7,926 results match your criteria Insect Bites

Emergency department childhood anaphylaxis presentations in regional/remote Australia.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Tasmanian School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Burnie, Tasmania, Australia.

Aim: Explore the prevalence of childhood anaphylaxis and clinical presentation of anaphylaxis in children across two regional emergency departments over a 7-year period.

Methods: Retrospective audit of all children (0-18 years) presenting to emergency from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016 with anaphylaxis, defined by Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy definitions and doctor diagnosis.

Results: Seven hundred and twenty-four patients were identified with allergic diagnosis, 60% were diagnosed with non-anaphylaxis allergic reactions or unspecified urticaria and 40% with anaphylaxis (n = 286). Read More

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Recently Evolved -Like Endosymbiont Outcompetes an Ancient and Evolutionarily Associated -Like Endosymbiont in the Lone Star Tick () Linked to the Alpha-Gal Syndrome.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 12;12:787209. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

School of Biological, Environmental, and Earth Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

Background: Ticks are hematophagous arthropods that transmit various bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens of public health significance. The lone star tick () is an aggressive human-biting tick that transmits bacterial and viral pathogens, and its bites are suspected of eliciting the alpha-gal syndrome, a newly emerged delayed hypersensitivity following consumption of red meat in the United States. While ongoing studies have attempted to investigate the contribution of different tick-inherent factors to the induction of alpha-gal syndrome, an otherwise understudied aspect is the contribution of the tick microbiome and specifically obligate endosymbionts to the establishment of the alpha-gal syndrome in humans. Read More

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Bioprospection for new larvicides against Aedes aegypti based on ethnoknowledge from the Amazonian São Sebastião de Marinaú riverside community.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 18;293:115284. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Universidade de Brasília, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Vector-borne diseases represent a huge global burden impacting health systems. Aedes aegypti is the main vector of arboviral diseases including dengue, Zika, chikungunya and urban yellow fever in both tropical and subtropical areas. Ethnopharmacological investigations provide potential avenues for developing new vector control strategies. Read More

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Massive cerebral infarct following multiple honeybee stings.

Ceylon Med J 2021 09;66(3):151-153

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

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September 2021

Natural History of the Hymenoptera Venom Sensitivity Reactions in Adults: Study Design.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 04 4;19(7). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

National Institute of Public Health, Centre for Environmental Health, Zaloška 29, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings can have varying levels of severity, according to the Müller grading system.

Methods: By an epidemiological concept, this is a retrospective cohort study. The observed cohort was represented by patients referred to the University Clinic Golnik due to Hymenoptera allergic reaction in the period from 1997 to 2015. Read More

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-A Fruit with Multi-Benefits: Traditional Uses, Phytochemicals, Nutritional Value, and Bioactivities.

Nutrients 2022 Apr 6;14(7). Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Chemistry, Preparatory Year Program, Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah 21442, Saudi Arabia.

(Langsat, Meliaceae) is a tropical fruit mainly found in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Traditionally, it is utilized as a folk treatment for eye inflammation, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, spasms, flatulence, worms, insect bites, scorpion stings, and malaria. Additionally, it is utilized as a mosquito repellent, skin moisturizer and whitening agent. Read More

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(Hemls.) Hara.: A Comprehensive Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities.

Front Pharmacol 2022 24;13:766581. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, The General Hospital of the Western Theater Command, Chengdu, China.

is a medicinal and food plant, often eaten as a wild vegetable in ancient China, and has been widely used for decades to treat sore throats, tonsillitis, colds and headaches, bronchitis, chronic hepatitis, joint rheumatism, snake and insect bites, and various cancers. This comprehensive and systematic review of the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacological activity, quality control and toxicology of provides updated information for the further development and application in the fields of functional foods and new drugs research. To date, a total of 324 substances have been isolated and identified from the plant, including terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, amino acids, and volatile oils. Read More

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Has Zika Been Forgotten? Findings From Nationwide Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Mosquito Preventive Practices in Malaysia.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2022 Apr 11:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Educational Centre (TIDREC), Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HiCOE), Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and attitudes toward Zika virus disease (ZVD) as well as mosquito prevention practices in Malaysia at a nationwide level.

