119,586 results match your criteria Inhalation Toxicology [Journal]


Airborne bacteria in a wastewater treatment plant: Emission characterization, source analysis and health risk assessment.

Water Res 2018 Nov 14;149:596-606. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; National Engineering Laboratory for VOCs Pollution Control Material & Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China. Electronic address:

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major sources of airborne bacteria, which could pose health risks to WWTP workers and surrounding residents. In this study, air samples were collected from various treatment facilities of a typical WWTP. Community compositions of airborne bacteria were identified by high-throughput sequencing technique. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Characterization of A dextran-budesonide prodrug for inhalation therapy.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States of America. Electronic address:

Reducing the dosing frequency of corticosteroids may increase compliance and increase pulmonary targeting. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a high molecular weight dextran-budesonide conjugate might be suitable for pulmonary slow release of the otherwise fast absorbed budesonide. An array of dextran-spacer-budesonide conjugates was prepared that differed in the molecular weight of dextran (20 kDa or 40 kDa) and the length of the dicarboxylic spacer (succinic, glutaric, and adipic anhydride). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Particle Size and Gastrointestinal Absorption Influence Tiotropium Pharmacokinetics: A Pilot Bioequivalence Study of PUR0200 and Spiriva HandiHaler.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pulmatrix Inc, 99 Hayden Ave, Suite 390, Lexington, MA, 02421.

Aims: Plasma pharmacokinetics permits the assessment of efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs, and possibly their bioequivalence to other inhaled products. Correlating drug product attributes to lung deposited dose is important to achieving equivalence. PUR0200 is a spray-dried formulation of tiotropium that enables more efficient lung delivery than Spiriva® HandiHaler® (HH). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Genotoxicity of inhalational anesthetics and its relationship with the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 genes.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Due to their wide applications, concern exists regarding possible genotoxic effects of inhalational anesthetics (IAs) among operating room personnel. This study was undertaken to examine genotoxic properties of co-exposure to nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and isoflurane on induction of micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and to determine whether any associations exist between polymorphisms of GST genes and the level of genomic damage measured by MN and CAs assays. Sixty operating room personnel and 60 unexposed referent nurses were studied. Read More

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December 2018

Physicochemical properties of air discharge-generated manganese oxide nanoparticles: Comparison to welding fumes.

Environ Sci Nano 2018 15;2018(5):696-707. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Exposures to high doses of manganese (Mn) via inhalation, dermal contact or direct consumption can cause adverse health effects. Welding fumes are a major source of manganese containing nanoparticles in occupational settings. Understanding the physicochemical properties of manganese-containing nanoparticles can be a first step in understanding their toxic potential following exposure. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

The IMPACT of triple dual single-inhaler therapy on exacerbations of COPD.

Authors:
Claudia C Dobler

Breathe (Sheff) 2018 Dec;14(4):333-335

Evidence-Based Practice Center, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

http://ow.ly/pYJn30mgpFp. Read More

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December 2018

A framework for estimating the US mortality burden of fine particulate matter exposure attributable to indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality. Although epidemiology studies typically use outdoor PM concentrations as surrogates for exposure, the majority of PM exposure in the US occurs in microenvironments other than outdoors. We develop a framework for estimating the total US mortality burden attributable to exposure to PM of both indoor and outdoor origin in the primary non-smoking microenvironments in which people spend most of their time. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of Kaempferol on Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) and Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) Protein Expression in BALB/c Mice.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Oct 14;17(5):428-435. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Kaempferol, a phytochemical found in many edible plants, is known to alleviate diseases such as cancer, allergy, and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether kaempferol could reduce omega-6 and ovalbumin-mediated allergic reactions at lung and trachea in BALB/c mice. Mice were allocated into five groups: 1) control group (CON); 2) positive control group with orally administration of omega-6 (POS); 3) bovine serum albumin (BSA) sensitization group (with BSA injection and ovalbumin inhalation); 4) BSA+K10 group: BSA injection, 10 μg/g of kaempferol administration and ovalbumin inhalation; and 5) BSA+K20 group: BSA injection, 20 μg/g of kaempferol administration and ovalbumin inhalation. Read More

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October 2018

ASSESSMENT OF ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM EXPOSURE TO NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY SOURCES IN A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai, India.

