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    3303 results match your criteria Insect Repellents

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    Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535.
    PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3292. Epub 2017 May 18.
    UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, CIPEIN, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More

    Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Insect Sci 2017 Jan;17(1)
    Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, 1200 S. Horseshoe Dr, Las Cruces, NM 88003.
    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. Read More

    Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 17;10(1):184. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Applied and Technical Biology, Technical University of Kenya, P.O. Box 52428-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Malaria presents an overwhelming public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where vector favourable conditions and poverty prevail, potentiating the disease burden. Behavioural variability of malaria vectors poses a great challenge to existing vector control programmes with insecticide resistance already acquired to nearly all available chemical compounds. Thus, approaches incorporating plant-derived compounds to manipulate semiochemical-mediated behaviours through disruption of mosquito olfactory sensory system have considerably gained interests to interrupt malaria transmission cycle. Read More

    Chemosensory Responses to the Repellent Nepeta Essential Oil and Its Major Component Nepetalactone by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a Vector of Zika Virus.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville, MD ( ; ; ).
    Nepeta essential oil (Neo; catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), an important vector of Zika virus, were poorly understood. Read More

    Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Benjamín Franklin 132, Col. Escandón, C.P. 11800, Mexico City, Mexico
    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More

    Occurrence of personal care products as emerging chemicals of concern in water resources: A review.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Oct 8;595:601-614. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Grupo de Investigación en Estudios Químicos y Biológicos, School of Basic Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, Cartagena 130010, Colombia.
    Personal care products (PCPs) are a diverse group of common household substances used for health, beauty and cleaning purposes. These include disinfectants, fragrances, insect repellents, preservatives and UV filters, among others. Some of them are considered chemicals of emerging concern due to their presence and negative impact on aquatic ecosystems, specially related to endocrine disruption and reproductive disorders. Read More

    New sources of resistance to leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm.
    Genet Mol Res 2017 Apr 5;16(2). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil
    Leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) are the main melon (Cucumis melo L.) pests in Northeast Brazil, which is the main region for the production and export of the fruit in Brazil. Of the integrated management strategies available, genetic resistance is the best method of preventing damage by these insects. Read More

    Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 5;10(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Read More

    Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):44-53
    Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background & Objectives: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. Read More

    Safety of a topical insect repellent (picaridin) during community mass use for malaria control in rural Cambodia.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(3):e0172566. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: While community distribution of topical repellents has been proposed as an additional malaria control intervention, the safety of this intervention at the population level remains poorly evaluated. We describe the safety of mass distribution of the picaridin repellent during a cluster-randomised trial in rural Cambodia in 2012-2013.

    Methods: The repellent was distributed among 57 intervention villages with around 25,000 inhabitants by a team of village distributors. Read More

    Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.
    Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2017 Apr 7;94(4). Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. Read More

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Feb 15;10(1):98. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. BOX 54840 - 00200, Mbagathi Rd., Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P. Read More

    Artemisia spp. essential oils against the disease-carrying blowfly Calliphora vomitoria.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 13;10(1):80. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Background: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. Read More

    The insect repellents: A silent environmental chemical toxicant to the health.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Mar 29;50:91-102. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Tripura, India.
    In recent years, a large number of insect repellents have been developed with the idea of consumer benefits. In addition to already known advantageous application of insect repellents, there is increasing concern about the potential toxicity in environment leading to health caused by random use of these compounds. An increasing number of evidence suggests that insect repellents may trigger undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems with a potential to generate harmful effects including intermediate metabolites. Read More

    Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 2016 Dec 2;87(1):e1-e5. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Horticultural Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology.
    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. Read More

    Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.
    Med Oncol 2017 Feb 18;34(2):30. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Turin, Via Genova 3, 10126, Turin, Italy.
    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. Read More

    Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.
    J Oleo Sci 2017 Feb 18;66(2):133-145. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.
    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. Read More

    Effects of six priority controlled phthalate esters with long-term low-dose integrated exposure on male reproductive toxicity in rats.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Mar 12;101:94-104. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Supramolecular Medicinal Material and Applications, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China; Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China. Electronic address:
    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity. The male rats were orally exposed to either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as controls or MIXPs at three different low-doses by gavage for 15 weeks. Read More

