrespective of obesity.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208059. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Altered production of adipokines is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) play diverse roles in regulation of metabolism in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the present study, we assessed serum concentrations of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 in individuals with PCOS and those without PCOS. Read More

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December 2018

Metformin induces weight loss associated with gut microbiota alteration in non-diabetic obese women: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

B Larijani, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Objective: The increasing prevalence of obesity over the past few decades constitutes a global health challenge. Pharmacological therapy is recommended to accompany life-style modification for obesity management. Here, we perform a clinical trial to investigate the effects of metformin on anthropometric indices and gut microbiota composition in non-diabetic, treatment-naive obese women with a low calorie diet (LCD). Read More

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December 2018

INSULIN RESISTANCE REDUCTION AFTER SUSTAINED VIROLOGICAL RESPONSE WITH DIRECT ACTING ANTIVIRAL:NOT EVERY POPULATION IMPROVES.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):274-278

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, that affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes HCV-infected patients has been well documented.

Objective: To assess the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients treated with direct acting antiviral (DAAs) medication in the sustained virological response (SVR), categorized by the presence or absence of cirrhosis. Read More

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Adipose tissue is less responsive to food restriction anti-inflammatory effects than liver, muscle, and brain in mice.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 Dec 10;52(1):e8150. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapêutica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

High caloric intake promotes chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, which may be prevented by food restriction (FR). The effect of FR on expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes in adipose tissue, liver, muscle, and brain was compared. Male Swiss mice were submitted to FR (FR group) or had free access to food (control group) during 56 days. Read More

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December 2018

Terpenoid-rich Elettaria cardamomum extract prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced in diabetic rats via inhibition of GSK3β activity, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:405-416. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Purpose: Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats). Read More

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January 2019

[Assessing nurses’ knowledge of insulin administration and the impact of the introduction of concentrated insulins.]

Rech Soins Infirm 2018 09(134):44-51

Insulin is a high-risk medication, and even slight changes in blood levels can lead to serious side effects or can even result in death. Error in administering drugs is one of the main causes of over- or under-dosing, and the recent introduction of concentrated insulins (CI) has increased this risk. We assessed nurses’ knowledge of these CI, their beliefs about the “insulin unit” (IU), and the impact that this knowledge had on the risk of making medication errors. Read More

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September 2018

Impact of Duodeno-Jejunal Bypass Liner (EndoBarrierTM) Implantation on Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): A Study Protocol for a Pilot Trial.

Diabetes Ther 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Divisions of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medizinische Universitat Graz, Graz, Austria.

Introduction: A 60-cm endoscopically implantable duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (Endobarrier™, GI Dynamics, Lexington, MA, USA) has been introduced as a therapeutic option to support weight loss for a selected group of obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The sleeve prevents contact between chyme and the intestinal mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The primary aim of this study is to elucidate the changes in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after EndoBarrier™ implantation in obese patients with T2DM; changes in gut permeability and gut microbiome are also to be examined. Read More

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December 2018

A Review of the Safety and Adverse Event Profile of the Fixed-Ratio Combination of Insulin Glargine and Lixisenatide.

Diabetes Ther 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Introduction: iGlarLixi is a titratable, fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine (100 units/mL) and lixisenatide (33 μg/mL). This review evaluates the overall safety and adverse event (AE) profile of iGlarLixi in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We collated patient-level data from the phase 2 LixiLan proof-of-concept trial and the phase 3 LixiLan-L (insulin-experienced patients) and LixiLan-O (insulin-naïve patients) trials to evaluate AEs associated with iGlarLixi. Read More

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December 2018

A novel role of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) in glucose homeostasis.

Acta Diabetol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Mineralized Tissues, Center for Translational and Clinical Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 11, Zagreb, Croatia.

Aims: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in the development and homeostasis of multiple organs and tissues. There has been a significant focus on understanding the role of BMPs in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to investigate the relationship between BMP6 and glucose homeostasis. Read More

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December 2018
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Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse and its association with prolapse severity according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system.

