13,080 results match your criteria Injecting Drug Use


The Examination of Viral Characteristics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC and Its Potential Interaction with Extracellular Galectin-3.

Pathogens 2020 May 29;9(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

Center for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

HIV-1 CRF07_BC is a B' and C subtype recombinant emerging virus and many of its viral characteristics remain unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal3) is a β-galactose binding lectin that has been reported as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and is known to mediate adhesion between cells and microbes. This study aims to examine the viral characteristics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC virus and the role of extracellular galectin-3 in HIV-1 CRF07_BC infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060425DOI Listing

"It's not just injecting drugs": Supervised consumption sites and the social determinants of health.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 May 23;213:108078. Epub 2020 May 23.

Centre for Research on Educational and Community Services, University of Ottawa, 136 Jean-Jacques Lussier, Vanier Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada.

Background: People who inject drugs are highly vulnerable to social determinants of health (SDOH) inequities, such as homelessness, food insecurity, lack of social support, and poor access to healthcare. Supervised consumption sites (SCSs) have been developed to reduce harms associated with injection drug use but their social impacts remain largely unknown. This study explored service users' experiences with SCSs and how their service use affected their SDOH. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108078DOI Listing

A Novel and Practical Method of Performing Atrioventricular Nodal Ablation via a Superior Approach in Patients with Refractory Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Device Implantation.

J Innov Card Rhythm Manag 2019 Dec 15;10(12):3924-3928. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Trinity Medical Center, Rock Island, IL, USA.

Atrioventricular node (AVN) ablation is a strategy to manage patients with drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure in whom cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation has been prescribed. This study describes a practical method to perform these two procedures using the same surgical site. Twenty-seven patients were indicated for AVN ablation and concurrent CRT device implantation while presenting with AF and rapid ventricular response (RVR) refractory to medical therapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19102/icrm.2019.101201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252731PMC
December 2019

Micellar solubilization enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of xanthohumol.

Phytomedicine 2020 May 16;71:153233. Epub 2020 May 16.

Zentrallaboratorium Deutscher Apotheker, Eschborn, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Xanthohumol is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties but has poor oral bioavailability. Using advanced micellization technology, it has been possible to markedly enhance its bioavailability.

Purpose: In the present study, we compared the chronic anti-inflammatory activities of native and micellar xanthohumol in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, using diclofenac as a reference drug. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153233DOI Listing

Homelessness among an inpatient HIV-positive cohort at a tertiary care hospital in central London.

Int J STD AIDS 2020 May 23:956462420918682. Epub 2020 May 23.

Guy's & St.Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

A cohort review was conducted at a central London tertiary care hospital trust on the prevalence of homelessness among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive inpatients over a year. Data were collected on the duration of inpatient stay, co-morbidities including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses, co-infections, initiation of antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load and substance misuse. Homeless people were found to be at high risk for hepatitis C, mental health illness, substance misuse including injecting drug use, recurrent bacterial infections, AIDS-associated illnesses, lower CD4 cell counts and HIV viremia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420918682DOI Listing

Association between opioid agonist therapy and testing, treatment uptake, and treatment outcomes for hepatitis C infection among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience barriers to accessing testing and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) may provide an opportunity to improve access to HCV care. This systematic review assessed the association of OAT and HCV testing, treatment, and treatment outcomes among PWID. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa612DOI Listing

Fentanyl Preference among People Who Inject Drugs in West Virginia.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 May 22:1-7. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Overdose fatality rates in rural areas surpass those in urban areas with the state of West Virginia (WV) reporting the highest drug overdose death rate in 2017. There is a gap in understanding fentanyl preference among rural people who inject drugs (PWID). The aim of this study is to investigate factors associated with fentanyl preference among rural PWID in WV. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1762653DOI Listing

Is Madagascar at the edge of a generalised HIV epidemic? Situational analysis.

Sex Transm Infect 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar

Objectives: To describe the epidemiological situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to identify the main drivers for vulnerability in Madagascar.