The purpose of the article is to evaluate the annual effective dose for 80 women divided into two samples; one sample located in the former uranium Băiţa-Ştei area, hereinafter referred to as case sample, respectively for a control sample, located in the same county, but exposed in most cases to indoor radon activity concentrations <300 Bq m-3. In this regard, the homemade 'RaThoGamma' kit was used, which contained two thermoluminescent dosimeters, a CR-39 track detector (RSKS) for indoor radon activity concentration, two CR-39 track detectors (Radtrak2®/ Radtrak2T®) for radon and thoron activity concentrations as well as Direct Radon Progeny Sensors/Direct Thoron Progeny Sensors for measuring time-averaged radon and thoron progenies concentrations. In addition, a total of 80 water samples were collected in order to evaluate the ingestion dose due to radon and radium activity concentrations in drinking water. Read More

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December 2018

Novel Methods for Intranasal Administration Under Inhalation Anesthesia to Evaluate Nose-to-Brain Drug Delivery.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 14(141). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University;

Intranasal administration has been reported to be a potential pathway for nose-to-brain delivery of therapeutic agents that circumvents the blood-brain barrier. However, there have been few reports regarding not only the quantitative analysis but also optimal administration conditions and dosing regimens for investigations of nose-to-brain delivery. The limited progress in research on nose-to-brain pathway mechanisms using rodents represents a significant impediment in terms of designing nose-to-brain delivery systems for candidate drugs. Read More

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November 2018

Impact of stainless-steel welding fumes on proteins and non-coding RNAs regulating DNA damage response in the respiratory tract of Sprague-Dawley rats.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018 Dec 3:1-15. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science , Annamalai University , Annamalainagar , TN , India.

Substantial evidence has established the negative impact of inhalation exposure to welding fumes on respiratory functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of welding fume inhalation on expression of molecules that function as sensors, transducers and effectors of DNA damage response (DDR) in the respiratory tract of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were exposed to 50 mg/m stainless steel welding fumes for 1 h/d for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Inhalation lung injury induced by smoke bombs in children: CT manifestations, dynamic evolution features and quantitative analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(10):5860-5869

Department of Radiology, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou 713000, China.

Background: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the computed tomography (CT) manifestations, short-term dynamic evolution features and quantitative lung CT analysis of inhalation lung injury induced by smoke bomb flare.

Methods: Eleven pediatric patients (aged 11 to 13) who inhaled the smoke of smoke bombs underwent several low-dose chest CT scans. The image characteristics and their dynamic changes were observed and quantitative CT values were analyzed. Read More

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October 2018

Prevalence of asthma and its management: A review.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1823-1827

Institute of Pharmacy, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Among respiratory problems, asthma is one of the most apidly growing disorder which has victimised about onethird of the world's population and almost 2.5 million patients die annually as a result of severe exacerbation. Asthmatic patients most of the time fail to receive maximum benefits from the therapy because of drugrelated problems, side effects of steroid medication and special skill required for the administration technique of drug inhalation. Read More

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December 2018

Novel Strategy for the Systemic Delivery of Furosemide Based on a New Drug Transport Mechanism.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(12):1769-1777

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kobe Pharmaceutical University.

We reported a novel transport mechanism of curcumin, independent of improved solubility, which involved direct contact of amorphous solid particles with the cell membrane. This mechanism has potential as a novel systemic delivery system of poorly water-soluble drugs. In this study, the transport mechanism of furosemide (FUR), which is transported by the same novel mechanism, was examined. Read More

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January 2018

A novel exposure system generating nebulized aerosol of sulfur mustard in comparison to the standard submerse exposure.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 80937, Munich, Germany; Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Munich, 80336, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Inhalation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is associated with severe acute and long-term pulmonary dysfunctions and health effects. The still not completely elucidated molecular toxicology and a missing targeted therapy emphasize the need for further research. However, appropriate human data are extremely rare. Read More

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November 2018

Analysis of Related Factors for the Retention Time of Tracheobronchial Foreign Bodies in Pediatrics.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 4;233:262-267. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: This study aims to investigate the related factors for the retention time of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children, to provide help for the assessment of the disease, surgical risk, and prognosis.

Materials And Methods: The clinical data of 1060 patients with tracheobronchial foreign bodies from January 2015 to December 2015 were retrospectively studied, and the correlation of the retention time of foreign bodies with age, gender, preoperative complications, granulation formation, operation time, and hospital stay was analyzed.

Results: The retention time of foreign bodies was not correlated with age (r = 0. Read More

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January 2019

Transient receptor potential ion channels mediate adherens junctions dysfunction in a toluene diisocyanate-induced murine asthma model.

