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    1 OF 66

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    Artemisia spp. essential oils against the disease-carrying blowfly Calliphora vomitoria.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 13;10(1):80. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Background: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. Read More

    The insect repellents: A silent environmental chemical toxicant to the health.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jan 29;50:91-102. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Tripura, India.
    In recent years, a large number of insect repellents have been developed with the idea of consumer benefits. In addition to already known advantageous application of insect repellents, there is increasing concern about the potential toxicity in environment leading to health caused by random use of these compounds. An increasing number of evidence suggests that insect repellents may trigger undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems with a potential to generate harmful effects including intermediate metabolites. Read More

    What can we do about the Zika virus in the United States?
    J Fam Pract 2016 Nov;65(11):756-757
    Louisville, KY, USA.
    Control measures include using insect repellents, aerial spraying of insecticides, eliminating mosquito breeding sites, covering water tanks, and using mosquito nets or door and window screens. Infection during pregnancy is the greatest concern because of congenital anomalies (including microcephaly) that negatively affect brain development. Read More

    Biodegradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Freshwater Unicellular Cyanobacteria.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 19;2016:5178697. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Research Center of Bioenergy and Bioremediation, College of Resource and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.
    The biodegradation characteristics of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by three freshwater unicellular organisms were investigated in this study. The findings revealed that all the organisms were capable of metabolizing DMP; among them, Cyanothece sp. PCC7822 achieved the highest degradation efficiency. Read More

    Mosquito repellents: An insight into the chronological perspectives and novel discoveries.
    Acta Trop 2017 Mar 29;167:216-230. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam 784001, India.
    Mosquito being the major medically important arthropod vector; requires utmost attention to reduce the sufferings and economic consequences of those living in the endemic regions. This is only possible by minimising the human-mosquito contact by an absolute preventing measure. However, unfortunately, such absolute measures are yet to be developed despite enormous efforts and huge investments worldwide. Read More

    Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article.
    J Arthropod Borne Dis 2016 Dec 4;10(4):429-444. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. Read More

    A review of recommendations on the safe and effective use of topical mosquito repellents.
    Public Health Res Pract 2016 Dec 14;26(5). Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Health Risk Policy Unit, Health Protection NSW, NSW Health, Sydney, Australia.
    Mosquito-borne disease is an annual problem in Australia, with endemic pathogens such as Ross River virus infecting thousands of people each year. The recent emergence of Zika virus in South America and the Pacific, together with ongoing outbreaks of dengue viruses in Southeast Asia, generated great community interest in the most effective strategies to avoid mosquito bites. Large-scale mosquito control programs are not common in Australia and are limited in New South Wales (NSW). Read More

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) affects the ultrastructure of the midgut muscle of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
    Acta Histochem 2017 Jan 6;119(1):84-91. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Laboratory of Insects, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, UNESP - São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Cytomorphological changes, by means of ultrastructural analyses, have been used to determine the effects of the biopesticide neem oil on the muscle fibers of the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri. Insects, throughout the larval period, were fed eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% or 2%. Read More

    Molecular Basis of Alarm Pheromone Detection in Aphids.
    Curr Biol 2017 Jan 1;27(1):55-61. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:
    The sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the alarm pheromone for many species of aphids [1]. When released from aphids attacked by parasitoids or predators, it alerts nearby conspecifics to escape by walking away and dropping off the host plant [2, 3]. The reception of alarm pheromone in aphids is accomplished through a highly sensitive chemosensory system. Read More

    Application of ethnobotanical repellents and acaricides in prevention, control and management of livestock ticks: A review.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Dec 9;109:1-9. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    Insect Behaviour Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Ticks transmit at least the same number or even more pathogens than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. The eco-friendly control and management of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. Besides the development of vaccines against ticks, IPM practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remain the most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Read More

    Do insect repellents induce drift behaviour in aquatic non-target organisms?
    Water Res 2017 Jan 4;108:32-38. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    University of Cologne, Cologne Biocenter, Workgroup Aquatic Chemical Ecology, Zülpicher Strasse 47b, 50674 Koeln, Germany.
    Synthetic insect repellents are compounds applied to surfaces to discourage insects, mainly mosquitoes, from landing on those surfaces. As some of these repellents have repeatedly been detected in surface waters at significant concentrations, they may also exert repellent effects on aquatic non-target organisms. In running water systems, aquatic invertebrates actively enter downstream drift in order to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions. Read More

    The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.
    Bull Entomol Res 2017 Feb 7;107(1):49-57. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Faculty of Pharmacies, National University of Malaysia,Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz,50300 Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.
    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. Read More

    An acetone extract of Clausena anisata may be a potential control agent for flies encountered in cutaneous myiasis.
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2016 May 24;83(1):e1-e7. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria.
    Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. Read More