Design: Literature review, qualitative research and situational analysis.

Data Sources: Search of electronic bibliographic databases, national repositories of documentation from 1998 to 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2019-054254DOI Listing

Progress towards elimination of hepatitis C infection among people who inject drugs in Australia: The ETHOS Engage Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background & Aims: Evaluating progress towards HCV elimination is critical. This study estimated prevalence of current HCV infection and HCV treatment uptake among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Australia.

Methods: ETHOS Engage is an observational study of PWID attending drug treatment clinics and needle and syringe programs (NSP). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa571DOI Listing
May 2020
8.886 Impact Factor

The fentanyl epidemic in Estonia: factors in its evolution and opportunities for a comprehensive public health response, a scoping review.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 May 13;81:102757. Epub 2020 May 13.

College of Global Public Health, New York University, 665 Broadway New York, NY 10012, USA.

Background: The spread of illicitly manufactured fentanyl has the potential to greatly increase the fatal overdoses in many places in the world. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of fentanyl use epidemic in Estonia.

Methods: this scoping review is based on extensive review and synthesis of broad range of literature: research reports, newspaper, magazine, coverage of illicit fentanyl use; policy documents, position papers, reports released by government agencies, and surveillance data. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102757DOI Listing

Fibrous myopathy induced by intramuscular injections of cyclizine.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 May 11;13(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, The University of Manchester Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, Manchester, UK.

A 63-year-old woman was referred to neurology with bilateral severe progressive pain and stiffness in her thighs. The patient had a 3-year history of injecting intramuscular cyclizine into the anterior thigh to treat nausea associated with a longstanding pan-enteric dysmotility syndrome. MRI of the thighs demonstrated fibrotic appearances. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-233544DOI Listing

Attributes of HIV infection over decades (1982-2018): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Understanding the risk factors for HIV infection is the foundation of successful preventive strategies, which must bundle sociocultural, behavioural and biomedical interventions to halt disease transmission. We aimed in this study to provide a pooled estimation of HIV risk factors and trace changes across decades in order to drive consensus and accurate assessment of disease transmission risk. We comprehensively searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Ovid, EBSCO, Google Scholar and the Egyptian Universities Library Consortium from October to December 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13621DOI Listing

Antiinflammatory effects of luteolin on acute gouty arthritis rats via TLR/MyD88/NFκB pathway.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Feb;45(2):115-122

Department of Rheumatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou 570102, China.

Objectives: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin on the acute gouty arthritis (AGA) rats and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: A total of sixty rats were chosen and randomly divided into 5 groups:A control group, a monosodium urate (MSU) group, a colchicine group, 2 luteolin groups (50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg). The AGA model of rats was established by injecting monosodium urate (MSU) at the concentration of 25 mg/mL into the ankle joint cavity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2020.190566DOI Listing
February 2020

Recent incarceration and risk of first-time injection initiation assistance: A prospective cohort study of persons who inject drugs.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Apr 29;212:107983. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 1045 Howe St Suite 400, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2A9, Canada; Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.

Background: Given the prevalence and harms of incarceration among persons who inject drugs (PWID) and their role in injection drug use initiation, we aimed to investigate whether recent incarceration influences the likelihood PWID assist others in their first-ever injection.

Methods: Prospective cohort study of PWID in Vancouver, Canada who had their PReventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER) baseline visit between December 2014 and May 2017, reported never providing injection initiation assistance previously, and had ≥1 follow-up visit. The primary outcome, provision of injection initiation assistance, was defined via self-report as helping anybody inject for the first time in the past six months. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107983DOI Listing

PrEP in Prisons: HIV prevention in incarcerated populations.