Toxicol Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Disruption of epithelial cell-cell junctions is essential for the initiation and perpetuation of airway inflammation in asthma. We've previously reported compromised epithelial barrier integrity in a toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced occupational asthma model. This study is aimed to explore the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in the dysfunction of adherens junctions in TDI-induced asthma. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Novel pharmacotherapy for burn wounds: what are the advancements.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Dec 5:1-17. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

a Wellman Center for Photomedicine , Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston , MA , USA.

Introduction: The prognosis for severe burns has improved significantly over the past 50 years. Meanwhile, burns have become an affliction mainly affecting the less well-developed regions of the world. Early excision and skin grafting has led to major improvements in therapeutic outcomes. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

The caregiver burden and the psychosocial adjustment of caregivers of cardiac failure patients.

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2018 Dec;46(8):692-701

Department of Cardiology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the relationship between the caregiver burden and the psychosocial adjustment of caregivers to cardiac failure patients.

Methods: Between November 18, 2015 and March 1, 2016, a preliminary information form, the Caregiver Burden Scale, and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale were used to assess the caregivers of 200 patients being treated in the cardiology service of a university hospital.

Results: Among the caregivers, 75% were primary or secondary school graduates, 36% were housewives, and 43% were the patients' spouse. Read More

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December 2018

Multiorgan accelerated silicosis misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis in two workers exposed to quartz conglomerate dust.

Occup Environ Med 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Cardiologic, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: Clusters of silicosis cases have been reported in the fabrication of quartz conglomerate, a new high-silica-content artificial stone for kitchen and bathroom benchtops (countertops).

Aim: We describe two cases of accelerated-type silicosis with hepatic granulomas arising in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates.

Methods: A confident diagnosis of multiorgan silicosis was based on high level of respirable silica in the workplace, typical radiological alterations in chest high-resolution CT, histological findings in the lung and liver, and detection of silica crystals in both tissues by phase-contrast polarising light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

[Effect of acupuncture on TGF-β1/Smads pathway in mice with airway remodeling mic].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Nov;38(11):1372-1377

Department of Otolaryngology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of acupuncture on TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway in the lung tissue of mice with airway remodeling.

Methods: Thirty specific pathogen-free mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group and acupuncture group (=10). Mouse models of asthma were established in the model group and the acupuncture group, and the mice in the latter group received 7 acupuncture therapies (at bilateral Fei Shu, Da Zhui and Zu Sanli, 20 min each time) every other day, starting on the 10th day after the modeling. Read More

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November 2018

Exploring motivations behind pollution-mask use in a sample of young adults in urban China.

Global Health 2018 Dec 4;14(1):122. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Market Analysis, Rua Felix Kleis, 23, Florianópolis, SC, 88035330, Brazil.

Background: Wearing a pollution mask is an effective, practical, and economic way to prevent the inhalation of dangerous particulate matter (PM). However, it is not uncommon to observe negligence in adopting such behaviour, and this especially among young segments of the population. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as conceptual framework, this study explores the role of socio-cognitive factors that affect the decision of wearing a pollution mask in the context of young educated people. Read More

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December 2018

Moisture-Resistant Co-Spray-Dried Netilmicin with l-Leucine as Dry Powder Inhalation for the Treatment of Respiratory Infections.

Pharmaceutics 2018 Dec 1;10(4). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Netilmicin (NTM) is one of the first-line drugs for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) therapy, but its nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity caused by intravenous injection restrict its clinical application. Dry powder inhalation (DPI) is a popular local drug delivery system that is introduced as a solution. Due to the nature of NTM hygroscopicity that hinders its direct use through DPI, in this study, L-leucine (LL) was added into NTM dry powder to reduce its moisture absorption rate and improve its aerosolization performance. Read More

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December 2018

Modeling capillary fringe effect on petroleum vapor intrusion from groundwater contamination.

Water Res 2018 Nov 20;150:111-119. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA. Electronic address:

At contaminated sites, indoor inhalation of volatile organic compounds from groundwater contamination, known as vapor intrusion (VI), is an important exposure pathway to determine groundwater cleanup level. Based on empirical analysis, US EPA concluded that there is a low probability for vapors from fuel hydrocarbons dissolved in groundwater to induce indoor concentrations that exceed risk-based standards, and recommended 6 feet vertical building-source separation distance as the risk screening tool for such cases. In this study, we examine this recommendation by performing numerical modeling to investigate the detailed effects of the capillary fringe on petroleum vapor biodegradation and attenuation. Read More

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November 2018

Submarine exposure guideline recommendations for carbon dioxide based on the prenatal developmental effects of exposure in rats.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton, Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio.