Methods: Computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) were conducted between June 2019 and February 2020.

Results: There are gaps in knowledge about the symptoms, mode of transmission, and risk of microcephaly. Read More

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Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a spatial repellent to reduce malaria incidence in children in western Kenya compared to placebo: study protocol for a cluster-randomized double-blinded control trial (the AEGIS program).

Trials 2022 Apr 5;23(1):260. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Background: Spatial repellents are widely used for prevention of mosquito bites and evidence is building on their public health value, but their efficacy against malaria incidence has never been evaluated in Africa. To address this knowledge gap, a trial to evaluate the efficacy of Mosquito Shield™, a spatial repellent incorporating transfluthrin, was developed for implementation in Busia County, western Kenya where long-lasting insecticidal net coverage is high and baseline malaria transmission is moderate to high year-round.

Methods: This trial is designed as a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Read More

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Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a spatial repellent to reduce malaria incidence in children in Mali compared to placebo: study protocol for a cluster-randomized double-blinded control trial (the AEGIS program).

Trials 2022 Apr 5;23(1):259. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Background: Spatial repellents have been widely used for the prevention of mosquito bites but their efficacy in reducing mosquito-borne diseases has never been evaluated in Africa. Additionally, spatial repellents have the potential of being critical tools in the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in contexts where typical vectors control efforts such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spray (IRS) are inaccessible or underutilized such as among displaced populations or in emergency relief settings. To address this knowledge gap, Kolondieba District, Sikasso Region, Mali was selected as a site to estimate the impact of the Mosquito Shield™, a spatial repellent that incorporates transfluthrin on a plastic sheet, on malaria-related outcomes. Read More

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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Malaria Infection among Outpatients Visiting Shewa Robit Health Center, Northcentral Ethiopia.

J Trop Med 2022 23;2022:1784012. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Zoological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Malaria infection is a serious health problem killing millions in tropical developing countries including Ethiopia. The present study focused on assessing malaria prevalence and identification of determinants in Shewa Robit, northcentral Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 participants who visited Shewa Robit Health Center between 01/10/2017 and 30/04/2018, using a simple random sampling. Read More

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Current Perspective of Plant-Based Diets on Communicable Diseases Caused by Viruses: A Mini Review.

Front Nutr 2022 16;9:786972. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Malaysia.

Communicable diseases are illnesses caused by pathogenic biological agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and protozoa. Such diseases spread among people through contact with contaminated surfaces, bodily fluids, or blood products, or through the air, insect bites, or consuming contaminated food and beverages. Although some communicable diseases can be treated or prevented by taking medication and vaccines, there has been an increase in awareness of adopting a healthy diet to aid in the prevention and reversal of these diseases. Read More

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The knowns and unknowns of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) used as a preventative measure against Leishmania sand fly vectors (Phlebotomus genus).

Prev Vet Med 2022 May 19;202:105618. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

formerly, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Since domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum throughout the world, they are the main focus in terms of controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. To protect dogs from leishmaniosis, chemical repellents of durable efficacy are available in the form of collars, spot-on and sprays. However, the negative effects of chemical pesticides on the environment are well established as they affect animals and plants. Read More

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The Role of Human Behavior in Malaria Infection: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 19;19(6). Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.

Objectives: is a non-human parasite that causes zoonotic disease in humans. This systematic review aims to highlight and summarize studies describing human behaviors and activities that expose humans to mosquito bites. English entries in PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct from 2010 to 2020 were systematically perused, and the results were synthesized. Read More

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Controlled human malaria infections by mosquito bites induce more severe clinical symptoms than asexual blood-stage challenge infections.

EBioMedicine 2022 Mar 9;77:103919. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Fever and inflammation are a hallmark of clinical Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria induced by circulating asexual parasites. Although clinical manifestations of inflammation are associated with parasite density, this relationship is influenced by a complex network of immune-modulating factors of both human and parasite origin.