Int J Prison Health 2019 Nov;16(2):199-206

Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV harm reduction intervention in prisons. PrEP is primarily discussed in relation to men who have sex with men (MSM), meaning other high-risk populations, such as prisoners, are often side-lined. The authors wanted to consider how it could prove beneficial beyond the MSM community. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJPH-09-2019-0053DOI Listing
November 2019

Challenges in maintaining treatment services for people who use drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Harm Reduct J 2020 05 6;17(1):26. Epub 2020 May 6.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Kensington, NSW, Australia.

The impact of COVID-19 across health services, including treatment services for people who use drugs, is emerging but likely to have a high impact. Treatment services for people who use drugs provide essential treatment services including opiate agonist treatment and needle syringe programmes alongside other important treatment programmes across all substance types including withdrawal and counselling services. Drug and alcohol hospital consultation-liaison clinicians support emergency departments and other services provided in hospital settings in efficiently managing patients who use drugs and present with other health problems. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00370-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201394PMC

Survival after long-term ART exposure: findings from an Asian patient population retained in care beyond 5 years on ART.

Antivir Ther 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, NSW, Australia.

Background: This study investigated survival in people living with HIV being followed-up from five and ten years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multi-country Asian cohort.

Methods: We included patients in follow-up >5 years after ART initiation. Factors associated with mortality beyond five and ten years on ART were analysed using competing risk regression with time-updated variables. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3358DOI Listing

A Rat Model of Oral Mucositis Induced by Cancer Chemotherapy for Quantitative Experiments.

Anticancer Res 2020 May;40(5):2701-2706

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan

Background/aim: Oral mucositis, which occurs frequently in the treatment of cancer, is a major problem. In this study, we aimed to develop a rat model of oral mucositis induced by cancer chemotherapy for quantitative measurement.

Materials And Methods: A model animal of oral mucositis was prepared by injecting an acetic acid aqueous solution into the buccal mucosa of rats to which a 5-FU solution had been previously administered. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14241DOI Listing

NAD(P)-dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like is involved in breast cancer cell growth and metastasis.

BMC Cancer 2020 May 4;20(1):375. Epub 2020 May 4.

Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Background: The cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is typically upregulated in breast cancer. The role of NAD(P)-dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL) gene, which is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, in breast cancer remains unknown. This study aimed to uncover the role of NSDHL in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06840-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197182PMC

Risk of hepatitis C virus infection in injecting and noninjecting drug users receiving opioid substitution therapy.

J Chin Med Assoc 2020 May;83(5):454-460

Hepatobiliary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common viral infection among illicit drug users in the world. Although intervention of needle and syringe program and opioid substitution therapy had engaged to prevent HCV infection, the prevalence of HCV infection does not seem to decline. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of HCV infection in injecting drug users (IDUs) and noninjecting drug users (NIDUs) receiving opioid substitution therapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000312DOI Listing

Management of Opioid Misuse and Opioid Use Disorders Among Youth.

Pediatrics 2020 May;145(Suppl 2):S153-S164

Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

In response to the growing impact of the current opioid public health crisis in the United States on adolescents and young adults, pediatricians have an expanding role in identifying opioid use early, preventing escalation of risky use, reducing opioid-related harms, and delivering effective therapies. Research and expert consensus suggest the use of brief interventions focused on reducing risks associated with ongoing opioid use and using motivational interviewing strategies to engage youth in treatment. Because fatal opioid overdose remains a major cause of opioid-related mortality among youth, delivering overdose education as part of any visit in which a youth endorses opioid use is one evidence-based strategy to decrease the burden of opioid-related mortality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2056CDOI Listing

Real-time monitoring and accurate diagnosis of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo by ratio-fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of peroxynitrite.

Nanoscale 2020 May;12(18):10216-10225

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China.