Background: To protect crewmember health, the U.S. Navy sets exposure limits for more than 200 components of submarine atmospheres. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Is there a relationship between anaesthesia and dementia?

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Anaesthesia, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.

Background: Long-term cognitive problems are common among elderly patients after surgery, and it has been suggested that inhalation anaesthetics play a role in the development of dementia. This study aims to investigate the hypothesis that patients with dementia have been more exposed to surgery and inhalational anaesthetics than individuals without dementia.

Methods: Using 457 cases from a dementia-registry and 420 dementia-free controls, we performed a retrospective case-control study. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

A 3D human lung-on-a-chip model for nanotoxicity testing.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2018 Nov 11;7(6):1048-1060. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Division of Biotechnology , CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry , Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Dalian , China . Email:

The prevalent application of nanoparticles (NPs) has drawn intense concerns about their impact on the environment and human health. Inhalation of NPs is the major route of NP exposure and has led to adverse effects on the lung. It is of great concern to evaluate the potential hazards of nanoparticles for human health during pulmonary exposure. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Legionella pneumophila infection-mediated regulation of RICTOR via miR-218 in U937 macrophage cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Background: Inhalation of aerosolized Legionella pneumophila, a Gram-negative bacterium, can cause severe pneumonia. During infection, L. pneumophila replicates intracellularly in macrophages. Read More

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December 2018

Use and inhalation technique of inhaled medication in patients with asthma and COPD: data from a randomized controlled trial.

Respir Res 2018 Dec 3;19(1):237. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

University Clinic of Medicine, Cantonal Hospital Baselland, Rheinstrasse 26, CH - 4410, Liestal, Switzerland.

Background: The burden of asthma and COPD among patients is high and people affected are frequently hospitalized due to exacerbations. There are numerous reasons for the lack of disease control in asthma and COPD patients. It is associated with non-adherence to guidelines on the part of the health care provider and with poor inhalation technique and/or non-adherence to the prescribed treatment plan by the patient. Read More

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December 2018

Preclinical development of the TLR9 agonist DV281 as an inhaled aerosolized immunotherapeutic for lung cancer: Pharmacological profile in mice, non-human primates, and human primary cells.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Nov 28;66:296-308. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Dynavax Technologies, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

CpG-motif-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) activate innate immunity through Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 9 signaling and generate local immune responses when delivered directly to the lung. Herein we describe pharmacological studies in mice, cynomolgus monkeys, and in human primary cells which support the development of DV281, a C-class CpG-ODN, as an inhaled aerosolized immunotherapeutic for lung cancer to be combined with an inhibitor of the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD‑1) immune checkpoint. In vitro, DV281 potently induced Interferon (IFN)‑α from monkey and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), stimulated interleukin‑6 production and proliferation in human B cells, and induced TLR9-dependent cytokine responses from mouse splenocytes. Read More

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November 2018

Inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles: splice junction expression and alternative splicing in mice.

Toxicol Sci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Despite the wide application of nanomaterials, toxicity studies of nanoparticles (NP) are often limited to in vitro cell models, and the biological impact of NP exposure in mammals has not been thoroughly investigated. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NP are commonly used in various consumer products. To evaluate the effects of the inhalation of ZnO NP in mice, we studied splice junction expression in the lungs as a proxy to gene expression changes analysis. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Carbon nanotubes and central nervous system: Environmental risks, toxicological aspects and future perspectives.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Nov 22;65:23-30. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

Due to their morphological and physicochemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhance the structural properties of several materials and are produced in great volumes. The production and the manufacturing of CNTs-incorporated products can lead to the potential environmental release of CNTs. For these reasons, CNTs can represent a serious concern for human health. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Modulation of Peroxynitrite Reduces Norepinephrine Requirements in Ovine MRSA Septic Shock.

Shock 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Vascular hypo-responsiveness to vasopressors during septic shock is a challenging problem. This study is to test the hypothesis that reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as peroxynitrite, are major contributing factors to vascular hypo-responsiveness in septic shock. We hypothesized that adjunct therapy with peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst (PDC) would reduce norepinephrine requirements in sepsis resuscitation. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Antibiotic-nanomedicines: facing the challenge of effective treatment of antibiotic-resistant respiratory tract infections.

