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    Essential oils and their components as an alternative in the control of mosquito vectors of disease.
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):224-243. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, México.
    More than half of the human population is exposed to mosquito-borne infections. Climate change and the emergence of strains resistant to traditionally used insecticides have motivated the search of new agents for mosquito population control. Essential oils have been effective repellents and larvicidal agents. Read More

    Toxic effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Sch &Wendle against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, 600 034, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Many commercially available agro and household chemicals are used as pesticides, repellents, and growth inhibitors against insect pests. The repeated uses of these chemicals against insect pests have caused the development of resistance in them; they also cause ill effects on nontarget organisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal, and biochemical effects of the solvent extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Read More

    Urinary concentrations of 3-(diethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (DCBA), a major metabolite of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and semen parameters among men attending a fertility center.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Oct 25:1-8. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Study Question: Are specific gravity (SG)-adjusted urinary concentrations of 3-(diethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (DCBA) associated with semen parameters among men attending an academic fertility center?

    Summary Answer: Our study did not demonstrate any association between SG-adjusted urinary DCBA concentrations and semen parameters among men attending an academic fertility center.

    What Is Known Already: N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) is the most common active ingredient in consumer insect repellents. The recent rise in public health concerns regarding mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika, have led to an increased use of DEET insect repellents, especially among couples planning pregnancy. Read More

    Protecting cows in small holder farms in East Africa from tsetse flies by mimicking the odor profile of a non-host bovid.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 17;11(10):e0005977. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified. Read More

    Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2018 Jan 13;1862(1):40-50. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA; Center for Molecular Medicine, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz. Read More

    Evaluation of the Constituents of Vetiver Oil Against Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), a Malaria Vector in Thailand.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
    The development of resistance by mosquitoes to current synthetic compounds has resulted in reduced effectiveness of prevention and control methods worldwide. An alternative nonchemical based control tools are needed to be evaluated particularly plant-derived essential oils. Several components of vetiver oil have been documented as insect repellents. Read More

    Robust Manipulations of Pest Insect Behavior Using Repellents and Practical Application for Integrated Pest Management.
    Environ Entomol 2017 Oct;46(5):1041-1050
    Department of Entomology, Cornell University, 630 W. North St., Geneva, NY 14456.
    In agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (IPM) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. This may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. Here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. Read More

    Neem oil nanoemulsions: characterisation and antioxidant activity.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2017 Dec;32(1):1265-1273
    b Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco , " Sapienza" University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
    The aim of the present work is to develop nanoemulsions (NEs), nanosized emulsions, manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In particular, nanoemulsions composed of Neem seed oil, contain rich bioactive components, and Tween 20 as nonionic surfactant were prepared. A mean droplet size ranging from 10 to 100 nm was obtained by modulating the oil/surfactant ratio. Read More

    No effect of insect repellents on the behaviour of Lymnaea stagnalis at environmentally relevant concentrations.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Sep 24. Epub 2017 Sep 24.
    Cologne Biocenter, Workgroup Aquatic Chemical Ecology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Strasse 47b, 50674, Köln, Germany.
    Insect repellents are widely applied to various materials and to both human and animal skin to deter mosquitoes and ticks. The most common deterrent compounds applied are DEET, EBAAP and icaridin (picaridin, Bayrepel). Due to their extensive application, these repellents are frequently detected in surface waters in considerable concentrations. Read More

    Quantification through TLC-densitometric analysis, repellency and anticholinesterase activity of the homemade extract of Indian cloves.
    Biomed Chromatogr 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Laboratory of Molecular Modeling Applied to the Chemical and Biological Defense, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The rise of the mosquitoes-transmitted diseases, like dengue, zika and chikungunya in Brazil in the last years has increased concerns on protection against mosquitoes bites. However, the prohibitive prices of the commercially available repellents for the majority of the Brazilian population has provoked a search for cheaper solutions, like the use of the homemade ethanolic extract of Indian clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) as repellent, which has been reported as quite efficient by the local press. Read More

    DBP formation from degradation of DEET and ibuprofen by UV/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination.
    J Environ Sci (China) 2017 Aug 23;58:146-154. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the degradation of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzoyl amide (DEET) and ibuprofen (IBP) by the ultraviolet irradiation (UV)/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination was investigated and compared with the UV/H2O2 process. The pseudo first-order rate constants of the degradation of DEET and IBP by the UV/chlorine process were 2 and 3.1 times higher than those by the UV/H2O2 process, respectively, under the tested conditions. Read More