Because of the low tissue penetration depth and poor photostability of organic cyanine dye, in addition to environmental interference, it is a great challenge to monitor the degree of drug-induced hepatotoxicity by the in vivo detection of peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Herein, we fabricated heptamethine cyanine dye (P-cy7)-coordinated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), namely UCY7, as a fluorescent nanoprobe for evaluating drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Due to the luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between UCNPs and the cyanine dye (P-cy7), the irradiation changed from visible light at 660 nm to near infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm; therefore, the issues of poor photostability and severe photobleaching of cyanine dye can be effectively solved. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr00963fDOI Listing

A Dietary Combination of Forskolin with Homotaurine, Spearmint and B Vitamins Protects Injured Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Rodent Model of Hypertensive Glaucoma.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 23;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Sooft Research Center, Viale Andrea Doria, 21, 95125 Catania, Italy.

There is indication that nutritional supplements protect retinal cells from degeneration. In a previous study, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with an association of forskolin, homotaurine, spearmint extract and B vitamins efficiently counteracts retinal dysfunction associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by optic nerve crush. We extended our investigation on the efficacy of dietary supplementation with the use of a mouse model in which RGC degeneration depends as closely as possible on intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230514PMC

Stigmatising attitudes towards people who inject drugs, and people living with blood borne viruses or sexually transmissible infections in a representative sample of the Australian population.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(4):e0232218. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Stigma has significant detrimental health outcomes for those affected. This study examined socio-demographic characteristics that were associated with stigmatising attitudes among the general population towards people who inject drugs, and people living with blood borne viruses or sexually transmissible infections. Questions were included in the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes (total sample = 1,001). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232218PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185717PMC

HCV knowledge, disclosure practices, and risk perceptions among gay and bisexual men who do and do not engage in group sex while using drugs.

AIDS Care 2020 Apr 26:1-4. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations, Newtown, Australia.

Research suggests that hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is more likely among gay and bisexual men (GBM) who engage in sexually adventurous practices, including group sex while using drugs. The current study explored drug use, sexual practices, HCV knowledge, HCV disclosure, and beliefs about HCV transmission among GBM ( = 193) reporting group sex after/while using drugs compared to those who did not. Survey findings indicate that men who participated in group sex while using drugs were more likely to have engaged in other sexually adventurous practices, ever injected drugs, have greater knowledge of HCV, and to be living with HIV. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1757023DOI Listing

Perspectives on Fentanyl Test Strip Use among People Who Inject Drugs in Rural Appalachia.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 Apr 25:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Center for Child and Community Health Research, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Fentanyl-associated overdose fatalities have increased dramatically throughout the United States. Fentanyl test strips (FTS) may be used by people who inject drugs (PWID) to lower overdose risks; however, virtually no research has been conducted to understand the perspectives of rural PWID in Appalachia on FTS utilization. We aim to explore FTS awareness and potential use among PWID in two rural counties in West Virginia (WV). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1753773DOI Listing

The global prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Hepatol 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: There are uncertainties about the epidemic patterns of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection and its contribution to the burden of liver disease. We estimated the global prevalence of HDV infection and explored its contribution to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive people.

Methods: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies reporting on total or IgG anti-HDV among HBsAg-positive people. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.04.008DOI Listing

High willingness to use drug consumption rooms among people who inject drugs in Scotland: findings from a national bio-behavioural survey among people who inject drugs.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 Apr 15:102731. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK; Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, UK.

Background: To address rising drug-related harms (including significant transmission of HIV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Glasgow, officials have proposed the introduction of the UK's first drug consumption room (DCR) in Glasgow city centre. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to determine willingness to use a DCR among PWID nationally, in Glasgow city centre (the proposed DCR location), other Scottish city centres (excluding Glasgow) and the rest of Scotland (excluding city centres).

Methods: Bio-behavioural survey, of 1469 current PWID (injected in last 6 months) across Scotland during 2017-18. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102731DOI Listing

Amino Acid Deletions in p6 Domain of HIV-1 CRF07_BC Ameliorate Galectin-3 Mediated Enhancement in Viral Budding.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 21;21(8). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Center for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

HIV-1 CRF07_BC is a recombinant virus with amino acid (a.a.) deletions in p6, which are overlapped with the Alix-binding domain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216183PMC
April 2020
2.862 Impact Factor

Per-Contact Infectivity of Hepatitis C Virus Acquisition in Association With Receptive Needle Sharing Exposures in a Prospective Cohort of Young Adult People who Inject Drugs in San Francisco, California.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Apr 16;7(4):ofaa092. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Background: Sharing needles and ancillary injecting equipment is a primary risk exposure for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID); however, infectivity of these exposures is not well quantified. We aimed to estimate per-event HCV infectivity associated with receptive needle sharing (RNS) among susceptible PWID.