Future Microbiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam (Erasmus MC), Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Respiratory tract infections are one of the most frequent infections worldwide, with an increasing number being associated with (multiple) antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Improved treatment requires the development of new therapeutic strategies, including the possible development of antibiotic-nanomedicines. Antibiotic-nanomedicines comprise antibiotic molecules coupled to nanocarriers via surface adsorption, surface attachment, entrapment or conjugation and can be administered via aerosolization. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Settled iron-based road dust and its characteristics and possible association with detection in human tissues.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Advanced Innovation Technologies, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava,, 70800, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Settled road dust was examined to detect the presence of non-airborne submicron and nano-sized iron-based particles and to characterize these particles. Samples were collected from a road surface near a busy road junction in the city of Ostrava, Czech Republic, once a month from March to October. The eight collected samples were subjected to a combination of experimental techniques including elemental analysis, Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, and magnetometry. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Silicosis and lung cancer: current perspectives.

Lung Cancer (Auckl) 2018 26;9:91-101. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA,

"Silica" refers to crystalline particles formed by the combination of silicon with oxygen. Inhalation of silica particles promotes the development of pulmonary fibrosis that over prolonged periods increases the risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified crystalline silica as a human carcinogen in 1997. Read More

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October 2018

Non-invasive delivery strategies for biologics.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Wyss Institute of Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Biologics now constitute a significant element of available medical treatments. Owing to their clinical and commercial success, biologics are a rapidly growing class and have become a dominant therapeutic modality. Although most of the successful biologics to date are drugs that bear a peptidic backbone, ranging from small peptides to monoclonal antibodies (~500 residues; 150 kDa), new biologic modalities, such as nucleotide-based therapeutics and viral gene therapies, are rapidly maturing towards widespread clinical use. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

A systematic review of experimental animal studies on microbial bioaerosols: Dose-response data for the derivation of exposure limits.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Epidemiology, Munich, Germany; Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Clinical Centre of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Although exposure to high levels of microbial bioaerosols can be linked to the deterioration of the human respiratory system, precise exposure levels responsible for such effects are still unknown. A previous systematic review concluded that there was not enough information in the studies in humans to derive an exposure-response relationship. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to derive exposure limits for microbial bioaerosols based on health effects in experimental animal studies. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Screening for volatile sulphur compounds in a fatal accident case.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 7;2(4):192-197. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Forensic Toxicology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, PRC, Shanghai, China.

Acute fatal poisoning due to the inhalation of toxic gas frequently occurs in China. Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are toxic to humans. In fatal poisoning investigations, such as those in industrial settings, a number of VSCs, including methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulphide (DMS), dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulphide (DMTS), can coexist. Read More

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Mechanisms involved in inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis induced by lunar dust simulant in rats.

Environ Toxicol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

College of Basic Medical Sciences, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, China.

Lunar dust is one of the biggest risk factors in the future manned exploration mission. Much is not known about the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lung inflammation and oxidative stress induced by subacute exposure to lunar dust stimulant (LDS) in rats. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Effect of Total Intravenous Anesthesia vs Volatile Induction With Maintenance Anesthesia on Emergence Agitation After Nasal Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Importance: Emergence agitation is common after nasal surgery under general anesthesia and may lead to serious consequences for the patient, including an increased risk of injury, pain, hemorrhage, and self-extubation. Despite decades of research, studies on the incidence, risk factors, and prevention of emergence agitation in adult patients are ongoing, and opinions differ on the different effects of inhalation and intravenous anesthesia.

Objective: To investigate the effect of anesthetic method on the occurrence of emergence agitation after nasal surgery. Read More

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November 2018

A Novel GABA Receptor Ligand MIDD0301 with Limited Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle Ex Vivo and In Vivo.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University.

Airway smooth muscle cells express GABA receptors, and previous reports have demonstrated that GABA receptor activators relax airway smooth muscle. However, given the activity of GABA receptors in central nervous system inhibitory neurotransmission, concern exists that these activators may lead to undesirable sedation. MIDD0301 is a novel imidazobenzodiazepine and positive allosteric modulator of the GABA receptor with limited brain distribution, thus eliminating the potential for sedation. Read More

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November 2018

Therapeutic strategies for pediatric bronchiolitis.

Authors:
Matti Korppi

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Center for Child health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Finland Arvo2 building , Tampere University , 33014 , Tampere , Finland.