Int Urogynecol J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Data regarding possible associations between metabolic syndrome (MS) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are scarce. The primary hypothesis was that the prevalence of MS and its components was higher in postmenopausal women with POP than in age-matched women without POP staged with the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q). The secondary aim of the study was to analyze the association between MS and its components with POP severity. Read More

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December 2018

Th1/Th2 Dichotomy in Obese Women with Gestational Diabetes and Their Macrosomic Babies.

J Diabetes Res 2018 14;2018:8474617. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Physiology and Functional Explorations, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, Cheikh Anta Diop University, 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

The aim of the study was to assess T cell differentiation and the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in obese and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women and their macrosomic newborns. Hence, immediately after delivery, blood samples were collected through the mother's arm vein and the umbilical cordon vein. Biochemical parameters measured were HbA1C, glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (Tchol), HDL cholesterol (HDLchol), and LDL cholesterol (LDLchol). Read More

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November 2018
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Implications of the Intestinal Microbiota in Diagnosing the Progression of Diabetes and the Presence of Cardiovascular Complications.

J Diabetes Res 2018 12;2018:5205126. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania.

The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity. Read More

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November 2018

Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms by Intake of Ninjin'yoeito.

Front Nutr 2018 27;5:112. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Diabetes mellitus is a well-known common disease and one of the most serious social problems in the worldwide. Although various types of drugs are developed, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is still increasing. Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is one of formulas used in Japanese traditional herbal medicines for improving various types of metabolic disorders. Read More

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November 2018

The Effect of Berberine on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with Insulin Resistance (PCOS-IR): A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 14;2018:2532935. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

OB/GYN Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of berberine (BBR) on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with insulin resistance (IR).

Methods: PubMed (in English), Medline (in English), Embase (in English), CNKI (in Chinese), WanFang DATA (in Chinese), and VIP (in Chinese) were searched for randomized controlled trials in human beings with the search terms including "polycystic ovary syndrome /PCOS" and "berberine/BBR/Huang liansu (in Chinese)/ Xiao bojian (in Chinese)" till July 2018. Relevant indices were collected and analyzed by Stata 13. Read More

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November 2018

Antidiabetic Activity of Thunb Aqueous Extract in Diabetic KK-A Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 12;2018:1298030. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Laboratory Medicine Department, Fenyang College of Shanxi Medical University, Fenyang, 032200, China.

Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Picris japonica Thunb (Asteraceae) on KK-Ay mice.

Methods: The hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract (PJE) in a spontaneous type 2 diabetic model (KK-A mice) was studied in the present research. PJE was administrated at doses of 700 mg/kg and 350 mg/kg (calculated as crude herb) for 14 days and blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin level, and blood lipid were evaluated. Read More

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November 2018
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Somatotropic Axis Regulation Unravels the Differential Effects of Nutritional and Environmental Factors in Growth Performance of Marine Farmed Fishes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 27;9:687. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Nutrigenomics and Fish Growth Endocrinology, Institute of Aquaculture Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Castellón, Spain.

The Gh/Prl/Sl family has evolved differentially through evolution, resulting in varying relationships between the somatotropic axis and growth rates within and across fish species. This is due to a wide range of endogenous and exogenous factors that make this association variable throughout season and life cycle, and the present minireview aims to better define the nutritional and environmental regulation of the endocrine growth cascade over precisely defined groups of fishes, focusing on Mediterranean farmed fishes. As a result, circulating Gh and Igf-i are revitalized as reliable growth markers, with a close association with growth rates of gilthead sea bream juveniles with deficiency signs in both macro- or micro-nutrients. Read More

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November 2018

Early detection of metabolic dysregulation using water T analysis of biobanked samples.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2018 23;11:807-818. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Nanoparticle Diagnostics Laboratory, Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Physiology & Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA,

Background: The ability to use frozen biobanked samples from cohort studies and clinical trials is critically important for biomarker discovery and validation. Here we investigated whether plasma and serum water transverse relaxation times (T) from frozen biobanked samples could be used as biomarkers for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its underlying conditions, specifically insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and subclinical inflammation.

