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    DBP formation from degradation of DEET and ibuprofen by UV/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination.
    J Environ Sci (China) 2017 Aug 23;58:146-154. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the degradation of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzoyl amide (DEET) and ibuprofen (IBP) by the ultraviolet irradiation (UV)/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination was investigated and compared with the UV/H2O2 process. The pseudo first-order rate constants of the degradation of DEET and IBP by the UV/chlorine process were 2 and 3.1 times higher than those by the UV/H2O2 process, respectively, under the tested conditions. Read More

    Glucosinolate Profiles in Cabbage Genotypes Influence the Preferential Feeding of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella).
    Front Plant Sci 2017 18;8:1244. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Horticulture, Sunchon National UniversitySuncheon, South Korea.
    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L., is a devastating pest of cabbage worldwide whose feeding attributes are influenced by glucosinolate profiles of the plant. Identifying the specific glucosinolates associated with plants' resistance mechanism can provide cues to novel points of intervention in developing resistant cultivars. Read More

    Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. essential oil: Chemical composition and antimicrobial, insect-repellent and anticholinesterase activities.
    Saudi Pharm J 2017 Jul 1;25(5):703-708. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey.
    The essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil was subsequently analyzed by both GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. Read More

    Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):155-162
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician. Read More

    Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate.
    Acta Trop 2017 Oct 27;174:56-63. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam 784001, India. Electronic address:
    Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED50) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. Read More

    Evaluation of knowledge and use of the malaria prevention measures among the patients of the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases University Center of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdynia, based on a questionnaire performed in the years 2012-20
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(1):33-44
    Medical University of Gdańsk, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Chair of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology – National Center for Tropical Medicine, Department of Tropical Parasitology, Gdynia.
    Introduction: Every year, approximately 125 million travelers visit areas where malaria prevails, located in over 100 countries. Over 10,000 of them suffer from malaria annually. Visitors to these areas may protect themselves against infection by using chemoprophylaxis, insect repellents, appropriate clothing, sleeping in airconditioned and well-screened quarters or using mosquito nets impregnated with insecticides. Read More

    Infrared light detection by the haller's organ of adult american dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Ixodida: Ixodidae).
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Aug 13;8(5):764-771. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Campus Box 7647, 3230 Ligon Street, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7647, USA. Electronic address:
    The Haller's organ (HO), unique to ticks and mites, is found only on the first tarsus of the front pair of legs. The organ has an unusual morphology consisting of an anterior pit (AP) with protruding sensilla and a posterior capsule (Cp). The current thinking is that the HO's main function is chemosensation analogous to the insect antennae, but the functionality of its atypical structure (exclusive to the Acari) is unexplained. Read More

    The seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Israel: A nationwide cross sectional study.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(6):e0179774. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Public Health Services, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. Read More

    Hydronopylformamides: Modification of the Naturally Occurring Compound (-)-β-Pinene to Produce Insect Repellent Candidates against Blattella germanica.
    Molecules 2017 Jun 16;22(6). Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Camphor Tree Engineering and Technology Research Center of State Forestry Administration and Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, China.
    The development of a novel repellent plays an important role in the integrated control of Blattella germanica. A series of novel hydronopylformamides derivatives were synthesized from a naturally occurring compound (-)-β-pinene. The structures of these hydronopylformamides derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Read More

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as insects repellents in six malaria endemic localities of Cameroon.
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017 Jun 8;13(1):33. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Laboratory for Phytobiochemistry and Medicinal Plants Studies, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: The combined efforts to combat outdoor/indoor transmission of malaria parasites are hampered by the emerging vector resistance in a wide variety of malaria-endemic settings of Africa and the rest of the world, stressing the need for alternative control measures. This study aimed at documenting insect's repellent plant species used by indigenous populations of 6 localities of East, South, West and Centre regions of Cameroon.