    Analysis of Pesticides and Toxic Heavy Metals Contained in Mosquito Coils.
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2016 Nov 3;97(5):614-618. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
    The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409-1163, USA.
    In this study, 10 mosquito coils manufactured in China were obtained in Suriname, South America, where they are used extensively. The coils were analyzed for organics (allethrin, permethrin, and butylated hydroxytoluene) and heavy metals (Cr, Co, As, Cd, and Pb) by GC-MS and ICP-MS, respectively. Allethrin was the only target organic compound detected in all mosquito coils with concentrations ranging from ~1900 to ~4500 µg/g. Read More

    Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.
    J Chem Ecol 2016 Sep 29;42(9):952-969. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa.
    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Read More

    Critical assessment of the ubiquitous occurrence and fate of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in water.
    Environ Int 2016 Nov 16;96:98-117. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 James E. Rogers Way, Tucson 85721, AZ, USA. Electronic address:
    The insect repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET) is among the most frequently detected organic chemical contaminants in water across a wide range of geographies from around the world. These observations are raising critical questions and increasing concerns regarding potential environmental relevance, particularly when the emergence of severe neurological conditions attributed to the Zika virus has increased the use of insect repellents. After dermal application, DEET is washed from the skin when bathing and enters the municipal sewer system before discharge into the environment. Read More

    Schistosomiasis: Traverers in Africa.
    J Spec Oper Med 2016 ;16(3):47-52
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection acquired through freshwater exposure in the tropics. It is an infection that can have devastating implications to military personnel if it is not recognized and treated, especially later in life. While there is an abundance of information available about schistosomiasis in endemic populations, the information on nonendemic populations, such as deployers, is insufficient. Read More

    Olfactory Mechanisms for Discovery of Odorants to Reduce Insect-Host Contact.
    J Chem Ecol 2016 Sep 15;42(9):919-930. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
    Insects have developed highly sophisticated and sensitive olfactory systems to find animal or plant hosts for feeding. Some insects vector pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people and destroy billions of dollars of food products every year. There is great interest, therefore, in understanding how the insect olfactory system can be manipulated to reduce their contact with hosts. Read More

    Cross-sectional biomonitoring study of pesticide exposures in Queensland, Australia, using pooled urine samples.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Dec 10;23(23):23436-23448. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Rd, Coopers Plains, QLD, 4108, Australia.
    A range of pesticides are available in Australia for use in agricultural and domestic settings to control pests, including organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, and insect repellents, such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). The aim of this study was to provide a cost-effective preliminary assessment of background exposure to a range of pesticides among a convenience sample of Australian residents. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100 specimens). Read More

    Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Nov 8;23(22):23228-23238. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. Read More

    Lack of information received by a French female cohort regarding prevention against exposure to reprotoxic agents during pregnancy.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Oct 3;205:15-20. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Pôle Femmes-Mères-Enfants, AP-HM La Conception, Marseille, France; Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Avignon Université, IMBE UMR 7263, 13397, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the information pregnant women received regarding possible exposures to five recognized reprotoxic agents during their pregnancy.

    Study Design: A cohort study was conducted using two postnatal units in France. Women hospitalized in postnatal units were requested to complete a self-administered two part questionnaire. Read More

    The crystal structure of the AgamOBP1•Icaridin complex reveals alternative binding modes and stereo-selective repellent recognition.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Jan 17;74(2):319-338. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, 11635, Athens, Greece.
    Anopheles gambiae Odorant Binding Protein 1 in complex with the most widely used insect repellent DEET, was the first reported crystal structure of an olfactory macromolecule with a repellent, and paved the way for OBP1-structure-based approaches for discovery of new host-seeking disruptors. In this work, we performed STD-NMR experiments to directly monitor and verify the formation of a complex between AgamOBP1 and Icaridin, an efficient DEET alternative. Furthermore, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments provided evidence for two Icaridin-binding sites with different affinities (Kd = 0. Read More

    [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].
    Sportverletz Sportschaden 2016 Aug 4;30(3):154-6. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Orthopädie und Sportmedizin, Rennbahnklinik, Muttenz, Schweiz.
    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. Read More

    Development and characterization of repellent formulations based on nanostructured hydrogels.
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017 Jan 25;43(1):67-73. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    a College of Pharmacy , Federal University of Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
    Diseases caused by insects could lead to epidemic scenarios in urban areas and insect repellents are a shield against a wide range of insects, but they need to be safe without compromising efficacy. Ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (EB) is a synthetic mosquito repellent, which could be used in products for adults and children due to its low-allergenic potential. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize EB and Poloxamer 407 nanoemulsions regarding their droplets mean size, pH, rheological properties, cytotoxicity and in vitro permeation profile. Read More

    Eco-toxicological bioassay of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with Photobacterium Phosphoreum T3.
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2016 Nov 26;133:226-34. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; Fudan Tyndall Center, China. Electronic address:
    A bioluminescent bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum T3 (PPT3), was used as a bio-indicator for the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to determine the eco-toxicity of PM2.5. Read More