    What can we do about the Zika virus in the United States?
    J Fam Pract 2016 Nov;65(11):756-757
    Louisville, KY, USA.
    Control measures include using insect repellents, aerial spraying of insecticides, eliminating mosquito breeding sites, covering water tanks, and using mosquito nets or door and window screens. Infection during pregnancy is the greatest concern because of congenital anomalies (including microcephaly) that negatively affect brain development. Read More

    Biodegradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Freshwater Unicellular Cyanobacteria.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 19;2016:5178697. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Research Center of Bioenergy and Bioremediation, College of Resource and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.
    The biodegradation characteristics of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by three freshwater unicellular organisms were investigated in this study. The findings revealed that all the organisms were capable of metabolizing DMP; among them, Cyanothece sp. PCC7822 achieved the highest degradation efficiency. Read More

    Chemical profile and defensive function of the latex of Euphorbia peplus.
    Phytochemistry 2017 Apr 3;136:56-64. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, PR China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, Kunming, 650201, PR China. Electronic address:
    Plant latex is an endogenous fluid secreted from highly specialized laticifer cells and has been suggested to act as a plant defense system. The chemical profile of the latex of Euphorbia peplus was investigated. A total of 13 terpenoids including two previously unknown diterpenoids, (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,6R*,8R*,l1R*,13S*,14S*,15R*, 16R*)-5,8,15-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-11,16-dihydroxy-9-oxopepluane and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,8,9,14-pentaacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15-hydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene), ten known diterpenoids, and a known acyclic triterpene alcohol peplusol, were identified, using HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS analyses and through comparison with the authentic compounds isolated from the whole plant. Read More

    Mosquito repellents: An insight into the chronological perspectives and novel discoveries.
    Acta Trop 2017 Mar 29;167:216-230. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam 784001, India.
    Mosquito being the major medically important arthropod vector; requires utmost attention to reduce the sufferings and economic consequences of those living in the endemic regions. This is only possible by minimising the human-mosquito contact by an absolute preventing measure. However, unfortunately, such absolute measures are yet to be developed despite enormous efforts and huge investments worldwide. Read More

    Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article.
    J Arthropod Borne Dis 2016 Dec 4;10(4):429-444. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. Read More

    Selectivity of plant extracts for Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae).
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Apr 22;138:78-82. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Department of Entomology and Acarology - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ, Av. Pádua Dias, n. 11 - Cx. P. 9, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    We evaluated the selectivity of three plant extracts with potential insecticidal effects for the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, which is commonly used in biological pest control. The plant extracts assayed were an acetone extract of Toona ciliata M. Roem. Read More

    Comparative study of hydrolytic metabolism of dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate by microsomes of various rat tissues.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Feb 19;100:217-224. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Komuro 10281, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806, Japan. Electronic address:
    Phthalates are used in food packaging, and are transferred to foods as contaminants. In this study, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by rat tissue microsomes. We found that carboxylesterase and lipase contribute differently to these activities. Read More

    A review of recommendations on the safe and effective use of topical mosquito repellents.
    Public Health Res Pract 2016 Dec 14;26(5). Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Health Risk Policy Unit, Health Protection NSW, NSW Health, Sydney, Australia.
    Mosquito-borne disease is an annual problem in Australia, with endemic pathogens such as Ross River virus infecting thousands of people each year. The recent emergence of Zika virus in South America and the Pacific, together with ongoing outbreaks of dengue viruses in Southeast Asia, generated great community interest in the most effective strategies to avoid mosquito bites. Large-scale mosquito control programs are not common in Australia and are limited in New South Wales (NSW). Read More

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) affects the ultrastructure of the midgut muscle of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
    Acta Histochem 2017 Jan 6;119(1):84-91. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Laboratory of Insects, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, UNESP - São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Cytomorphological changes, by means of ultrastructural analyses, have been used to determine the effects of the biopesticide neem oil on the muscle fibers of the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri. Insects, throughout the larval period, were fed eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% or 2%. Read More

    Molecular Basis of Alarm Pheromone Detection in Aphids.
    Curr Biol 2017 Jan 1;27(1):55-61. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:
    The sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the alarm pheromone for many species of aphids [1]. When released from aphids attacked by parasitoids or predators, it alerts nearby conspecifics to escape by walking away and dropping off the host plant [2, 3]. The reception of alarm pheromone in aphids is accomplished through a highly sensitive chemosensory system. Read More