    Methods: Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire on the knowledge of medicinal plants with insect repellent properties. Read More

    Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jun 9;66(22):574-578. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). Read More

    Mosquito-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem: Implications for Pregnancy and Travel.
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 2017 May;72(5):309-318
    Associate Professor, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Health Sciences, Harvard Medical School; and Chair, Division of Global Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
    Importance: Mosquitoes are the most common disease vectors worldwide. A combination of factors, including changes in public health policy, climate change, and global travel, has led to the resurgence and spread of these diseases in our modern world. Pregnant women are vulnerable to a number of these illnesses, and obstetricians are likely to encounter pregnant travelers who have been exposed. Read More

    An algorithm for identifying mothball composition().
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Sep 25;55(8):919-921. Epub 2017 May 25.
    a Department of Emergency Medicine , VCU Medical Center , Richmond , VA , USA.
    Introduction: Unintentional mothball ingestions may cause serious toxicity in small children. Camphor, naphthalene, and paradichlorobenzene mothballs are difficult to distinguish without packaging. Symptoms and management differ based on the ingested compound. Read More

    Toxicity, repellency and flushing out in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) exposed to the repellents DEET and IR3535.
    PeerJ 2017 18;5:e3292. Epub 2017 May 18.
    UNIDEF, CITEDEF, CONICET, CIPEIN, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220. Read More

    Amitraz changes NE, DA and 5-HT biosynthesis and metabolism mediated by alterations in estradiol content in CNS of male rats.
    Chemosphere 2017 Aug 26;181:518-529. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Amitraz is a formamidine insecticide/acaricide that alters different neurotransmitters levels, among other neurotoxic effects. Oral amitraz exposure (20, 50 and 80 mg/kg bw, 5 days) has been reported to increase serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content and to decrease their metabolites and turnover rates in the male rat brain, particularly in the striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. However, the mechanisms by which these alterations are produced are not completely understood. Read More

    Ozonation of dimethyl phthalate catalyzed by highly active CuxO-Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared with zero-valent iron as the innovative precursor.
    Environ Pollut 2017 Aug 28;227:73-82. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China.
    Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation provides a promising alternative in the degradation of recalcitrant contaminants. CuxO-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CuxFeO NPs, both Cu(I) and Cu(II) were contained, about 70 nm) were creatively synthesized using Fe(0) as the precursor and subsequently employed as the ozonation catalyst for dimethyl phthalate (DMP) degradation. Results showed that DMP degradation by O3/CuxFeO was significantly faster than those ozonation catalyzed by CuO, Fe3O4, or mixture of CuO and Fe3O4 (1:1 M ratio), which was ascribed to the unique CuxFeO NPs that composed of abundant structural Cu(I) (≡Cu(I)). Read More

    Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Insect Sci 2017 Jan;17(1)
    Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, 1200 S. Horseshoe Dr, Las Cruces, NM 88003.
    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. Read More

    Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 17;10(1):184. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Applied and Technical Biology, Technical University of Kenya, P.O. Box 52428-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Malaria presents an overwhelming public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where vector favourable conditions and poverty prevail, potentiating the disease burden. Behavioural variability of malaria vectors poses a great challenge to existing vector control programmes with insecticide resistance already acquired to nearly all available chemical compounds. Thus, approaches incorporating plant-derived compounds to manipulate semiochemical-mediated behaviours through disruption of mosquito olfactory sensory system have considerably gained interests to interrupt malaria transmission cycle. Read More

    Chemosensory Responses to the Repellent Nepeta Essential Oil and Its Major Component Nepetalactone by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a Vector of Zika Virus.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville, MD ( ; ; ).
    Nepeta essential oil (Neo; catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), an important vector of Zika virus, were poorly understood. Read More

    Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Benjamín Franklin 132, Col. Escandón, C.P. 11800, Mexico City, Mexico
    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L. Read More

    Occurrence of personal care products as emerging chemicals of concern in water resources: A review.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Oct 8;595:601-614. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Grupo de Investigación en Estudios Químicos y Biológicos, School of Basic Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, Cartagena 130010, Colombia.
    Personal care products (PCPs) are a diverse group of common household substances used for health, beauty and cleaning purposes. These include disinfectants, fragrances, insect repellents, preservatives and UV filters, among others. Some of them are considered chemicals of emerging concern due to their presence and negative impact on aquatic ecosystems, specially related to endocrine disruption and reproductive disorders. Read More