Introduction: Bronchiolitis in infancy is the most common infectious reason for hospitalization of infants without any chronic underlying illness. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of racemic epinephrine, systemic corticosteroids, hypertonic saline and high-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) in the treatment of infants with bronchiolitis. Literature was searched from Pubmed covering the years 2009-2018 using the entries of bronchiolitis or viral bronchiolitis, and epinephrine, adrenaline, racemic epinephrine, racemic adrenaline, corticosteroids, hypertonic saline, high-flow oxygen therapy or high-flow oxygen cannula. Read More

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November 2018

Characterization of Environmental Health Inequalities Due to Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in France.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 28;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

National Institute for industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS), Verneuil-en-Halatte 60550, France.

Reducing environmental health inequalities has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the French action plans for health and the environment. To evaluate environmental inequalities, routine monitoring networks provide a valuable source of data on environmental contamination, which can be used in integrated assessments, to identify overexposed populations and prioritize actions. However, available databases generally do not meet sufficient spatial representativeness to characterize population exposure, as they are usually not assembled for this specific purpose. Read More

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November 2018

Cigarette smoke extract may induce lysosomal storage disease-like adverse health effects.

J Appl Toxicol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Jeonbuk Department of Inhalation Research, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jeongeup, Jellobuk-do, Republic of Korea.

Cigarette smoke is known to be associated with the incidence of a variety of pulmonary diseases, and alveolar macrophages are a key player in the defense mechanism against inhalable toxicants. Herein, we have found that a hydrophilic fraction in smoke extracts from 3R4F reference cigarettes (CSE) contains high concentrations of volatile substances compared to cigarette smoke condensate (amphoteric fraction). We also identified the toxic mechanism of CSE using MH-S, a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Pilot study on the efficiency of water-only decontamination for firefighters' turnout gear.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2018 Nov 28:1-16. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

a University of Cincinnati - Environmental Health , Cincinnati Ohio 45267-0056 , United States.

Firefighters are exposed to toxic environments upon entering burning structures. Many structures contain synthetic materials which release toxic chemicals when on fire. These chemicals can enter the body through multiple routes of exposure, including inhalation and skin absorption. Read More

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November 2018

Analysis of 17 948 pediatric patients undergoing procedural sedation with a combination of intranasal dexmedetomidine and ketamine.

Paediatr Anaesth 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China.

Background: Intranasal procedural sedation using dexmedetomidine is well described in the literature. The combination of intranasal dexmedetomidine and ketamine is a novel approach for which there are little data on the rate of successful sedation or adverse events.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of successful sedation and adverse events of intranasal procedural sedation using a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for diagnostic examination in children. Read More

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November 2018
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Future of nanomedicines for treating respiratory diseases.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics , Kiel University , Grasweg 9a, 24118 Kiel , Germany.

Introduction: Nanoparticles are under discussion in drug delivery for more than 20 years now, but examples for nanoparticulate formulations in the treatment of respiratory diseases are rare and mostly limited to the administration of sub-micron drug particles (ultrafine particles). However, nanoparticles may also carry specific benefits for respiratory treatment. Are nanoparticles the next-generation drug carrier system to facilitate systemic delivery, sustained release and cancer treatment in the lungs? Areas covered: This review will look into the promises and opportunities of the use of nanoparticles in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Read More

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November 2018

Newly synthesized surfactants for surface mannosylation of respirable SLN assemblies to target macrophages in tuberculosis therapy.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 103, 41125, Modena, Italy.

The present study reports about new solid lipid nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas) loaded with rifampicin (RIF) surface-decorated with novel mannose derivatives, designed for anti-tuberculosis (TB) inhaled therapy by dry powder inhaler (DPI). Mannose is considered a relevant ligand to achieve active drug targeting being mannose receptors (MR) overexpressed on membranes of infected alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the preferred site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Surface decoration of SLNas was obtained by means of newly synthesized functionalizing compounds used as surfactants in the preparation of carriers. Read More

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November 2018
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Macrophage Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons From Wood Smoke Reduces the Ability to Control Growth of .

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 13;5:309. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Medica Sur, Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico.

Use of solid fuels for cooking or home heating has been related to various diseases of the respiratory tract. Woodsmoke contains a mixture of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds. Inhalation of these materials induces local and systemic changes in the immune system which may impair critical cell defense mechanisms; however, few studies have investigated the early effects that PAH exposures have on immune cells as macrophages. Read More

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November 2018
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