    Potential mode of action of a novel plumbagin as a mosquito repellent against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, (Culicidae: Diptera).
    Pestic Biochem Physiol 2016 Nov 10;134:84-93. Epub 2016 Apr 10.
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Plumbagin was isolated and characterized from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica using chromatography: TLC, Column chromatogram, HPLC, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The isolated pure compounds were assayed for potency as inhibitors of: acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 and α, β-esterase, and for repellency with Anopheles stephensi at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100ppm). The enzyme assay against the pure compound reveals that the level of esterase and SOD was decreased significantly in contrast the level of GST and cytochrome P450 was increased significantly. Read More

    Application of ethnobotanical repellents and acaricides in prevention, control and management of livestock ticks: A review.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Dec 9;109:1-9. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    Insect Behaviour Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Ticks transmit at least the same number or even more pathogens than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. The eco-friendly control and management of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. Besides the development of vaccines against ticks, IPM practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remain the most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Read More

    Do insect repellents induce drift behaviour in aquatic non-target organisms?
    Water Res 2017 Jan 4;108:32-38. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    University of Cologne, Cologne Biocenter, Workgroup Aquatic Chemical Ecology, Zülpicher Strasse 47b, 50674 Koeln, Germany.
    Synthetic insect repellents are compounds applied to surfaces to discourage insects, mainly mosquitoes, from landing on those surfaces. As some of these repellents have repeatedly been detected in surface waters at significant concentrations, they may also exert repellent effects on aquatic non-target organisms. In running water systems, aquatic invertebrates actively enter downstream drift in order to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions. Read More

    The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.
    Bull Entomol Res 2017 Feb 7;107(1):49-57. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Faculty of Pharmacies, National University of Malaysia,Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz,50300 Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.
    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. Read More

    An acetone extract of Clausena anisata may be a potential control agent for flies encountered in cutaneous myiasis.
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2016 May 24;83(1):e1-e7. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria.
    Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. Read More

    Analysis of Pesticides and Toxic Heavy Metals Contained in Mosquito Coils.
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2016 Nov 3;97(5):614-618. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
    The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409-1163, USA.
    In this study, 10 mosquito coils manufactured in China were obtained in Suriname, South America, where they are used extensively. The coils were analyzed for organics (allethrin, permethrin, and butylated hydroxytoluene) and heavy metals (Cr, Co, As, Cd, and Pb) by GC-MS and ICP-MS, respectively. Allethrin was the only target organic compound detected in all mosquito coils with concentrations ranging from ~1900 to ~4500 µg/g. Read More

    Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.
    J Chem Ecol 2016 Sep 29;42(9):952-969. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa.
    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Read More

    Degradation behavior of dimethyl phthalate in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system.
    J Environ Manage 2016 Dec 8;184(Pt 2):281-288. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, PR China. Electronic address:
    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as one of the most important and extensively used Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is known to likely cause dysfunctions of the endocrine systems, liver, and nervous systems of animals. In this paper, the degradation and behavior of DMP were investigated in a laboratory scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) treatment system. In addition, a degradation model including biodegradation and sorption was formulated so as to evaluate the fate of DMP in the treatment system, and a mass balance model was designed to determine kinetic parameters of the removal model. Read More

    Essential Facts About Mosquito Control and Zika Virus.
    Am J Med 2016 Nov 20;129(11):1149-1152. Epub 2016 Aug 20.
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Starkville. Electronic address:
    The threat to persons living in the southern United States from Zika virus (ZIKV) is both significant and ongoing. Although there are several modes of transmission of ZIKV to humans, mosquito transmission is the primary avenue by which persons become infected. Only 2 mosquito species are likely able to transmit ZIKV to humans in the United States, and information about their biology and control is important to physicians and public health officials. Read More

    Critical assessment of the ubiquitous occurrence and fate of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in water.
    Environ Int 2016 Nov 16;96:98-117. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 James E. Rogers Way, Tucson 85721, AZ, USA. Electronic address:
    The insect repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET) is among the most frequently detected organic chemical contaminants in water across a wide range of geographies from around the world. These observations are raising critical questions and increasing concerns regarding potential environmental relevance, particularly when the emergence of severe neurological conditions attributed to the Zika virus has increased the use of insect repellents. After dermal application, DEET is washed from the skin when bathing and enters the municipal sewer system before discharge into the environment. Read More