    Glucosinolate Profiles in Cabbage Genotypes Influence the Preferential Feeding of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella).
    Front Plant Sci 2017 18;8:1244. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Horticulture, Sunchon National UniversitySuncheon, South Korea.
    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L., is a devastating pest of cabbage worldwide whose feeding attributes are influenced by glucosinolate profiles of the plant. Identifying the specific glucosinolates associated with plants' resistance mechanism can provide cues to novel points of intervention in developing resistant cultivars. Read More

    Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. essential oil: Chemical composition and antimicrobial, insect-repellent and anticholinesterase activities.
    Saudi Pharm J 2017 Jul 1;25(5):703-708. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey.
    The essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil was subsequently analyzed by both GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. Read More

    Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):155-162
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More

    Electrochemical Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans and Evaluation of Their Insect Antifeedant Activities.
    J Oleo Sci 2017 Aug 12;66(8):857-862. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, School of Agriculture, Kindai University.
    Electrochemically synthesized dihydrobenzofurans were evaluated for their insect antifeedant activities against phytophagous insects. They were prepared through the coupling reactions of various alkenes with a phenoxy cation generated by oxidation near the cathode in the electrolytic reaction. The insect antifeedant activities of these synthetic dihydrobenzofurans were evaluated in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) with the dual choice leaf disk bioassay method. Read More

    In vitro assessment of phthalate acid esters-trypsin complex formation.
    Chemosphere 2017 Oct 1;185:29-35. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai, 264209, PR China.
    In this work, interactions of three phthalate acid esters (PAEs), including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), with trypsin have been studied in vitro, under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The results show that these PAEs can bind to the trypsin, forming trypsin-PAEs complexes, mainly via hydrophobic interactions, with the affinity order of DMP > DEP > DBP. Binding to the PAEs is found to result in molecular deformation of trypsin. Read More

    Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate.
    Acta Trop 2017 Oct 27;174:56-63. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam 784001, India. Electronic address:
    Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED50) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. Read More

    Evaluation of knowledge and use of the malaria prevention measures among the patients of the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases University Center of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdynia, based on a questionnaire performed in the years 2012-20
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017;71(1):33-44
    Medical University of Gdańsk, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Chair of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology – National Center for Tropical Medicine, Department of Tropical Parasitology, Gdynia.
    Introduction: Every year, approximately 125 million travelers visit areas where malaria prevails, located in over 100 countries. Over 10,000 of them suffer from malaria annually. Visitors to these areas may protect themselves against infection by using chemoprophylaxis, insect repellents, appropriate clothing, sleeping in airconditioned and well-screened quarters or using mosquito nets impregnated with insecticides. Read More

    Infrared light detection by the haller's organ of adult american dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Ixodida: Ixodidae).
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Aug 13;8(5):764-771. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Campus Box 7647, 3230 Ligon Street, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7647, USA. Electronic address:
    The Haller's organ (HO), unique to ticks and mites, is found only on the first tarsus of the front pair of legs. The organ has an unusual morphology consisting of an anterior pit (AP) with protruding sensilla and a posterior capsule (Cp). The current thinking is that the HO's main function is chemosensation analogous to the insect antennae, but the functionality of its atypical structure (exclusive to the Acari) is unexplained. Read More

    The seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Israel: A nationwide cross sectional study.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(6):e0179774. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Public Health Services, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. Read More

    Hydronopylformamides: Modification of the Naturally Occurring Compound (-)-β-Pinene to Produce Insect Repellent Candidates against Blattella germanica.
    Molecules 2017 Jun 16;22(6). Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Camphor Tree Engineering and Technology Research Center of State Forestry Administration and Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, China.
    The development of a novel repellent plays an important role in the integrated control of Blattella germanica. A series of novel hydronopylformamides derivatives were synthesized from a naturally occurring compound (-)-β-pinene. The structures of these hydronopylformamides derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Read More

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as insects repellents in six malaria endemic localities of Cameroon.
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017 Jun 8;13(1):33. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Laboratory for Phytobiochemistry and Medicinal Plants Studies, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: The combined efforts to combat outdoor/indoor transmission of malaria parasites are hampered by the emerging vector resistance in a wide variety of malaria-endemic settings of Africa and the rest of the world, stressing the need for alternative control measures. This study aimed at documenting insect's repellent plant species used by indigenous populations of 6 localities of East, South, West and Centre regions of Cameroon.