Methods: In the Controlled Human Malaria infection (CHMI) model, we compared clinical inflammation in healthy malaria-naïve volunteers infected by either Pf-infected mosquito bites (MB, n=12) or intravenous administration of Pf-infected red blood cells (BS, n=12). Read More

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Social wasps in Spain: the who and where.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2022 1;50(2):58-64. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Allergy Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain. ARADyAL Spanish Thematic Network and Co-operative Research Centre RD16/0006/0018, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid; Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica, Córdoba.

Objective: The objective of this study was to list the social vespids occurring in Spain, determine their presence in each region, and correlate the data with the vespids responsible for allergic reactions and their progression over time.

Methods: Insects distribution data were collected in two phases: from the southern half of Spain (2008-2012), and from the northern half of Spain (2016-2019). Data for the vespids were collected from the prescriptions of Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy (HVIT) at six Spanish hospitals in the years 2009 and 2019. Read More

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infection increases the exposure and predation endured by .

Parasitology 2022 02 28;149(2):155-160. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Vector Behavior and Pathogen Interaction Group, Instituto René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan that infects triatomines and mammals in Latin America, sharing hosts with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Trypanosoma rangeli does not cause disease to humans but is strongly pathogenic to its invertebrate hosts, increasing mortality rates and affecting bug development and reproductive success. We have previously shown that this parasite is also capable of inducing a general increase in the locomotory activity of its vector Rhodnius prolixus in the absence of host cues. Read More

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February 2022

Increased biting rate and decreased Wolbachia density in irradiated Aedes mosquitoes.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Feb 24;15(1):67. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Biotechnology and Agroindustry Division, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), Casaccia Research Center, Rome, Italy.

Background: Releasing considerable numbers of radiation-sterilized males is a promising strategy to suppress mosquito vectors. However, releases may also include small percentages of biting females, which translate to non-negligible numbers when releases are large. Currently, the effects of irradiation on host-seeking and host-biting behaviors have not been exhaustively investigated. Read More

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February 2022

Thiamine (vitamin B1) as an insect repellent: a scoping review.

Matan Shelomi

Bull Entomol Res 2022 Feb 24:1-10. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

While the desire for systemic repellents is high, ineffective repellents put one at risk of insect-vectored pathogens. Vitamin B1, or thiamine, has been touted as a systemic insect repellent since 1943, and denounced as an ineffective placebo for just as long. This paper presents a scoping review of 104 relevant case reports, research studies, and review articles to trace the evolution of this idea and identify an evidence-based, scientific consensus. Read More

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February 2022

Characteristic Linear and Zigzag Purpuric Lesions in a Patient with Long-term and Repeated Exposure to Bedbug Bites.

Acta Derm Venereol 2022 Mar 8;102:adv00661. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15W7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

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Atypical primary varicella rash: Systematic literature review.

Acta Paediatr 2022 May 27;111(5):935-939. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Pediatric Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ospedale San Giovanni, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Aim: In previously healthy subjects, primary varicella presents with a distinctive vesicular rash that is more intense on the trunk and head than on the extremities. However, an atypical presentation may occasionally develop. We aimed at systematically assessing the characteristics of cases affected by atypical primary varicella rash. Read More

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Screening organic repellent compounds against Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) present in plant essential oils: Bioassay plus an in silico approach.

Acta Trop 2022 May 12;229:106367. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Centro Multidisciplinar do Campus de Barra da Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia, Bahia, Brasil.

In the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most relevant sand fly species for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. For its vector control in Brazil, insecticide spraying has not shown persistent reduction in disease prevalence while some sand fly populations are reported resistant to the insecticides used in spraying. The usage of repellents and personal protection behavior can reduce vector borne diseases prevalence. Read More

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What's Eating You? Caterpillars.

Cutis 2021 Dec;108(6):346-351

Drs. Ellis and Elston are from the Department of Dermatology and Dermatopathology, The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Dr. Hossler is from Geisinger Health, Danville, Pennsylvania. Dr. Cowper is from the Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Dr. Rapini is from the Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston.