    Schistosomiasis: Traverers in Africa.
    J Spec Oper Med 2016 ;16(3):47-52
    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection acquired through freshwater exposure in the tropics. It is an infection that can have devastating implications to military personnel if it is not recognized and treated, especially later in life. While there is an abundance of information available about schistosomiasis in endemic populations, the information on nonendemic populations, such as deployers, is insufficient. Read More

    Micro/nanoencapsulation of essential oils and fragrances: Focus on perfumed, antimicrobial, mosquito-repellent and medical textiles.
    J Microencapsul 2016 Sep 4;33(6):497-510. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
    a Textile Engineering Department, Functional Fibrous Structures & Environmental Enhancement (FFSEE) , Amirkabir University of Technology , Tehran , Iran.
    Herbal products have been widely used due to good antimicrobial, fragrance and medical properties. Essential oils and fragrances can be applied on the textile substrates as micro/nanocapsules to prolong lifetime by controlling the release rate. The present review tries to give a general overview on the application of micro/nanoencapsulated essential oils on the textile substrates to achieve aromatherapy textiles. Read More

    Neem (Azadirachta indica): towards the ideal insecticide?
    Nat Prod Res 2017 Feb 12;31(4):369-386. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    c Department of Environmental Biology , Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
    Pesticide resistance is going to change rapidly our antibiotics and insecticides arsenal. In this scenario, plant-derived natural products are considered valuable candidates to reverse this negative trend. Growing research attention is focused on neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), exploring the utility of its products as insecticides and antibiotics. Read More

    The mutual influence of speciation and combination of Cu and Pb on the photodegradation of dimethyl o-phthalate.
    Chemosphere 2016 Dec 15;165:80-86. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, and National International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, PR China; School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences Beijing, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:
    Specific industrial application of dimethyl o-phthalate (DMP) in ore flotation has led to DMP-heavy metals combined pollution, which causes the abiotic degradation of DMP in the environment more complex. This study focused on the effect of Cu and Pb on photodegradation of DMP. The major mechanism of inhibiting effect of Cu and Pb on degradation of DMP involved their speciation and combination. Read More

    Olfactory Mechanisms for Discovery of Odorants to Reduce Insect-Host Contact.
    J Chem Ecol 2016 Sep 15;42(9):919-930. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
    Insects have developed highly sophisticated and sensitive olfactory systems to find animal or plant hosts for feeding. Some insects vector pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people and destroy billions of dollars of food products every year. There is great interest, therefore, in understanding how the insect olfactory system can be manipulated to reduce their contact with hosts. Read More

    Cross-sectional biomonitoring study of pesticide exposures in Queensland, Australia, using pooled urine samples.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Dec 10;23(23):23436-23448. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Rd, Coopers Plains, QLD, 4108, Australia.
    A range of pesticides are available in Australia for use in agricultural and domestic settings to control pests, including organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, and insect repellents, such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). The aim of this study was to provide a cost-effective preliminary assessment of background exposure to a range of pesticides among a convenience sample of Australian residents. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100 specimens). Read More

    Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Nov 8;23(22):23228-23238. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. Read More

    Lack of information received by a French female cohort regarding prevention against exposure to reprotoxic agents during pregnancy.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Oct 3;205:15-20. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    Pôle Femmes-Mères-Enfants, AP-HM La Conception, Marseille, France; Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Avignon Université, IMBE UMR 7263, 13397, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the information pregnant women received regarding possible exposures to five recognized reprotoxic agents during their pregnancy.

    Study Design: A cohort study was conducted using two postnatal units in France. Women hospitalized in postnatal units were requested to complete a self-administered two part questionnaire. Read More

    The crystal structure of the AgamOBP1•Icaridin complex reveals alternative binding modes and stereo-selective repellent recognition.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Jan 17;74(2):319-338. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, 11635, Athens, Greece.
    Anopheles gambiae Odorant Binding Protein 1 in complex with the most widely used insect repellent DEET, was the first reported crystal structure of an olfactory macromolecule with a repellent, and paved the way for OBP1-structure-based approaches for discovery of new host-seeking disruptors. In this work, we performed STD-NMR experiments to directly monitor and verify the formation of a complex between AgamOBP1 and Icaridin, an efficient DEET alternative. Furthermore, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments provided evidence for two Icaridin-binding sites with different affinities (Kd = 0. Read More

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