    Neuroethology of Olfactory-Guided Behavior and Its Potential Application in the Control of Harmful Insects.
    Front Physiol 2016 30;7:271. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Lab. de Estudio de la Biología de Insectos, CICyTTP-CONICETDiamante, Argentina; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre RíosOro Verde, Argentina.
    Harmful insects include pests of crops and storage goods, and vectors of human and animal diseases. Throughout their history, humans have been fighting them using diverse methods. The fairly recent development of synthetic chemical insecticides promised efficient crop and health protection at a relatively low cost. Read More

    Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.
    PLoS One 2016 21;11(7):e0159372. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
    Institute for Management of Invasive Alien Species, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, PR China.
    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Read More

    Phthalate monoesters as markers of phthalate contamination in wild marine organisms.
    Environ Pollut 2016 Nov 18;218:410-418. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
    Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:
    The level of phthalate esters (PAEs) alone is not considered to be a sufficient indicator of PAE pollution due to the quick metabolism of PAEs in the biota. The primary metabolites of PAEs, monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs), may also be an important indicator. However, PAE metabolism has scarcely been documented in wild marine organisms. Read More

    Development of an Insect Repellent Spray for Textile Based on Permethrin-Loaded Lipid-Core Nanocapsules.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016 Feb;16(2):1301-9
    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize permethrin-loaded lipid core nanocapsules (P-LNC) in order to produce a long last insect repellent spray formulation for clothes. P-LNC were prepared by self-assembling in aqueous solution showing a mean diameter of 201 +/- 4 nm with a monomodal distribution, a permethrin content of 4.6 +/- 0. Read More

    Theory and Application of Semiochemicals in Nuisance Fish Control.
    J Chem Ecol 2016 Jul 14;42(7):698-715. Epub 2016 Jul 14.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Hammond Bay Biological Station, Great Lakes Science Center, 11188 Ray Road, Millersburg, MI, 49759, USA.
    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. Read More

    EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2016 May;47(3):410-5
    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p < 0. Read More

    An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.
    PLoS One 2016 8;11(7):e0158744. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    Habitat Management Programme, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O Box 30-40305, Mbita, Kenya.
    Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant's chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Read More

    Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus.
    Vet Parasitol 2016 Jul 24;225:12-8. Epub 2016 May 24.
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:
    Rhipicephalus decoloratus causes serious economic losses in cattle industry every year in East Africa. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi is seen as a promising alternative to chemical acaricides being used for their control. The pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and of Beauveria bassiana isolates was tested in the laboratory against amitraz-resistant and amitraz-susceptible strains of R. Read More

    [Characteristics of Adsorption Leaching and Influencing Factors of Dimethyl Phthalate in Purple Soil].
    Huan Jing Ke Xue 2016 Feb;37(2):726-33
    The typical soil-purple soil in Three Gorges Reservoir was the tested soil, the characteristics of adsorption leaching of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in contaminated water by the soil, and the influencing factors in the process were conducted using soil column leaching experiment. The results showed that the parabolic equation was the best equation describing adsorption kinetics of DMP by soils. The concentration of DMP in the leaching solution had significant effect on the adsorption amounts of DMP. Read More

    Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti Mosquito towards Essential Oils Using Olfactometer.
    J Arthropod Borne Dis 2016 Sep 6;10(3):370-80. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    Vector Management Division, Defence R and D Establishment Jhansi Road, Gwalior, India.
    Background: Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for transmitting human diseases like dengue and chikungunya. Personal or space protection with insect repellents is a practical approach to reducing human mosquito contact, thereby minimizing disease transmission. Essential oils are natural volatile substances from plants used as protective measure against blood-sucking mosquitoes. Read More

    New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2016 Jun;32(2):117-23
    3  Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Read More

    Ethnobotanical knowledge on botanical repellents employed in the African region against mosquito vectors - A review.
    Exp Parasitol 2016 Aug 31;167:103-8. Epub 2016 May 31.
    Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have. Read More

    Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.
    Pest Manag Sci 2016 Oct 7;72(10):1813-25. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    USDA/APHIS/WS/National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. Read More

    The toxicity of picaridin containing insect repellent reported to the National Poison Data System.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2016 Sep 23;54(8):655-8. Epub 2016 May 23.
    a Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology , University of Virginia , Charlottesville , VA , USA ;
    Context: While low toxicity is reported, there are sparse data on the safety of acute picaridin (icaridin) exposures in humans.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review National Poison Data System (NPDS) data regarding ingestion of insect repellents containing picaridin and compare those to insect repellents containing DEET and other insect repellents not containing DEET.

    Methods: NPDS was queried for single agent human insect repellent ingestions reported between 1 January 2000 and 31 May 2015 using the American Association of Poison Control Center generic categories 201048 (Insect Repellents with DEET) and 201049 (Insect Repellents without DEET). Read More

    An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Plants Used as Insecticide and Insect Repellent in Traditional Iranian Medicine.
    Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Feb 13;18(2):e22361. Epub 2016 Feb 13.
    Department of Traditional Pharmacy, Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Context: Insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. The total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. Read More

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