Methods: Plasma and serum aliquots from 44 asymptomatic, non-diabetic human subjects were biobanked at -80°C for 7-9 months. Read More

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November 2018

Mechanism involved in insulin resistance via accumulation of β-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles: link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 22;12:3999-4021. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

The pathophysiological link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested in several reports. Few findings suggest that T2DM has strong link in the development process of AD, and the complete mechanism is yet to be revealed. Formation of amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are two central hallmarks in the AD. Read More

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November 2018

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) and single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) result in distinct post-prandial hormone profiles.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine (UMIB), Endocrine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background/objective: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) is the most effective bariatric intervention to treat morbid obesity and related disorders. Single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) is a new bariatric procedure devised with the purpose of simplifying the complexity of the BPD-DS technique while maintaining its efficacy. However, whether BPD-DS and SADI-S result in similar fasting and post-prandial hormone profiles has not yet been studied. Read More

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December 2018

Lycopene attenuates western-diet-induced cognitive deficits via improving glycolipid metabolism dysfunction and inflammatory responses in gut-liver-brain axis.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry and Nutrition of Food, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Background/objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lycopene (LYC), a major carotenoid present in tomato, on high-fat and high-fructose western diet (HFFD)-induced cognitive impairments and the protective effects on HFFD-elicited insulin resistance, lipid metabolism dysfunction and inflammatory responses in the gut-liver-brain axis.

Subjects/methods: We randomly assigned 3-month-old C57BL/6 J mice to three groups with different diets: the control group, HFFD group and HFFD + LYC group (LYC, 0.03% w/w, mixed into high-fat diet) for 10 weeks. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of synbiotic pomegranate juice on glycemic, sex hormone profile and anthropometric indices in PCOS: A randomized, triple blind, controlled trial.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018 Jul 17. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Nutrition Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Aims: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a common reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic disease in women. Pomegranate juice, known as a rich source of phytochemicals with high antioxidant activity, enriched with probiotic may improve PCOS.

Methods And Results: A randomized, controlled, triple-blinded, parallel trial study was performed in PCOS patients (n = 92). Read More

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The influence of telmisartan on metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

J Pharmacol Sci 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Metformin is the most widely used drug among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. However, drug interaction on metformin will influence its glucose-lowering effect or increase its side effect of lactic acidosis. In this study, a randomized, two-stage, crossover study was conducted to unveil the potential drug interaction between metformin and the anti-hypertension drug, telmisartan. Read More

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November 2018

Hypoglycemia secondary to factitious hyperinsulinism in a foster care adolescent - a case report of munchausen syndrome in a community hospital emergency department setting.

BMC Emerg Med 2018 Dec 11;18(1):53. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Northeast Georgia Medical Center Barrow, 316 N Broad St, Winder, GA, 30680, USA.

Background: Factitious disorder causing hypoglycemia is a psychiatric condition in which patients deliberately use blood sugar lowering medications to cause severe symptoms for the purposes of hospitalization or other primary gains.

Case Presentation: We report a case of factitious hypoglycemia in a 19-year-old foster care adolescent female who presented to the Emergency Department with recurrent hypoglycemic episodes, to the degree that the patient required large amounts of dextrose and further management by intensive care unit hospitalization. Further inquiry revealed that the patient intentionally injected herself with large doses of insulin for the purposes of seeking hospital admission. Read More

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December 2018

A New Algorithm Dedicated to Blood Glucose Monitoring in Insulin-Treated Elderly Dependent People With Diabetes.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2018 Dec 12:1932296818815453. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Silvermed Institute, State Geriatric Center, Marseille, France.

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December 2018

Ageing influences the relationship of circulating miR-33a and miR- 33b levels with insulin resistance and adiposity.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018 Dec 11:1479164118816659. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

1 Instituto de Investigación en Reumatología y del Sistema Musculo Esquelético, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.