Methods: Participants in a prospective cohort study of young adult PWID who were anti-HCV and HCV RNA negative at baseline and attended at least 2 follow-up study visits between 2003 and 2014 were eligible. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162618PMC

Epinephrine auto-injector needle length: The impact of winter clothing.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2020 15;16:24. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

2Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Canada.

Background: Epinephrine auto-injectors are expected to deliver the drug intramuscularly.

Objective: To study whether injection through clothing influences the frequency of subcutaneous and intraosseous/periosteal deposition of epinephrine.

Methods: Skin to muscle and skin to bone distances were measured for 303 children and adolescents and 99 adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-020-00422-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160976PMC

Comparative evaluation of efficacy and latency of twin mix vs 2% lignocaine HCL with 1:80000 epinephrine in surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Feb 28;9(2):904-908. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Telangana, India.

Introduction: A prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the latency and duration of pterygomandibular nerve block with a mixture of 1.8 ml 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine and 1 ml of 4 mg dexamethasone and its impact on postoperative sequelae after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted in 40 subjects referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery; they were divided into 20 subjects each in group A and B with the age range of 18-72 years planned for elective surgical removal of unilateral impacted mandibular third molar. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_998_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113948PMC
February 2020

HIV-1 Transmission Patterns Within and Between Risk Groups in Coastal Kenya.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 21;10(1):6775. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.

HIV-1 transmission patterns within and between populations at different risk of HIV-1 acquisition in Kenya are not well understood. We investigated HIV-1 transmission networks in men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDU), female sex workers (FSW) and heterosexuals (HET) in coastal Kenya. We used maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetics to analyse new (N = 163) and previously published (N = 495) HIV-1 polymerase sequences collected during 2005-2019. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63731-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174422PMC
April 2020
5.078 Impact Factor

TNF-α inhibitor reduces drug-resistance to anti-PD-1: A mathematical model.

PLoS One 2020 20;15(4):e0231499. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Mathematical Bioscience Institute & Department of Mathematics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States of America.

Drug resistance is a primary obstacle in cancer treatment. In many patients who at first respond well to treatment, relapse occurs later on. Various mechanisms have been explored to explain drug resistance in specific cancers and for specific drugs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231499PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170257PMC

The effect of injecting alone on the use of drug checking services among people who inject drugs.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 Apr 15;79:102756. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2A9, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Drug checking services aim to provide people who use drugs with information on the content and purity of their substances as a harm reduction intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between injecting alone and use of drug checking services in Vancouver, Canada.

Methods: Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of people who inject drugs (PWID). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102756DOI Listing

Development of a tunable method to generate various three-dimensional microstructures by replenishing macromolecules such as extracellular matrix components and polysaccharides.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 16;10(1):6567. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Multicellular spheroids (spheroids) are expected to be a promising approach to mimic in vivo organ functions and cell microenvironments. However, conventional spheroids do not fully consider the existence of extracellular matrices (ECMs). In this study, we developed a tunable method for replenishing macromolecules, including ECM components and polysaccharides, into spheroids without compromising cell viability by injecting a microvolume cell suspension into a high density of methylcellulose dissolved in the culture medium. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63621-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162899PMC

Variation in injecting drug use behavior across different North-eastern States in India.