    New sources of resistance to leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm.
    Genet Mol Res 2017 Apr 5;16(2). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil
    Leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) are the main melon (Cucumis melo L.) pests in Northeast Brazil, which is the main region for the production and export of the fruit in Brazil. Of the integrated management strategies available, genetic resistance is the best method of preventing damage by these insects. Read More

    Emulsion of Chloramphenicol: an Overwhelming Approach for Ocular Delivery.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2017 Mar;59(1):23-30
    School of Pharmacy, RK University, Rajkot-Bhavnagar highway, Rajkot, Gujarat 360020.
    Background: Ophthalmic formulations of chloramphenicol have poor bioavailability of chloramphenicol in the ocular cavity.

    Aim: The present study aimed at exploring the impact of different oil mixtures in the form of emulsion on the permeability of chloramphenicol after ocular application.

    Materials And Methods: Selection of oil mixture and ratio of the components was made by an equilibrium solubility method. Read More

    Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 5;10(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Read More

    Eco-friendly control of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae), using the α-thujone-rich essential oil of Artemisia sieberi (Asteraceae): toxic and repellent potential.
    Parasitol Res 2017 May 5;116(5):1545-1551. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, represents a key threat for the poultry industry worldwide. The control of D. gallinae is mainly achieved by continuous applications of acaricides. Read More

    Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):44-53
    Medical Entomology Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Background & Objectives: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. Read More

    Simultaneous determination of amitraz, chlordimeform, formetanate and their main metabolites in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 May 11;1052:27-33. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Chongqing Institute of Forensic Science, Chongqing 400021, China. Electronic address:
    A rapid, simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of amitraz, chlordimeform, formetanate and their main metabolites, N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methyl-formamidine (DMPF), 2,4-dimethylformamidine (DMF), 2,4-dimethylaniline (DMA), 4-chloro-2-methylaniline and 3-hydroxyacetanilide in human urine. The urine samples were mixed with buffer solutions (pH 8) and subsequently cleaned up by solid supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE). The target analytes were efficiently separated with a Waters Atlantis T3 column (150mm×4. Read More

    Preparing the United States for Zika Virus: Pre-emptive Vector Control and Personal Protection.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2016 Dec 27;27(4):450-457. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Program in Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA. Electronic address:
    Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. Read More

    Safety of a topical insect repellent (picaridin) during community mass use for malaria control in rural Cambodia.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(3):e0172566. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: While community distribution of topical repellents has been proposed as an additional malaria control intervention, the safety of this intervention at the population level remains poorly evaluated. We describe the safety of mass distribution of the picaridin repellent during a cluster-randomised trial in rural Cambodia in 2012-2013.

    Methods: The repellent was distributed among 57 intervention villages with around 25,000 inhabitants by a team of village distributors. Read More

    Functional and Nonfunctional Forms of CquiOR91, an Odorant Selectivity Subunit of Culex quinquefasciatus.
    Chem Senses 2017 May;42(4):333-341
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, R-189, PO Box 016189, Miami, FL 33101, USA and.
    In Culex quinquefasciatus, CquiOR91 is the ortholog of 2 larvae-specific odorant receptors (ORs) from Anopheles gambiae (Agam\Or40, previously shown to respond to several odorant ligands including the broad-spectrum repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET) and Aedes aegypti (Aaeg\Or40). When we cloned full-length CquiOR91 from a Culex quinquefasciatus larval head RNA sample, we found 2 alleles of this OR, differing at 9 residues. Functional analysis using the Xenopus oocyte expression system and 2-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology revealed one allele (CquiOR91. Read More

    Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.
    Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2017 Apr 7;94(4). Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. Read More