Objective:: The identification of circulating microRNAs related to abnormal metabolic function may be useful in the context of ageing, adiposity and insulin resistance. The miR-33 a/b has been shown to control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, impaired metabolism and insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to identify differences in circulating miR-33 a/b levels according to age-related metabolic impairment and increased adiposity. Read More

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December 2018

Aerobic exercise training improves insulin-induced vasorelaxation in a vessel-specific manner in rats with insulin-treated experimental diabetes.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018 Dec 11:1479164118815279. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

1 School of Kinesiology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Vascular insulin resistance often precedes endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to limit vascular dysfunction include intensive insulin therapy (4-9 mM) and aerobic training. To avoid the risk of hypoglycaemia, individuals often prescribed conventional insulin therapy (9-15 mM) and participate in resistance training. Read More

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December 2018

Scalable Manufacturing of Enteric Encapsulation Systems for Site-Specific Oral Insulin Delivery.

Biomacromolecules 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Oral drug delivery is a more favored mode of administration because of its ease of administration, high patient compliance, and low healthcare costs. However, no oral protein formulations are commercially available currently due to the hostile gastrointestinal (GI) barriers resulting in insignificant oral bioavailability of macromolecular drugs. Herein, we used insulin as a model protein drug, insulin-loaded N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chloride modified chitosan (HTCC)/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanocomplex (NC) as a nanocore was further encapsulated into enteric Eudragit L100-55 material through two-step flash nanocomplexation (FNC) process in a reliable and scalable manner, forming our NC-in-Eudragit composite particles (NE). Read More

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December 2018
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An inflammatory-CCRK circuitry drives mTORC1-dependent metabolic and immunosuppressive reprogramming in obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5214. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Obesity increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in men, but the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here, we show that an androgen receptor (AR)-driven oncogene, cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), collaborates with obesity-induced pro-inflammatory signaling to promote non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related hepatocarcinogenesis. Lentivirus-mediated Ccrk ablation in liver of male mice fed with high-fat high-carbohydrate diet abrogates not only obesity-associated lipid accumulation, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, but also HCC development. Read More

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December 2018

Insulin Pump Therapy - Influence on Body Fat Redistribution, Skeletal Muscle Mass and Ghrelin, Leptin Changes in T1D Patients.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):454-464. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clinic of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (JFM CU), Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: To report changes in body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) after switching from multiple daily injection (MDI) to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

Methods: 31 patients switched over from MDI to CSII. Body composition, biochemical parameters, glycaemic variability (GV) and level of physical activity were evaluated before and 6 months on CSII. Read More

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December 2018
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Deficiency of VCP-Interacting Membrane Selenoprotein (VIMP) Leads to G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death in MIN6 Insulinoma Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 7;51(5):2185-2197. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois,

Background/aims: VCP-interacting membrane selenoprotein (VIMP), an ER resident selenoprotein, is highly expressed in β-cells, however, the role of VIMP in β-cells has not been characterized. In this study, we studied the relationship between VIMP deficiency and β-cell survival in MIN6 insulinoma cells.

Methods: To determine the role of VIMP in β-cells, lentiviral VIMP shRNAs were used to knock down (KD) expression of VIMP in MIN6 cells. Read More

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December 2018

GLP1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Is an Effective Therapeutic Option for Perioperative Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes within Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Protocols.

Eur Surg Res 2018 Dec 11;59(5-6):349-360. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Background: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are multimodal perioperative care pathways designed to achieve early recovery after surgical procedures by maintaining preoperative organ function and reducing profound stress responses following surgery [Wilmore and Kehlet: BMJ 2001; 322(7284): 473-6]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAgs), such as liraglutide, have recently been widely used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because they maintain blood glucose at an ideal level throughout the day, including during postprandial periods, thereby improving hypoglycemia and body weight more than insulin therapies. Additionally, the administration of liraglutide may exert cardiovascular, renal, and cerebral protective effects in T2D patients. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Weight Loss on Glutathione Peroxidase 3 Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):475-490. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig,

Background/aims: Altered expression and circulating levels of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) have been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) across species. Here, we investigate whether GPX3 serum concentrations and adipose tissue (AT) GPX3 mRNA expression are related to obesity and weight loss.