Indian J Public Health 2020 Apr;64(Supplement):S71-S75

Scientist F, ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Prevalence of adult HIV infection in India is still high in certain North-eastern (NE) states, particularly among injecting drug users (IDUs). This study aims at exploring IDU behavior profile and their variation across the different states of NE region, India. Data were drawn from a population-based, cross-sectional survey of IDU in the integrated bio-behavioral surveillance from 2014 to 2015. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_73_20DOI Listing

Did Inclusion of informed consent affect the observed hiv prevalence rate among injecting drug users during hiv sentinel surveillance 2017 in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand States of Central Zone of India?

Indian J Public Health 2020 Apr;64(Supplement):S67-S70

Assistant Director General, National AIDS Control Organization, MoHFW, GOI, New Delhi, India.

Background: In 2017, the sampling procedure for HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) among all high-risk groups was changed from the consecutive sampling to random sampling along with the introduction of linked anonymous testing strategy with informed written consent.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether the inclusion of informed consent affects the HIV positivity rate among the participants and nonparticipants injecting drug users (IDU) in HSS 2017 in four states of Central Zone of India.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_35_20DOI Listing

Factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and self-assessed risk to human immunodeficiency virus among injecting drug users in Manipur, India.

Indian J Public Health 2020 Apr;64(Supplement):S61-S66

Assistant Director General, Strategic Information and Surveillance, National AIDS Control Organization, Ministry of Health Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, India.

Background: The proximity of Northeast India to the Golden Triangle facilitates easy accessibility to illicit drugs, resulting in a higher proportion of injecting drug users (IDUs) in the states of Northeast India. The estimated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among IDU in Manipur which is 1.43% is higher than that of the national figure. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_61_20DOI Listing

Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and high-risk behavior of home-based and nonhome-based female sex workers in three high-prevalent North-Eastern States of India.

Indian J Public Health 2020 Apr;64(Supplement):S46-S52

Scientist F, ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as an important target group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections prevention.

Objectives: This study aimed to describe sociodemographic and sex work characteristics and to identify the risk factors for HIV infection with special focus on the variations between home-based (HB) and non-HB (NHB) FSWs in three high-prevalent North-Eastern states of India: Manipur, Mizoram, and Nagaland.

Methods: Data from the National Integrated Bio-Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS) conducted in India during 2014-2015 were utilized in the study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_100_20DOI Listing

Size Estimation of high-risk groups for hiv infection in india based on data from national integrated bio-behavioral surveillance and targeted interventions.

Indian J Public Health 2020 Apr;64(Supplement):S39-S45

Scientist C, HIV Surveillance, ICMR-National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Targeted interventions (TIs) are one of the most effective strategies to control HIV/AIDS transmission, especially among the high-risk groups (HRGs). Implementation of HIV/AIDS control strategies relies heavily on estimation of the size of HRG population. Size estimation for key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), and injecting drug users (IDUs) is a crucial component of national HIV strategic planning. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_46_20DOI Listing

Interferon lambda rs368234815 ΔG/ΔG is associated with higher CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio in treated HIV-1 infection.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 04 15;17(1):13. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 001-0020, Japan.

Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between polymorphisms at the interferon lambda (IFNL) locus and CD4:CD8 ratio normalisation in people living with HIV (PLWH) on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART); and to examine whether these polymorphisms influence the composition of T lymphocyte compartments in long-term treated HIV-1 infection.

Methods: A cross-sectional study in PLWH enrolled into the Mater Immunology study. We performed IFNL genotyping on stored samples and evaluated the association of IFNL single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs368234815 and rs12979860) with CD4:CD8 ratio normalization (> 1) and expanded CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets; CD45ROCD62L (central-memory), CD45RO CD62L(effector-memory) and CD45ROCD62L (naïve), using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00269-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194102PMC

Preparation of Peptide and Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Conjugated Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) (PLGA) Magnetic Nanoparticles for Dual Targeted Thrombolytic Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 13;21(8). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Chemical and Materials and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is the only thrombolytic agent that has been approved by the FDA for treatment of ischemic stroke. However, a high dose intravenous infusion is required to maintain effective drug concentration, owing to the short half-life of the thrombolytic drug, whereas a momentous limitation is the risk of bleeding. We envision a dual targeted strategy for rtPA delivery will be feasible to minimize the required dose of rtPA for treatment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215398PMC

Shift in HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Factors Associated with False Positives for HIV Testing: A Retrospective Study from 2013 to 2018 in Xi'an, China.