    Contact and Repellant Activities of Zerumbone and Its Analogues from the Essential Oil of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith against Lasioderma serricorne.
    J Oleo Sci 2017 Apr 24;66(4):399-405. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Technical Center of China Tobacco Guangxi Industrial Co., Ltd.
    The contact toxicity and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Read More

    Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Feb 16;14(2). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Center for Global Health and Translational Science, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. Read More

    Multiple pesticide residues in live and poisoned honeybees - Preliminary exposure assessment.
    Chemosphere 2017 May 8;175:36-44. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Honey Bee Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.
    Study combines data about the exposure of honeybees to pesticides from plant protection products and veterinary medicinal products. Residues of 200 pesticide and pesticide metabolites in 343 live and 74 poisoned honeybee samples, obtained during the years of 2014-2015, were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. In 44% of live honeybee 48 different pesticide residues were found, mainly amitraz metabolites (DMF, DMPF) and chlorpyrifos. Read More

    Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 16;7:42826. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Entomology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50.740-465, Brasil.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject's arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Read More

    Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Feb 15;10(1):98. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. BOX 54840 - 00200, Mbagathi Rd., Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P. Read More

    Artemisia spp. essential oils against the disease-carrying blowfly Calliphora vomitoria.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 13;10(1):80. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Background: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. Read More

    The insect repellents: A silent environmental chemical toxicant to the health.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Mar 29;50:91-102. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Tripura, India.
    In recent years, a large number of insect repellents have been developed with the idea of consumer benefits. In addition to already known advantageous application of insect repellents, there is increasing concern about the potential toxicity in environment leading to health caused by random use of these compounds. An increasing number of evidence suggests that insect repellents may trigger undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems with a potential to generate harmful effects including intermediate metabolites. Read More

    Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.
    J Econ Entomol 2017 Apr;110(2):552-557
    Department of Forest Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea ( ; ).
    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L. Read More

    Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 2016 Dec 2;87(1):e1-e5. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Horticultural Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology.
    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. Read More

    Current and Future Repellent Technologies: The Potential of Spatial Repellents and Their Place in Mosquito-Borne Disease Control.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Jan 29;14(2). Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
    Every year, approximately 700,000 people die from complications associated with etiologic disease agents transmitted by mosquitoes. While insecticide-based vector control strategies are important for the management of mosquito-borne diseases, insecticide-resistance and other logistical hurdles may lower the efficacy of this approach, especially in developing countries. Repellent technologies represent another fundamental aspect of preventing mosquito-borne disease transmission. Read More

    Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review.
    Indian J Med Res 2016 Sep;144(3):348-358
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background & Objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. Read More

    Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.
    Med Oncol 2017 Feb 18;34(2):30. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Turin, Via Genova 3, 10126, Turin, Italy.
    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. Read More

    Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.
    J Oleo Sci 2017 Feb 18;66(2):133-145. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.
    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. Read More

    Effects of six priority controlled phthalate esters with long-term low-dose integrated exposure on male reproductive toxicity in rats.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Mar 12;101:94-104. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Supramolecular Medicinal Material and Applications, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China; Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China. Electronic address:
    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity. The male rats were orally exposed to either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as controls or MIXPs at three different low-doses by gavage for 15 weeks. Read More

    What can we do about the Zika virus in the United States?
    J Fam Pract 2016 Nov;65(11):756-757
    Louisville, KY, USA.
    Control measures include using insect repellents, aerial spraying of insecticides, eliminating mosquito breeding sites, covering water tanks, and using mosquito nets or door and window screens. Infection during pregnancy is the greatest concern because of congenital anomalies (including microcephaly) that negatively affect brain development. Read More

    Excito-Repellency of Citrus hystrix DC Leaf and Peel Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), Vectors of Human Pathogens.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jan 30;54(1):178-186. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
    The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1. Read More

    Evaluation of Clove Oil, Icaridin, and Transfluthrin for Spatial Repellent Effects in Three Tests Systems Against the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jan 20;54(1):150-158. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Bayer CropScience AG, Alfred Nobel-Strasse 50, D-40789 Monheim, Germany
    One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. Read More

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