    Methods: Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire on the knowledge of medicinal plants with insect repellent properties. Read More

    Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jun 9;66(22):574-578. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). Read More

    Mosquito-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem: Implications for Pregnancy and Travel.
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 2017 May;72(5):309-318
    Associate Professor, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Health Sciences, Harvard Medical School; and Chair, Division of Global Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
    Importance: Mosquitoes are the most common disease vectors worldwide. A combination of factors, including changes in public health policy, climate change, and global travel, has led to the resurgence and spread of these diseases in our modern world. Pregnant women are vulnerable to a number of these illnesses, and obstetricians are likely to encounter pregnant travelers who have been exposed. Read More

    A New In Vitro Bioassay System for the Discovery and Quantitative Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Sep;54(5):1328-1336
    National Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677.
    Mosquitoes vector many pathogens that cause human diseases. Repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. In this paper, we are reporting an Ali and Khan (A & K), large cage in vitro bioassay system that can effectively be used to measure repellency of compounds against mosquitoes. Read More

    An algorithm for identifying mothball composition().
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Sep 25;55(8):919-921. Epub 2017 May 25.
    a Department of Emergency Medicine , VCU Medical Center , Richmond , VA , USA.
    Introduction: Unintentional mothball ingestions may cause serious toxicity in small children. Camphor, naphthalene, and paradichlorobenzene mothballs are difficult to distinguish without packaging. Symptoms and management differ based on the ingested compound. Read More

    Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535.
    PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3292. Epub 2017 May 18.
    UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, CIPEIN, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More

    In vitro repellency of DEET and β-citronellol against the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum.
    Vet Parasitol 2017 May 14;239:42-45. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública. Universidade Federal de Goiás, Rua 235 s/n, Setor Universitário, CEP: 74605050, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum can parasite humans and domestic animals and are vectors of pathogens, including zoonoses. Repellents are an important tool of tick control. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of N,N-diethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard repellent, versus β-citronellol in a Petri dish bioassay. Read More

    Amitraz changes NE, DA and 5-HT biosynthesis and metabolism mediated by alterations in estradiol content in CNS of male rats.
    Chemosphere 2017 Aug 26;181:518-529. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Amitraz is a formamidine insecticide/acaricide that alters different neurotransmitters levels, among other neurotoxic effects. Oral amitraz exposure (20, 50 and 80 mg/kg bw, 5 days) has been reported to increase serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content and to decrease their metabolites and turnover rates in the male rat brain, particularly in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. However, the mechanisms by which these alterations are produced are not completely understood. Read More

    Ozonation of dimethyl phthalate catalyzed by highly active CuxO-Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared with zero-valent iron as the innovative precursor.
    Environ Pollut 2017 Aug 28;227:73-82. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China.
    Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation provides a promising alternative in the degradation of recalcitrant contaminants. CuxO-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CuxFeO NPs, both Cu(I) and Cu(II) were contained, about 70 nm) were creatively synthesized using Fe(0) as the precursor and subsequently employed as the ozonation catalyst for dimethyl phthalate (DMP) degradation. Results showed that DMP degradation by O3/CuxFeO was significantly faster than those ozonation catalyzed by CuO, Fe3O4, or mixture of CuO and Fe3O4 (1:1 M ratio), which was ascribed to the unique CuxFeO NPs that composed of abundant structural Cu(I) (≡Cu(I)). Read More

    Repellent Effects of Different Celery Varieties in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype Q.
    J Econ Entomol 2017 Jun;110(3):1307-1316
    Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China ( ).
    Y-tube olfactometer and net cages experiments were used to investigate the repellent effects of different celery varieties in biotype Q of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Y-tube olfactometer tests showed that whiteflies have strong repellent behavior to different celery varieties. Read More

    Efficacy and user acceptability of transfluthrin-treated sisal and hessian decorations for protecting against mosquito bites in outdoor bars.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 20;10(1):197. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, P.O Box 53, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: A number of mosquito vectors bite and rest outdoors, which contributes to sustained residual malaria transmission in endemic areas. Spatial repellents are thought to create a protective "bubble" within which mosquito bites are reduced and may be ideal for outdoor use. This study builds on previous studies that proved efficacy of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against outdoor biting mosquitoes. Read More

    Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Insect Sci 2017 Jan;17(1)
    Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, 1200 S. Horseshoe Dr, Las Cruces, NM 88003.
    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. Read More

    Insecticidal and Behavioral Avoidance Responses of Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Three Synthetic Repellents.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Sep;54(5):1312-1322
    Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
    Escape responses, knockdown (KD), and toxicity of laboratory strains of Anopheles minimus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say to three synthetic mosquito repellents, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535, or picaridin, at 5% v/v concentrations, were evaluated using repellent-treated papers in standard WHO tube assays and an excito-repellency (ER) test chamber system. The tube assays recorded knockdown effects of each repellent immediately after 30-min exposure and the final morality following a 24-h holding period. DEET showed 100% KD at 30 min and complete toxicity at 24 h against both species. Read More

    Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 17;10(1):184. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Applied and Technical Biology, Technical University of Kenya, P.O. Box 52428-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Malaria presents an overwhelming public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where vector favourable conditions and poverty prevail, potentiating the disease burden. Behavioural variability of malaria vectors poses a great challenge to existing vector control programmes with insecticide resistance already acquired to nearly all available chemical compounds. Thus, approaches incorporating plant-derived compounds to manipulate semiochemical-mediated behaviours through disruption of mosquito olfactory sensory system have considerably gained interests to interrupt malaria transmission cycle. Read More

    Chemosensory Responses to the Repellent Nepeta Essential Oil and Its Major Component Nepetalactone by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a Vector of Zika Virus.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jul;54(4):957-963
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville, MD.
    Nepeta essential oil (Neo; catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), an important vector of Zika virus, were poorly understood. Read More

    Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Sep;54(5):1305-1311
    Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Benjamín Franklin 132, Col. Escandón, C.P. 11800, Mexico City, Mexico.
    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More

    Occurrence of personal care products as emerging chemicals of concern in water resources: A review.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Oct 8;595:601-614. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Grupo de Investigación en Estudios Químicos y Biológicos, School of Basic Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, Cartagena 130010, Colombia.
    Personal care products (PCPs) are a diverse group of common household substances used for health, beauty and cleaning purposes. These include disinfectants, fragrances, insect repellents, preservatives and UV filters, among others. Some of them are considered chemicals of emerging concern due to their presence and negative impact on aquatic ecosystems, specially related to endocrine disruption and reproductive disorders. Read More

    Repellent and Larvicidal Activity of the Essential Oil From Eucalyptus nitens Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Med Entomol 2017 May;54(3):670-676
    Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CIPEIN-UNIDEF-CONICET), Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever are important vector-borne diseases transmitted by female mosquitoes when they feed on humans. The use of repellents based on natural products is an alternative for personal protection against these diseases. Application of chemicals with larvicidal activity is another strategy for controlling the mosquito population. Read More

    Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) Leaf Morpho-Anatomy, Essential Oil Composition, and Its Biological Activity Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Med Entomol 2017 May;54(3):658-669
    National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677 ( ).
    The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. Read More

    The current status of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz of the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Ecuador.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(4):e0174652. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis / Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
    Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world where livestock is a principal activity with great veterinary and economic importance. In Ecuador, this hematophagous ectoparasite has been observed between 0 and 2600 masl. One of the main tick control measures is the use of acaricides, which have been indiscriminately used worldwide and in Ecuador. Read More

    New sources of resistance to leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm.
    Genet Mol Res 2017 Apr 5;16(2). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil
    Leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) are the main melon (Cucumis melo L.) pests in Northeast Brazil, which is the main region for the production and export of the fruit in Brazil. Of the integrated management strategies available, genetic resistance is the best method of preventing damage by these insects. Read More

    Emulsion of Chloramphenicol: an Overwhelming Approach for Ocular Delivery.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2017 Mar;59(1):23-30
    School of Pharmacy, RK University, Rajkot-Bhavnagar highway, Rajkot, Gujarat 360020.
    Background: Ophthalmic formulations of chloramphenicol have poor bioavailability of chloramphenicol in the ocular cavity.

    Aim: The present study aimed at exploring the impact of different oil mixtures in the form of emulsion on the permeability of chloramphenicol after ocular application.

    Materials And Methods: Selection of oil mixture and ratio of the components was made by an equilibrium solubility method. Read More

    Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 5;10(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Read More

    Eco-friendly control of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae), using the α-thujone-rich essential oil of Artemisia sieberi (Asteraceae): toxic and repellent potential.
    Parasitol Res 2017 May 5;116(5):1545-1551. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, represents a key threat for the poultry industry worldwide. The control of D. gallinae is mainly achieved by continuous applications of acaricides. Read More

    Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland.
    PLoS One 2017 30;12(3):e0174986. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Institute of Environmental Protection - National Research Institute, Environmental Chemistry and Risk Assessment Department, Warsaw, Poland.
    Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. Read More

    Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):44-53
    Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background & Objectives: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. Read More

    Simultaneous determination of amitraz, chlordimeform, formetanate and their main metabolites in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 May 11;1052:27-33. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Chongqing Institute of Forensic Science, Chongqing 400021, China. Electronic address:
    A rapid, simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of amitraz, chlordimeform, formetanate and their main metabolites, N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methyl-formamidine (DMPF), 2,4-dimethylformamidine (DMF), 2,4-dimethylaniline (DMA), 4-chloro-2-methylaniline and 3-hydroxyacetanilide in human urine. The urine samples were mixed with buffer solutions (pH 8) and subsequently cleaned up by solid supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE). The target analytes were efficiently separated with a Waters Atlantis T3 column (150mm×4. Read More

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