Curr HIV Res 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. China.

Background: In China, although quit a few bold programmes have been made for HIV/AIDS, the epidemic has still showed an increasing trend.

Objectives: The study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of new HIV/AIDS and the major factors of false positives (FP) for HIV testing.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed in a teaching hospital in Xi'an between 2013 and 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X18666200415123607DOI Listing

L-DOPA-elicited abnormal involuntary movements in the rats damaged severely in substantia nigra by 6-hydroxydopamine.

Ann Palliat Med 2020 Apr 7. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510370, China.

Background: Dyskinesia of rat models can occur in several conditions: acute levodopa (L-DOPA) administration provided that the drug dose is sufficiently high and/or that the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway is seriously damaged, and repeated L-DOPA administration which could cause a reduction of the dyskinesia-threshold dose, a progressive aggravation and an increasing incidence of dyskinesia. Therefore, if the damage of the nigrostriatal DA pathway is extremely severe, what abnormal movements can be elicited by first injecting L-DOPA or other dopaminergic agonists? The problem deserves exploring.

Methods: Rat models with damage of varying severity were divided into three groups: the serious lesion [induced by 40 µg 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), two injected coordinates including substantia nigra (SN) and medial forebrain bundle], the moderate lesion (20 µg 6-OHDA, a coordinate in SN) and the control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm.2020.03.32DOI Listing

A novel pharmacotherapy approach using P-glycoprotein (PGP/ABCB1) efflux inhibitor combined with ivermectin to reduce alcohol drinking and preference in mice.

Alcohol 2020 Apr 8;86:1-8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has a major national impact, affecting over 18 million people, causing approximately 88,000 deaths, and costing upward of $250 billion annually in the United States. Unfortunately, FDA-approved AUD pharmaceuticals are few, and clinical benefits are mostly ineffective in patients suffering from AUD. Therefore, the identification of novel targets and/or innovative methods for the development of safe and effective medications represents a critical public health need. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2020.03.013DOI Listing

Navigating environmental constraints to injection preparation: the use of saliva and other alternatives to sterile water among unstably housed PWID in London.

Harm Reduct J 2020 Apr 10;17(1):24. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0410, USA.

Background: The United Kingdom is experiencing an increase in drug-related deaths and serious bacterial infections among its most vulnerable citizens. Cuts to essential services, coupled with a growing homeless population, create a challenging environment to tackle this public health crisis. In this paper, we highlight an underexplored environmental constraint faced by people living and injecting drugs on the streets. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00369-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145770PMC

[Hereditary angioedema due to C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency : novel approaches].

Rev Med Suisse 2020 Apr;16(689):675-678

Service d'immunologie et allergie, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.

Hereditary angioedema type 1 and 2 are due to a deficiency in C1--esterase inhibitor. This molecule inhibits the generation of bradykinin, a potent inflammatory mediator that increases vascular permeability. Upon accumulation of bradykinin, patients affected develop painful subcutaneous or submucosal edemas that last for several days. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Elbasvir and grazoprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in people with recent injecting drug use (DARLO-C): An open-label, single-arm, phase 4, multicentre trial.

Health Sci Rep 2020 Jun 15;3(2):e151. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Viral Hepatitis Clinical Research Program The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney Sydney Australia.

Background And Aims: Direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is effective, but few prospective studies among people with ongoing injecting drug use exist. This study evaluated the efficacy of elbasvir/grazoprevir in people with HCV genotype 1/4 (G1/4) infection and recent injecting drug use. An exploratory aim evaluated the feasibility of fingerstick point-of-care HCV RNA testing prior to and following treatment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136479PMC