Methods: GPX3 serum concentration was measured in 630 individuals, including a subgroup (n = 293) for which omental and subcutaneous (SC) GPX3 mRNA expression has been analyzed. Read More

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December 2018
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In Vivo Assessment of Combined Effects of Glibenclamide and Losartan in Diabetic Rats.

Med Princ Pract 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Objective: Diabetic complications involve multiple pathological pathways, including hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Combination therapy is usually employed to improve treatment outcomes and to lower potential adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of antidiabetic and antihypertensive agents, glibenclamide (GLI) and losartan (LT), on diabetes-associated metabolic changes in rats. Read More

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December 2018
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Investigation of the diabetic effects of maternal high-glucose diet on rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 8;110:609-617. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Burdur, Turkey.

Background: Diabetes mellitus become an epidemic problem throughout the world. Relation of the diabetes with diet is known. Some evidence is reported about mother died and risk of diabetes in babies during the life related with gestational diabetes. Read More

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December 2018
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Impact of maternal low-level cadmium exposure on glucose and lipid metabolism of the litter at different ages after weaning.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 26;219:109-121. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inserm U1055, LBFA, 38000 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a metal which may participate in the development of type II diabetes even if Cd exposure levels are mild. However, experimental studies focusing on daily environmentally relevant doses are scarce, particularly for glucose metabolism of the offspring of chronically exposed mothers. The aim is to measure the impact of maternal low level Cd exposure on glucose and lipid metabolism of offspring. Read More

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November 2018
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Hyperactivation of Nrf2 increases stress tolerance at the cost of aging acceleration due to metabolic deregulation.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 10:e12845. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance. Read More

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December 2018

Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Background People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in part due to low insulin sensitivity mediated arterial stiffness. However, the effect of short-term exercise training intensity, and/or amount (i.e. Read More

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December 2018
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Dietary protein affects both the dose and pattern of insulin delivery required to achieve postprandial euglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes: a randomized trial.

Diabet Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA.

Aim: To quantify the insulin requirement for a high-protein meal compared with a low-protein meal, controlling for carbohydrate and fat content.

Methods: In this crossover study, young people with Type 1 diabetes were randomized to consume a high- (60 g) or low-protein meal (5 g), each containing 30 g carbohydrate and 8 g fat. A variation of the insulin clamp technique was used to determine the insulin requirements to maintain euglycaemia for the following 5 h. Read More

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December 2018

Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23199. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. Read More

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December 2018

A randomized, multicentre trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults with type 1 diabetes (onset 5).

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Children's Hospital Ljubljana, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart [FA]) vs insulin aspart (IAsp) in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in participants with type 1 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: Double-blind, treat-to-target, randomized, 16-week trial investigating CSII treatment with FA (n = 236) or IAsp (n = 236). All available information regardless of treatment discontinuation was used for the evaluation of effect. Read More

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December 2018
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Combination of Whole Grape Seed Flour and Newly Isolated Kefir Lactic Acid Bacteria Reduces High-Fat (HF)-induced Hepatic Steatosis.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 Dec 11:e1801040. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.-H. Kwon, H. G. Lee, K.-H. Seo, H. Kim, Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul.

Scope: This study aimed to determine the separate and combined effect of a prebiotic (Catechin-rich wine grape seed flour, GSF) and a probiotic (newly isolated kefir lactic acid bacteria, LAB) on hepatic steatosis of obese mice.

Methods And Results: High-fat (HF)-induced obese mice were fed HF diet containing 6% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control), 10% GSF, orally administrated LAB, or combination of GSF and LAB for 9 weeks. There was a significant reduction of body weight gain, and liver weights, plasma insulin concentrations, and HOMA-IR in all experimental groups compared to control. Read More

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December 2018

Impaired pressure natriuresis and non-dipping blood pressure in Rats with early type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, EH16 4TJ.

Key Points Summary: Type 1 diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk: hypertension amplifies this risk. Pressure natriuresis regulates long-term blood pressure. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats by streptozotocin injection and after three weeks demonstrated a substantial impairment of pressure natriuresis: acute increases in blood pressure did not increase renal medullary blood flow, and tubular sodium reabsorption was not downregulated. Read More

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December 2018
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