Caterpillar envenomation is a worldwide problem, with manifestations ranging from dermatitis to iridocyclitis and a fatal hemorrhagic diathesis. This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of dermatoses related to caterpillars. Read More

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December 2021

Unicentric Castleman Disease With Systemic Symptoms: A Rare Case From Family Practice.

Cureus 2022 Jan 11;14(1):e21132. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, SAU.

Palpable lymphadenopathy is very common in children. The vast majority of cases are due to benign conditions and self-limiting diseases. Careful clinical evaluation, with thorough history taking and make a comprehensive physical examination, is essential to avoid unnecessary invasive procedures and not to misdiagnose possible serious underlying conditions. Read More

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January 2022

Effect of Triatoma infestans saliva on mouse immune system cells: The role of the pore-forming salivary protein trialysin.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2022 Apr 8;143:103739. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Laboratory of Hematophagous Arthopods, Department of Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:

Triatoma infestans is one of the most important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Americas. While feeding, they release large amounts of saliva that will counteract the host's responses triggered at the bite site. Despite the various activities described on T. Read More

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Anti-rheumatic activity of topical nanoemulsion containing bee venom in rats.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Mar 8;172:168-176. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Khalil Abad Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Purpose: Bee Venom (BV) has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for many centuries. However, its clinical use is limited by pain and fear of bee stings/injection. Nanoemulsions (NEs) are nanocarriers that are able to help their content(s) penetrate through the skin. Read More

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Development and validation of a model to predict acute kidney injury following wasp stings: A multicentre study.

Toxicon 2022 Apr 5;209:43-49. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Division of Nephrology, Guangxi People's Hospital, Guangyuan, China.

Objective: To establish and validate a model to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) following wasp stings.

Methods: In this multicentre prospective study, 508 patients with wasp stings from July 2015 to December 2019 were randomly divided into a training set (n = 381) and a validation set (n = 127) for internal and external validation. Risk factors were identified, and a model was established to predict the probability of AKI following multiple wasp stings using an individual nomogram and a predictive formula. Read More

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A peptide toxin in ant venom mimics vertebrate EGF-like hormones to cause long-lasting hypersensitivity in mammals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 02;119(7)

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia;

Venoms are excellent model systems for studying evolutionary processes associated with predator-prey interactions. Here, we present the discovery of a peptide toxin, MIITX-Mg1a, which is a major component of the venom of the Australian giant red bull ant and has evolved to mimic, both structurally and functionally, vertebrate epidermal growth factor (EGF) peptide hormones. We show that Mg1a is a potent agonist of the mammalian EGF receptor ErbB1, and that intraplantar injection in mice causes long-lasting hypersensitivity of the injected paw. Read More

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February 2022

Estimating changes in emergency department visits associated with floods caused by Tropical Storm Imelda using satellite observations and syndromic surveillance.

Health Place 2022 03 4;74:102757. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 205 Duckpond Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Satellite observations following flooding coupled with electronic health data collected through syndromic surveillance systems (SyS) may be useful in efficiently characterizing and responding to health risks associated with flooding.

Results: There was a 10% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1%-19%) increase in asthma related ED visits and 22% (95% CI: 5%-41%) increase in insect bite related ED visits in the flooded ZCTAs compared to non-flooded ZCTAs during the flood period. One month following the floods, diarrhea related ED visits were increased by 15% (95% CI: 4%-27%) for flooded ZCTAs and children and adolescents from flooded ZCTAs had elevated risk for dehydration related ED visits. Read More

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Game-Theoretical Model of the Voluntary Use of Insect Repellents to Prevent Zika Fever.

Dyn Games Appl 2022 30;12(1):133-146. Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-2014 USA.

Zika fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease. While it often causes no or only mild symptoms that are similar to dengue fever, Zika virus can spread from a pregnant woman to her baby and cause severe birth defects. There is no specific treatment or vaccine, but the disease can be mitigated by using several control strategies, generally focusing on the reduction in mosquitoes or mosquito bites. Read More

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January 2022